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Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district is located in northeastern and central Massachusetts.

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district
Massachusetts US Congressional District 3 (since 2013).tif
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
U.S. Representative
  Lori Trahan
DWestford
Median income$75,654[1]
Ethnicity
Cook PVID+9[2]

Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census has greatly changed the borders of this congressional district, largely dividing it between the new 2nd and 4th districts, with the new 3rd district covering only a few towns from the old district.[3] Effective with the elections of 2012, Worcester is in the new 2nd district and the new 3rd district is similar to the old 5th district, largely covering the Merrimack valley including Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill.

The district is represented by Democrat Lori Trahan.

Contents

Cities and towns in the districtEdit

Cities and towns in the district 2003–2013Edit

Election results from presidential racesEdit

Year Result
2000 Gore 59 - 35%
2004 Kerry 59 - 40%
2008 Obama 58.8 - 39.4%
2012 Obama 56.9 - 41.4%
2016 Clinton 58.2 - 35.4%

MapsEdit

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history District area (Counties and municipalities)
 
Elbridge Gerry
Anti-Administration March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1793
1st
2nd
Elected in 1788.
Re-elected in 1790.
Retired.
Middlesex County: All
Shearjashub Bourne Pro-Administration General ticket:
March 4, 1793 –
March 3, 1795
3rd Redistricted from the 5th district and re-elected in 1793 on the second ballot, as part of a two-seat general ticket, representing the district from Barnstable, Dukes, and Nantucket Counties.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Barnstable County: All
Bristol County: All
Dukes County: All
Nantucket County: All
Plymouth County: All
Peleg Coffin Jr. Pro-Administration Elected in 1792, as part of a two-seat general ticket, representing the district from Bristol and Plymouth Counties.
Redistricted to the 5th district and lost re-election.
Samuel Lyman Federalist March 4, 1795 –
November 6, 1800
4th
5th
6th
Elected in 1794.
Re-elected in 1796.
Re-elected in 1798.
Retired and then resigned.
Hampshire County: Amherst, Belchertown, Brimfield, Granby, Greenwich, Holland, Leverett, Longmeadow, Ludlow, New Salem, Orange, Palmer, Pelham, Shutesbury, South Brimfield, South Hadley, Springfield, Ware, Warwick, Wendell, and Wilbraham. Worcester County: Athol, Barre, Gardner, Gerry, Hardwick, New Braintree, Petersham, Royalston, Sturbridge, Templeton, Western, Winchendon
6th
Vacant November 7, 1800 –
February 1, 1801
Ebenezer Mattoon Federalist February 2, 1801 –
March 3, 1803
6th
7th
Elected November 3, 1800 to the next term.
Elected December 15, 1800 to finish Lyman's term.
Retired.
 
Manasseh Cutler
Federalist March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1805
8th Redistricted from the 11th district and re-elected in 1802.
Retired.
"Essex North district"
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield
 
Jeremiah Nelson
Federalist March 4, 1805 –
March 3, 1807
9th Elected in 1804.
Retired.
Edward St. Loe Livermore Federalist March 4, 1807 –
March 3, 1811
10th
11th
Elected in 1806.
Re-elected in 1808.
Retired.
Leonard White Federalist March 4, 1811 –
March 3, 1813
12th Elected in 1810.
Retired.
 
Timothy Pickering
Federalist March 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1815
13th Elected in 1812.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
"Essex North district"
Essex County: Beverly, Boxford, Bradford, Gloucester, Hamilton, Ipswich, Manchester, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, Wenham
 
Jeremiah Nelson
Federalist March 4, 1815 –
March 3, 1817
14th Elected to begin member-elect Daniel A. White's term.
Re-elected in 1817.
Re-elected in 1818.
Re-elected in 1820.
Re-elected in 1822.
Retired.
"Essex North district"
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Saugus, and Topsfield. Middlesex County: South Reading
March 4, 1817 –
March 3, 1823
15th
16th
17th
"Essex North district"
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Saugus, Topsfield, and West Newbury. Middlesex County: Dracut
Adams-Clay Federalist March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
18th "Essex North district"
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Essex, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, Wenham, and West Newbury. Middlesex County: Billerica, Dracut, Tewksbury, Wilmington
John Varnum Adams March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1829
19th
20th
21st
Elected in 1825.
[Data unknown/missing.]
National Republican March 4, 1829 –
March 3, 1831
 
