20th United States Congress

The 20th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1827, to March 4, 1829, during the third and fourth years of John Quincy Adams's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority.

20th United States Congress
19th ←
→ 21st
USCapitol1827A.gif

March 4, 1827 – March 4, 1829
Members48 senators
213 representatives
3 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityJacksonian
Senate PresidentJohn C. Calhoun (J)
House MajorityJacksonian
House SpeakerAndrew Stevenson (J)
Sessions
1st: December 3, 1827 – May 26, 1828
2nd: December 1, 1828 – March 3, 1829

Major eventsEdit

Major legislationEdit

Party summaryEdit

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

SenateEdit

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
National
Republican

(NR)
Jacksonian
(J)
End of previous congress 23 25 48 0
Begin 20 27 47 1
End 21 26
Final voting share 44.7% 55.3%
Beginning of next congress 22 26 48 0

House of RepresentativesEdit

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
National
Republican

(NR)
Jacksonian
(J)
Other
End of previous congress 111 102 0 213 0
Begin 99 113 0 212 1
End
Final voting share 46.7% 53.3% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 71 136 4[a] 211 2

LeadershipEdit

President of the Senate John C. Calhoun
Senate President pro tempore Samuel Smith

SenateEdit


House of RepresentativesEdit

MembersEdit

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class and members of the House are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

SenateEdit

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, facing re-election in 1832; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1828; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1830.

House of RepresentativesEdit

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

AlabamaEdit

1. Gabriel Moore (J)
2. John McKee (J)
3. George W. Owen (J)

ConnecticutEdit

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

At-large. John Baldwin (NR)
At-large. Noyes Barber (NR)
At-large. Ralph I. Ingersoll (NR)
At-large. Orange Merwin (NR)
At-large. Elisha Phelps (NR)
At-large. David Plant (NR)

DelawareEdit

At-large. Kensey Johns Jr. (NR), from October 2, 1827

GeorgiaEdit

Two representatives replacing those who had resigned were elected statewide on a general ticket.

1. Edward F. Tattnall (J), until sometime in 1827
George R. Gilmer (J), from October 1, 1827
2. John Forsyth (J), until November 7, 1827
Richard Henry Wilde (J), from November 17, 1827
3. Wiley Thompson (J)
4. Wilson Lumpkin (J)
5. Charles E. Haynes (J)
6. Tomlinson Fort (J)
7. John Floyd (J)

IllinoisEdit

At-large. Joseph Duncan (J)

IndianaEdit

1. Thomas H. Blake (NR)
2. Jonathan Jennings (NR)
3. Oliver H. Smith (J)

KentuckyEdit

1. Henry Daniel (J)
2. Thomas Metcalfe (NR), until June 1, 1828
John Chambers (NR), from December 1, 1828
3. James Clark (NR)
4. Robert P. Letcher (NR)
5. Robert L. McHatton (J)
6. Joseph Lecompte (J)
7. Thomas P. Moore (J)
8. Richard A. Buckner (NR)
9. Charles A. Wickliffe (J)
10. Joel Yancey (J)
11. William S. Young (NR), until September 20, 1827
John Calhoon (NR), November 5, 1827 – November 7, 1827
Thomas Chilton (J), from December 22, 1827
12. Chittenden Lyon (J)

LouisianaEdit

1. Edward Livingston (J)
2. Henry H. Gurley (NR)
3. William L. Brent (NR)

MaineEdit

1. William Burleigh (NR), until July 2, 1827
Rufus McIntire (J), from September 10, 1827
2. John Anderson (J)
3. Joseph F. Wingate (NR)
4. Peleg Sprague (NR)
5. James W. Ripley (J)
6. Jeremiah O'Brien (NR)
7. Samuel Butman (NR)

MarylandEdit

The 5th district was a plural district with two representatives.

