1916 United States House of Representatives elections
All 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
Wilson eked out a narrow re-election, but his Democratic Party lost seats to the Republican Party. Wilson's hybrid approach, which injected a progressive element into Democratic policies, had proved to be dissatisfying to much of the nation. International affairs also became important in the traditionally non-interventionist United States, as voters attempted to determine which party would be best served to keep the nation from entering The Great War.
Republicans actually won a plurality of seats in the 1916 election. Even so, when the 65th Congress convened in April 1917, the Democrats narrowly maintained control of the House, forming an alliance with third-party (Progressive and Socialist) members. Not since the 34th Congress (1855–57) had the party with the most seats not been part of the ruling government. This Congress is the last example to date of a type of coalition holding power in the House, rather than a single party winning a majority of seats.
Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, became the first woman ever elected to congress.
The Democrats retained control of the House by forming a coalition with the three Progressive members and the single Socialist member, combining to form a razor-thin majority of 218 Representatives.
Early election dateEdit
A slash between two labels indicates a fusion ticket
There were special elections in 1916 to the 64th United States Congress.
Special elections are sorted by date then district.
|California 10||William Stephens||Progressive||1910||Incumbent resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected November 7, 1916.
Successor was not elected to the next term, see below.
|California 1||William Kent||Independent||1910||Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
| Clarence F. Lea (Democratic) 48.8%|
Edward H. Hart (Republican) 42.8%
Mary M. Morgan (Socialist) 5.5%
Jay Scott Ryder (Prohibition) 2.9%
|California 2||John E. Raker||Democratic||1910||Incumbent re-elected.|| John E. Raker (Democratic) 71%|
James T. Matlock (Republican) 29%
|California 3||Charles F. Curry||Republican||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|| Charles F. Curry (Republican) 66.7%|
O. W. Kennedy (Democratic) 23.4%
Ben Cooper (Socialist) 6.2%
Edwin F. Van Vlear (Prohibition) 3.7%
|California 4||Julius Kahn||Republican||1898||Incumbent re-elected.|| Julius Kahn (Republican) 77.2%|
J. M. Fernald (Democratic) 15.7%
Allen K. Gifford (Socialist) 5.6%
Henry W. Hutchinson (Prohibition) 1.5%
|California 5||John I. Nolan||Republican||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|| John I. Nolan (Republican) 84.7%|
Charles A. Preston (Socialist) 9.6%
Frederick Head (Prohibition) 5.8%
|California 6||John A. Elston||Progressive||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|| John A. Elston (Progressive) 64.6%|
H. Avery Whitney (Democratic) 22.6%
Luella Twining (Socialist) 8.7%
Harlow E. Wolcott (Prohibition) 4.1%
|California 7||Denver S. Church||Democratic||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|| Denver S. Church (Democratic) 51%|
W. W. Phillips (Republican) 36.4%
Harry M. McKee (Socialist) 7.2%
J. F. Butler (Prohibition) 5.3%
|California 8||Everis A. Hayes||Republican||1904||Incumbent re-elected.|| Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 68.6%|
George S. Walker (Prog/D) 23.8%
Cora Pattleton Wilson (Socialist) 7.5%
|California 9||Charles H. Randall||Prohibition||1914||Incumbent re-elected.|| Charles H. Randall (Proh.) 57.8%|
Charles W. Bell (Independent) 32.7%
Ralph L. Criswell (Socialist) 9.5%
|California 10||Vacant||William Stephens (Progressive) had resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected.
Successor was not elected to finish the term.
| Henry Z. Osborne (Republican) 49.5%|
Rufus V. Bowden (Democratic) 25.7%
Henry S. Benedict (Progressive) 11.1%
James H. Ryckman (Socialist) 7%
Henry Clay Needham (Prohibition) 6.8%
|California 11||William Kettner||Democratic||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|| William Kettner (Democratic) 44.5%|
Robert C. Harbison (Republican) 35.7%
James S. Edwards (Prohibition) 15.6%
Marcus W. Robbins (Socialist) 4.1%
This was the last time Montana used an at-large district until its representation was reduced to one in 1992. This was also the first time a woman was elected to Congress.
2 seats on a general ticket
|John M. Evans||Democratic||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|
|Tom Stout||Democratic||1912||Incumbent retired.|
New member elected.
|North Dakota 1||Henry Thomas Helgesen||Republican||1910||Incumbent re-elected.|
|North Dakota 2||George M. Young||Republican||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|
|North Dakota 3||Patrick Daniel Norton||Republican||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 1||Richard S. Whaley||Democratic||1913 (Special)||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 2||James F. Byrnes||Democratic||1910||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 3||Wyatt Aiken||Democratic||1902||Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
|South Carolina 4||Samuel J. Nicholls||Democratic||1915 (Special)||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 5||David E. Finley||Democratic||1898||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 6||J. Willard Ragsdale||Democratic||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Carolina 7||Asbury F. Lever||Democratic||1901 (Special)||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Dakota 1||Charles H. Dillon||Republican||1912||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Dakota 2||Royal C. Johnson||Republican||1914||Incumbent re-elected.|
|South Dakota 3||Harry L. Gandy||Democratic||1914||Incumbent re-elected.|
- Maine held early elections on September 11, 1916.
- Includes 1 Independent Republican.
- Democrats maintained control of the U.S. House after the 1916 elections by forming a 218-member coalition with the three Progressive members and the one Socialist member.
- At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
- Elections held early.
- 1 Socialist and 1 Prohibition.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)