Jeremiah Nelson
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1831 –
March 3, 1833
22nd [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Gayton P. Osgood Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1835
23rd [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost renomination.
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Haverhill, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, and West Newbury. Middlesex County: Dracut, Lowell, Reading, Tewksbury, South Reading, Wilmington
 
Caleb Cushing
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1835 –
March 3, 1837
24th [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Whig March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1843
25th
26th
27th
Amos Abbott Whig March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1849
28th
29th
30th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Georgetown, Haverhill, Methuen, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, and West Newbury. Middlesex County: Billerica, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Littleton, Lowell, Tewksbury, Tyngsborough, Westford, Wilmington[4]
 
James H. Duncan
Whig March 4, 1849 –
March 3, 1853
31st
32nd
[Data unknown/missing.]
 
J. Wiley Edmands
Whig March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Norfolk County: Bellingam, Braintree, Canton, Dedham, Dorchester, Dover, Foxborough, Franklin, Medfield, Medway, Milton, Needham, Quincy, Randolph, Sharon, Stoughton, Walpole, West Roxbury, Weymouth, and Wrentham. Middlesex County: Brighton, Holliston, Newton, Sherborn, and Watertown. Worcester County: Blackstone, Mendon, Milford, Northbridge, Upton, Uxbridge
 
William S. Damrell
Know Nothing March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
34th [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired due to failing health.
Republican March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1859
35th
 
Charles Adams
Republican March 4, 1859 –
May 1, 1861
36th
37th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to England.
Vacant May 1, 1861 –
June 11, 1861
37th
 
Benjamin Thomas[5]
Union June 11, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
37th Elected to finish Adams's term.
Retired.
 
Alexander H. Rice
Republican March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1867
38th
39th
Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected in 1862.
Retired.
Norfolk County: Roxbury, and Brookline. Suffolk County: Boston (wards 4, 7, 8, 10 thru 12)
 
Ginery Twichell
Republican March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1873
40th
41st
42nd
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Norfolk County: Roxbury, and Brookline. Suffolk County: Boston (wards 5, 7, 8, 10 thru 12)[6]
 
William Whiting
Republican March 4, 1873 –
June 29, 1873
43rd [Data unknown/missing.]
Died.
Suffolk County: Boston (wards 7, 8, 10 thru 16)
Vacant June 29, 1873 –
December 1, 1873
 
Henry L. Pierce
Republican December 1, 1873 –
March 3, 1877
Elected to finish Whiting's term.
Retired.
44th
 
Walbridge A. Field
Republican March 4, 1877 –
March 28, 1878
45th [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost election contest.
Suffolk County: Boston (wards 13 thru 21, 24)[7]
 
Benjamin Dean[8]
Democratic March 28, 1878 –
March 3, 1879
Won election contest.
Retired.
 
Walbridge A. Field
Republican March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1881
46th [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
 
Ambrose Ranney[9]
Republican March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1883
47th
48th
49th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1887
Norfolk County: and Milton. Suffolk County: Boston (ward 11, ward 15 (Pct. 3 & 4), wards 17-24)[10]
 
Leopold Morse
Democratic March 4, 1887 –
March 3, 1889
50th [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
 
John F. Andrew
Democratic March 4, 1889 –
March 3, 1893
51st
52nd
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
 
Joseph H. Walker[11]
Republican March 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1899
53rd
54th
55th
Redistricted from the 10th district and re-elected in 1892.
Lost re-election.
Middlesex County: and Hopkinton. Worcester County: Auburn, Blackstone, Charlton, Douglas, Dudley, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Mendon, Millbury, Northbridge, Oxford, Paxton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
 
John R. Thayer[12]
Democratic March 4, 1899 –
March 3, 1903
56th
57th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1905
58th Worcester County: Auburn, Charlton, Douglas, Dudley, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Millbury, Northbridge, Oxford, Paxton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
 
Rockwood Hoar
Republican March 4, 1905 –
November 1, 1906
59th [Data unknown/missing.]
Died.
Vacant November 1, 1906 –
December 18, 1906
59th
 
Charles G. Washburn[13]
Republican December 18, 1906 –
March 3, 1911
59th
60th
61st
Elected to finish Hoar's term.
Lost re-election.
 