1. Clement Dorsey (NR)
2. John C. Weems (J)
3. George C. Washington (NR)
4. Michael C. Sprigg (J)
5. John Barney (NR)
5. Peter Little (NR)
6. Levin Gale (J)
7. John L. Kerr (NR)
8. Ephraim K. Wilson (NR)

MassachusettsEdit

1. Daniel Webster (NR), until May 30, 1827
Benjamin Gorham (NR), from July 23, 1827
2. Benjamin W. Crowninshield (NR)
3. John Varnum (NR)
4. Edward Everett (NR)
5. John Davis (NR)
6. John Locke (NR)
7. Samuel C. Allen (NR)
8. Isaac C. Bates (NR)
9. Henry W. Dwight (NR)
10. John Bailey (NR)
11. Joseph Richardson (NR)
12. James L. Hodges (NR)
13. John Reed Jr. (NR)

MississippiEdit

At-large. William Haile (J), until September 12, 1828
Thomas Hinds (J), from October 21, 1828

MissouriEdit

At-large. Edward Bates (NR)

New HampshireEdit

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

At-large. David Barker Jr. (NR)
At-large. Ichabod Bartlett (NR)
At-large. Titus Brown (NR)
At-large. Jonathan Harvey (J)
At-large. Joseph Healy (NR)
At-large. Thomas Whipple Jr. (NR)

New JerseyEdit

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

At-large. Lewis Condict (NR)
At-large. George Holcombe (J), until January 14, 1828
James F. Randolph (NR), from December 1, 1828
At-large. Isaac Pierson (NR)
At-large. Samuel Swan (NR)
At-large. Hedge Thompson (NR), until July 23, 1828
Thomas Sinnickson (NR), from December 1, 1828
At-large. Ebenezer Tucker (NR)

New YorkEdit

There were three plural districts: the 20th & 26th had two representatives each, and the 3rd had three representatives.

1. Silas Wood (NR)
2. John J. Wood (J)
3. Churchill C. Cambreleng (J)
3. Jeromus Johnson (J)
3. Gulian C. Verplanck (J)
4. Aaron Ward (NR)
5. Thomas J. Oakley (J), until May 9, 1828
Thomas Taber II (J), from November 5, 1828
6. John Hallock Jr. (J)
7. George O. Belden (J)
8. James Strong (NR)
9. John D. Dickinson (NR)
10. Stephen Van Rensselaer (NR)
11. Selah R. Hobbie (J)
12. John I. De Graff (J)
13. Samuel Chase (NR)
14. Henry R. Storrs (NR)
15. Michael Hoffman (J)
16. Henry Markell (NR)
17. John W. Taylor (NR)
18. Henry C. Martindale (NR)
19. Richard Keese (J)
20. Rudolph Bunner (J)
20. Silas Wright Jr. (J), until February 16, 1829, vacant thereafter
21. John C. Clark (J)
22. John G. Stower (J)
23. Jonas Earll Jr. (J)
24. Nathaniel Garrow (J)
25. David Woodcock (NR)
26. Dudley Marvin (NR)
26. John Maynard (NR)
27. Daniel D. Barnard (NR)
28. John Magee (J)
29. David E. Evans (J), until May 2, 1827
Phineas L. Tracy (NR), from November 5, 1827
30. Daniel G. Garnsey (J)

North CarolinaEdit

1. Lemuel Sawyer (J)
2. Willis Alston (J)
3. Thomas H. Hall (J)
4. John H. Bryan (NR)
5. Gabriel Holmes (J)
6. Daniel Turner (J)
7. John Culpepper (NR)
8. Daniel L. Barringer (J)
9. Augustine H. Shepperd (J)
10. John Long (NR)
11. Henry W. Connor (J)
12. Samuel P. Carson (J)
13. Lewis Williams (NR)

