18th United States Congress

The 18th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1823, to March 4, 1825, during the seventh and eighth years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1820 United States census. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

18th United States Congress
17th ←
→ 19th

March 4, 1823 – March 4, 1825
Members48 senators
213 representatives
3 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic-Republican
Senate PresidentDaniel D. Tompkins (DR)
House majorityDemocratic-Republican
House SpeakerHenry Clay (DR)
1st: December 1, 1823 – May 27, 1824
2nd: December 6, 1824 – March 3, 1825

Major eventsEdit

States for Adams States for Jackson States for Crawford
  • Connecticut
  • Illinois
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Missouri
  • New Hampshire
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
  • Alabama
  • Indiana
  • Mississippi
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • North Carolina
  • Virginia
Total: 13 (54%) Total: 7 (29%) Total: 4 (17%)

Major legislationEdit

Party summaryEdit

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)

End of previous Congress 43 4 47 1
Begin 42 3 45 3
End 43 5 48 0
Final voting share 89.6% 10.4%
Beginning of next Congress Jacksonian: 25 45 3
Adams Republican: 20

House of RepresentativesEdit

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Democratic-Republican Federalist Vacant
End of previous Congress 154 31 185 2
Begin 71 53 64 15 2 7 212 1
End 72 213 0
Final voting share 88.7% 11.3%
Beginning of next Congress Jacksonian: 104 213 0
Adams Republican: 109


President of the Senate
Daniel D. Tompkins


House of RepresentativesEdit


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1826; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1828; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1824.

House of RepresentativesEdit

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membershipEdit

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • Deaths: 3
  • Resignations: 3
  • Vacancy: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 8
Senate changes
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
New Jersey
Vacant Samuel L. Southard resigned at end of previous Congress.
Successor elected November 12, 1823.
Joseph McIlvaine (DR) November 12, 1823
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Incumbent was re-elected late January 7, 1824.
Nicholas Van Dyke (F) January 7, 1824
Vacant Caesar A. Rodney resigned in previous term.
Successor elected January 8, 1824.
Thomas Clayton (F) January 8, 1824
Elijah Boardman (DR) Died August 18, 1823.
Successor appointed October 8, 1823, and later elected May 5, 1824.
Henry W. Edwards (DR) October 8, 1823
James Brown (DR) Resigned December 10, 1823, after being appointed Minister to France.
Successor appointed January 15, 1824.
Josiah S. Johnston (DR) January 15, 1824
Ninian Edwards (DR) Resigned March 4, 1824, after being appointed Minister to Mexico.
Successor elected November, 1824.
John McLean (DR) November 23, 1824
Henry Johnson (DR) Resigned May 27, 1824, to run for Governor of Louisiana.
Successor elected November 19, 1824.
Dominique J. Bouligny (DR) November 19, 1824
John Taylor (DR) Died August 21, 1824.
Successor elected December 7, 1824.
Littleton W. Tazewell (DR) December 7, 1824
Nicholas Ware (DR) Died September 7, 1824.
Successor elected December 6, 1824.
Thomas W. Cobb (DR) December 6, 1824

House of RepresentativesEdit

  • Deaths: 3
  • Resignations: 5
  • Contested election: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 10
House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Massachusetts 10th Vacant John Bailey was declared not entitled to seat in previous election.
Bailey was then re-elected.
John Bailey (A-DR) Seated December 13, 1824.
New York 28th William B. Rochester (A-DR) Resigned April 21, 1823.
New member elected.
William Woods (A-DR) Seated November 3, 1823.
Pennsylvania 13th John Tod (J-DR) Resigned sometime in 1824.
New member elected.
Alexander Thomson (J-DR) Seated December 6, 1824.
New York 29th Isaac Wilson (A-DR) Lost contested election January 7, 1824.
New member seated.
Parmenio Adams (A-DR) Seated January 7, 1824.
Virginia 13th William Lee Ball (C-DR) Died February 29, 1824.
New member elected.
John Taliaferro (C-DR) Seated March 24, 1824.
North Carolina 2nd Hutchins G. Burton (C-DR) Resigned March 23, 1824 when elected Governor of North Carolina.
New member elected.
George Outlaw (C-DR) Seated January 19, 1825.
Pennsylvania 8th Thomas J. Rogers (J-DR) Resigned April 20, 1824.
New member elected.
George Wolf (J-DR) Seated December 9, 1824.
Indiana 1st William Prince (J-DR) Died September 8, 1824.
New member elected.
Jacob Call (J-DR) Seated December 23, 1824.
Vermont 3rd Charles Rich (A-DR) Died October 15, 1824.
New member elected.
Henry Olin (A-DR) Seated December 13, 1824.
Georgia at-large Thomas W. Cobb (C-DR) Resigned December 6, 1824 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Richard H. Wilde (C-DR) Seated February 7, 1825.


Lists of committees and their party leaders.


House of RepresentativesEdit

Joint committeesEdit


Legislative branch agency directorsEdit


House of RepresentativesEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.


  1. ^ "The House of Representatives Elected John Quincy Adams as President: February 09, 1825". Historical Highlights. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  2. ^ Schwarz, Frederic D. (February–March 2000). "1825 One Hundred And Seventy-five Years Ago". American Heritage. Rockville, Maryland: American Heritage Publishing. 51 (1). Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External linksEdit