John A. Thayer
Democratic March 4, 1911 –
March 3, 1913
62nd [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
 
William H. Wilder
Republican March 4, 1913 –
September 11, 1913
63rd Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected in 1912.
Died.
Franklin County: New Salem, and Orange. Hampshire County: Greenwich, and Prescott. Middlesex County: Ashby, and Townsend. Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, and Wales. Worcester County: Ashburnham, Athol, Barre, Boylston, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Holden, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Royalston, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Boylston, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon[14]
Vacant September 11, 1913 –
November 4, 1913
 
Calvin Paige
Republican November 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1925
63rd Elected to finish Wilder's term.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Re-elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Retired.
64th
65th
66th
67th
68th
 
Frank H. Foss
Republican March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1927
69th [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
March 4, 1927 –
March 3, 1933
70th
71st
72nd
Franklin County: Erving, New Salem, Orange, Shutesbury, Warwick, and Wendell. Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, and Wales. Hampshire County: Belchertown, Enfield, Greenwich, Pelham, Prescott, and Ware. Worcester County: Ashburnham, Athol, Barre, Boylston, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Holden, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Royalston, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Boylston, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1935
73rd Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, and Wales. Hampshire County: and Ware. Middlesex County: Ashby, Boxborough, Framingham, Hudson, Marlborough, Maynard, Pepperell, Shirley, Stow, Sudbury, Townsend, and Wayland. Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Berlin, Bolton, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
 
Joseph E. Casey
Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1943
74th
75th
76th
77th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
Philip J. Philbin[15]
Democratic January 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1963
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost renomination.
Hampden County: and Palmer. Hampshire County: and Ware. Middlesex County: Hudson, Marlborough, Maynard, Shirley, and Stow. Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Blackstone, Bolton, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Douglas, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Milford, Millbury, Millville, New Braintree, Northbridge, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Warren, Webster, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1969
88th
89th
90th
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Charlton, Clinton, Douglas, Dudley, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hopedale, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, New Braintree, Northbridge, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westminster, and Winchendon. Middlesex County: Acton, Ashby, Ayer, Boxborough, Dunstable, Groton, Holliston, Hudson, Littleton, Marlborough, Maynard, Natick, Pepperell, Sherborn, Shirley, Stow, Townsend, Tyngsborough, and Westford. Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, Medway, Millis
January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1971
91st Middlesex County: Acton, Ashby, Ayer, Boxborough, Concord, Hudson, Lincoln, Littleton, Marlborough, Maynard, Newton, Shirley, Stow, Townsend, Waltham, Watertown, Westford, and Weston. Worcester County: Ashburnham, Berlin, Bolton, Clinton, Fitchburg, Gardner, Harvard, Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Sterling, Westminster, Winchendon
 
Robert Drinan
Democratic January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1973
92nd [Data unknown/missing.]
Redistricted to the 4th district.
 
Harold Donohue
Democratic January 3, 1973 –
December 31, 1974
93rd Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected in 1972.
Retired and resigned early.
Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Hudson, and Marlborough. Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, and Medway. Worcester County: Auburn, Berlin, Blackstone, Boylston, Clinton, Grafton, Hopedale, Leicester, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, Northborough, Northbridge, Shrewsbury, Southborough, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester[16]
Vacant December 31, 1974 –
January 3, 1975
 
Joseph D. Early[17]
Democratic January 3, 1975 –
January 3, 1983
94th
95th
96th
97th
98th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
January 3, 1983 –
January 3, 1993
99th
100th
101st
102nd
Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Hudson, Marlborough, Sherborn, and Stow. Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, Medway, Millis, Norfolk[18]
Worcester County: Auburn, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Boylston, Clinton, Douglas, Grafton, Hopedale, Lancaster, Leicester, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, Northborough, Northbridge, Shrewsbury, Southborough, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
 