OhioEdit

1. James Findlay (J)
2. John Woods (NR)
3. William McLean (NR)
4. Joseph Vance (NR)
5. William Russell (J)
6. William Creighton Jr. (NR), until sometime in 1828
Francis S. Muhlenberg (NR), from December 19, 1828
7. Samuel F. Vinton (NR)
8. William Wilson (NR), until June 6, 1827
William Stanbery (J), from October 9, 1827
9. Philemon Beecher (NR)
10. John Davenport (NR)
11. John C. Wright (NR)
12. John Sloane (NR)
13. Elisha Whittlesey (NR)
14. Mordecai Bartley (NR)

PennsylvaniaEdit

There were six plural districts: the 7th, 8th, 11th & 16th had two representatives each, and the 4th & 9th had three representatives each.

1. Joel B. Sutherland (J)
2. John Sergeant (NR)
3. Daniel H. Miller (J)
4. Samuel Anderson (NR)
4. James Buchanan (J)
4. Charles Miner (NR)
5. John B. Sterigere (J)
6. Innis Green (J)
7. William Addams (J)
7. Joseph Fry Jr. (J)
8. Samuel D. Ingham (J)
8. George Wolf (J)
9. George Kremer (J)
9. Samuel McKean (J)
9. Espy Van Horne (J)
10. Adam King (J)
11. William Ramsey (J)
11. James Wilson (NR)
12. John Mitchell (J)
13. Chauncey Forward (J)
14. Andrew Stewart (NR)
15. Joseph Lawrence (NR)
16. Robert Orr Jr. (J)
16. James S. Stevenson (J)
17. Richard Coulter (J)
18. Stephen Barlow (J)

Rhode IslandEdit

Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

At-large. Tristam Burges (NR)
At-large. Dutee J. Pearce (NR)

South CarolinaEdit

1. William Drayton (J)
2. James Hamilton Jr. (J)
3. Thomas R. Mitchell (J)
4. William D. Martin (J)
5. George McDuffie (J)
6. Warren R. Davis (J)
7. William T. Nuckolls (J)
8. John Carter (J)
9. Starling Tucker (J)

TennesseeEdit

1. John Blair (J)
2. Pryor Lea (J)
3. James C. Mitchell (J)
4. Jacob C. Isacks (J)
5. Robert Desha (J)
6. James K. Polk (J)
7. John Bell (J)
8. John H. Marable (J)
9. Davy Crockett (J)

VermontEdit

1. Jonathan Hunt (NR)
2. Rollin C. Mallary (NR)
3. George E. Wales (NR)
4. Benjamin Swift (NR)
5. Daniel A. A. Buck (NR)

VirginiaEdit

1. Thomas Newton Jr. (NR)
2. James Trezvant (J)
3. William S. Archer (J)
4. Mark Alexander (J)
5. John Randolph (J)
6. Thomas Davenport (J)
7. Nathaniel H. Claiborne (J)
8. Burwell Bassett (J)
9. Andrew Stevenson (J)
10. William C. Rives (J)
11. Philip P. Barbour (J)
12. John Roane (J)
13. John Taliaferro (NR)
14. Charles F. Mercer (NR)
15. John S. Barbour (J)
16. William Armstrong (NR)
17. Robert Allen (J)
18. Isaac Leffler (NR)
19. William McCoy (J)
20. John Floyd (J)
21. Lewis Maxwell (NR)
22. Alexander Smyth (J)

Non-voting membersEdit

Arkansas Territory. Henry W. Conway, until November 9, 1827
Ambrose H. Sevier, from February 13, 1828
Florida Territory. Joseph M. White
Michigan Territory. Austin E. Wing (NR)

