Claude Kitchin (March 24, 1869 – May 31, 1923) was an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of North Carolina from 1901 until his death in 1923. A lifelong member of the Democratic Party, he was elected House majority leader for the 64th and 65th congresses (1915–1919), and minority leader during the 67th Congress (1921–1923).
|House Majority Leader|
|Preceded by||Oscar W. Underwood|
|Succeeded by||Frank W. Mondell|
|House Minority Leader|
|Preceded by||Champ Clark|
|Succeeded by||Finis Garrett|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from North Carolina's 2nd district|
March 4, 1901 – May 31, 1923
|Preceded by||George H. White|
|Succeeded by||John H. Kerr|
|Born||March 24, 1869|
Scotland Neck, North Carolina
|Died||May 31, 1923 (aged 54)|
Wilson, North Carolina
|Alma mater||Wake Forest College|
As World War I shifted the federal government's focus to foreign policy, Kitchin became increasingly alarmed by the prospect of U.S. becoming a combatant. In April 1917, when President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany, Kitchin delivered an impassioned speech on the House floor and then voted no.
Kitchen attended Wake Forest College, graduating in 1888. Afterward, he read law and served as assistant registrar of deeds in the county. He was admitted to the bar in September 1890.
During the 1890s, Kitchin helped mobilize the Red Shirts, armed groups of militant white supremacists who rode through rural communities dissuading blacks from voting. These groups functioned as an arm of state's Democratic Party, and it was his effectiveness during the run-up to the 1896 and 1898 elections that gave rise to his congressional career.
In Congress, he served on the House Ways and Means Committee, chairing the Committee from 1915 to 1919. From 1915 to 1919 he was House majority leader; from this position he opposed the Wilson administration's "Preparedness" crusade, seeking unsuccessfully to hold down the growth in size of the army and navy.
He was among the few members of Congress who voted against the U.S. declaration of war on Germany in April 1917 (approved in the House 373–50 by the House, and 82–6 by the Senate). Afterward, he fully supported the war effort, though he remained a critic of some of the administration's war policies, especially regarding taxation policies. He championed an "excess profits" tax that was steeply progressive over a policy of selling Liberty Bonds that shifted the financial burden of the war onto future generations.
Family and deathEdit
After giving an impassioned speech in April 1920 he suffered a severe stroke, from which he never fully recovered. During the winter of 1922–23 he contracted influenza and pneumonia, and, died from complications on May 31, 1923. He is buried in the Baptist cemetery at Scotland
- Arnett, Alex Mathews. Claude Kitchin Versus the Patrioteers. North Carolina Historical Review 14.1 (1937): 20-30. online
- Arnett. Alex M. Claude Kitchin and the Wilson War Policies (1937). xii + 341 pp.
- Herring, George C. James Hay and the Preparedness Controversy, 1915-1916. Journal of Southern History 30.4 (1964): 383-404.
- Watson, Richard L. Jr. (1988). Kitchin, Claude 24 Mar. 1869–31 May 1923. Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. Via ncpedia.org.
- Media related to Claude Kitchin at Wikimedia Commons
- United States Congress. "Claude Kitchin (id: K000250)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- House Ways and Means Profile
- Congress Link
|U.S. House of Representatives|
George H. White
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from North Carolina's 2nd congressional district
John H. Kerr
Oscar W. Underwood
| House Majority Leader
Frank W. Mondell