Peter I. Blute
Republican January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
103rd
104th
Elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Lost re-election.
Bristol County: Attleboro, Dartmouth, Fall River (all of wards 1, 2 & 3, ward 6 pcts. A & B, ward 4 pct. A, parts of B & C), Mansfield (pcts. 1, 2 & parts of 3 & 4), North Attleboro, Seekonk, Somerset, Swansea, and Westport.[18]
Middlesex County: Holliston, and Hopkinton. Norfolk County: Foxborough (pct. 5, parts of pcts. 1, 3, 4), Franklin, Medway, Plainville, and Wrentham. Worcester County: Auburn (parts of pcts. 1, 3 & 4), Berlin, Boylston, Clinton, Grafton, Holden, Lancaster (parts of pcts. 1 & 2), Northborough, Northbridge, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Sterling, Upton, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester[19]
 
Jim McGovern
Democratic January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2003
105th
106th
107th
Elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2013
108th
109th
110th
111th
112th
Bristol County: Attleboro, Fall River (wards 1-3; ward 4, Precincts A & B; ward 5, Precincts A & B; ward 6, Precincts B & C; & ward 8, Precinct D), North Attleborough, Rehoboth, Seekonk, Somerset, and Swansea. Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, and Marlborough. Norfolk County: Franklin, Medway, Plainville, and Wrentham.. Worcester County: Auburn, Boylston, Clinton, Holden, Northborough, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southborough, West Boylston, Westborough, and Worcester.
 
Niki Tsongas
Democratic January 3, 2013 –
January 3, 2019
113th
114th
115th
Redistricted from the 5th district and re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Retired.
See Cities and towns in the district, above
 
Lori Trahan
Democratic January 3, 2019 –
Present
116th Elected in 2018.
Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history District area (Counties and municipalities)

Recent election resultsEdit

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 155,697 73.34
write-in 1,848 0.87
blank 54,759 25.79
Majority 153,849 72.47
Turnout 212,304
Democratic hold
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 192,036 67.15 -6.19
Republican Ronald Crews 80,197 28.04 +28.04
write-in 179 0.06 -0.81
blank 13,584 4.75 -21.04
Majority 111,839 39.11 -33.36
Turnout 285,996
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 166,973 77.63 +10.48
write-in 1,983 0.92 +0.86
blank 46,145 21.45 +16.70
Majority 164,990 76.70 +37.59
Turnout 215,101
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 227,619 75.04 -2.59
write-in 3,488 1.15 +0.23
blank 72,208 23.81 +2.36
Majority 224,131 73.89 -2.81
Turnout 303,315
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 122,357 56.5
Republican Marty Lamb 84,972 39.2
Independent Patrick Barron 9,304 4.3
Total votes 216,633 100
Turnout
Democratic hold

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=25&cd=03
  2. ^ "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  3. ^ http://www.sec.state.ma.us/spr/sprcat/catpdf2010/cong2010/CongressionalDistrict_2011State.pdf Access Date March 29, 2012
  4. ^ "State Apportionment". Massachusetts Register .. for 1843. Boston: Loring.
  5. ^ "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the Second Session of the Thirty-Seventh Congress. Washington DC: House of Representatives. 1861. Archived from the original on 2016-03-16.
  6. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  7. ^ "Congressional Districts of Massachusetts". Massachusetts Register and Business Directory, 1878. Boston: Sampson, Davenport, and Co.
  8. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1878). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 45th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  9. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1882). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 47th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  10. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1884). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: Forty-Eighth Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  11. ^ Coolidge, L.A. (1897). "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Fifth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  12. ^ Halford, A.J. (1903). "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Eighth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  13. ^ Halford, A.J. (1909). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 60th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  14. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 64th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1916.
  15. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 90th Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1968.
  16. ^ "Massachusetts", 1977 Official Congressional Directory: 95th Congress, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977
  17. ^ "Massachusetts". 1991-1992 Official Congressional Directory: 102nd Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1991.
  18. ^ a b O'Neill, Edward B.; MacQueen, Robert E. (1983). A Manual for the use of the General Court. Boston, MA: Causeway Print.
  19. ^ Congressional Directory for the 105th Congress (1997-1998), Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997, archived from the original on December 3, 2013, retrieved November 26, 2013

External linksEdit