Changes in membershipEdit

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

SenateEdit

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[b]
Massachusetts
(1)
Vacant Seat remained vacant because legislature had failed to elect.
Winner was elected June 8, 1827.
Daniel Webster (NR) Installed December 17, 1827
Ohio
(3)
William Henry Harrison (NR) Resigned May 20, 1828, to become U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Colombia.
A special election was held December 10, 1828.
Jacob Burnet (NR) Installed December 10, 1828
Maine
(1)
Albion K. Parris (J) Resigned August 26, 1828, after being appointed to the Maine Supreme Judicial Court.
A special election was held January 15, 1829.
John Holmes (NR) Installed January 15, 1829
Georgia
(2)
Thomas W. Cobb (J) Resigned before November 7, 1828.
A special election was held November 7, 1828.
Oliver H. Prince (J) Installed November 7, 1828
North Carolina
(3)
Nathaniel Macon (J) Resigned November 14, 1828.
A special election was held December 15, 1828.
James Iredell Jr. (J) Installed December 15, 1828
New York
(1)
Martin Van Buren (J) Resigned December 20, 1828, to become Governor of New York.
A special election was held January 15, 1829.
Charles E. Dudley (J) Installed January 15, 1829
New Jersey
(1)
Ephraim Bateman (NR) Resigned January 12, 1829, due to failing health.
A special election was held January 30, 1829.
Mahlon Dickerson (J) Installed January 30, 1829
New Jersey
(2)
Mahlon Dickerson (J) Resigned January 30, 1829, after being elected to New Jersey's Class 1 U.S. Senate seat. Vacant Not filled in this Congress

House of RepresentativesEdit

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[b]
Georgia's 1st Edward F. Tattnall (J) Resigned some time in 1827 before the assembling of Congress George R. Gilmer (J) Seated October 1, 1827
Delaware at-large Vacant Louis McLane (J) resigned despite winning reelection in 1826 after being elected to the US Senate. Kensey Johns Jr. (NR) Seated October 2, 1827
New York's 29th David E. Evans (J) Resigned May 2, 1827 Phineas L. Tracy (NR) Seated November 5, 1827
Massachusetts's 1st Daniel Webster (NR) Resigned May 30, 1827, to run for the US Senate Benjamin Gorham (NR) Seated July 23, 1827
Ohio's 8th William Wilson (NR) Died June 6, 1827 William Stanbery (J) Seated October 9, 1827
Maine's 1st William Burleigh (NR) Died July 2, 1827 Rufus McIntire (J) Seated September 10, 1827
Kentucky's 11th William S. Young (NR) Died September 20, 1827 John Calhoon (NR) Seated November 5, 1827
Kentucky's 11th John Calhoon (NR) Resigned November 7, 1827, to avoid an election dispute Thomas Chilton (J) Seated December 22, 1827
Georgia's 2nd John Forsyth (J) Resigned November 7, 1827, after being elected Governor of Georgia Richard H. Wilde (J) Seated November 17, 1827
Arkansas Territory at-large Henry W. Conway Died November 9, 1827 Ambrose H. Sevier Seated February 13, 1828
New Jersey at-large George Holcombe (J) Died January 14, 1828 James F. Randolph (NR) Seated December 1, 1828
New York's 5th Thomas J. Oakley (J) Resigned May 9, 1828, after being appointed judge of the Superior Court of New York City Thomas Taber II (J) Seated November 5, 1828
Kentucky's 2nd Thomas Metcalfe (NR) Resigned June 1, 1828, after being elected Governor of Kentucky John Chambers (NR) Seated December 1, 1828
New Jersey at-large Hedge Thompson (NR) Died July 23, 1828 Thomas Sinnickson (NR) Seated December 1, 1828
Mississippi at-large William Haile (J) Resigned September 12, 1828 Thomas Hinds (J) Seated October 21, 1828
Ohio's 6th William Creighton Jr. (NR) Resigned before December 19, 1828, after being nominated as a judge to district court Francis S. Muhlenberg (NR) Seated December 19, 1828
New York's 20th Silas Wright (J) Resigned February 16, 1829 Vacant Not filled this Congress

CommitteesEdit

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Joint committeesEdit

EmployeesEdit

Legislative branch agency directorsEdit

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Anti-Masonic
  2. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.

ReferencesEdit

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External linksEdit