116th United States Congress

The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of the Presidency of Donald Trump. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

116th United States Congress
115th ←
→ 117th
U.S. Capitol grounds magnolias in March 2020.jpg
January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021
Senate PresidentMike Pence (R)
Senate President pro temChuck Grassley (R)
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate–Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress is the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles[1] and the most demographically diverse ever.

Upon joining the Libertarian Party on May 1, 2020,[2] Justin Amash became the first member of Congress to represent a political party other than the Democrats or the Republicans since Rep. William Carney, who served as a Conservative before switching to the Republican Party in 1985. Before joining the Libertarian party, Amash had been serving as an independent since his departure from the Republican party on July 4, 2019.[3]

Major eventsEdit

 
House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment.
 
Chief Justice John Roberts presided over the Impeachment trial of Donald Trump

Major legislationEdit

EnactedEdit

ProposedEdit

VetoedEdit

(With official titles)

Major resolutionsEdit

AdoptedEdit

ProposedEdit

Party summaryEdit

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.

SenateEdit

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 47 2 50 99 1
Begin (January 3, 2019) 45 2 52 99 1
January 8, 2019[a] 53 100 0
December 31, 2019[b] 52 99 1
January 6, 2020[b] 53 100 0
Latest voting share 47.0% 53.0%

House of RepresentativesEdit

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Libertarian Republican
End of previous Congress 196 0 0 236 432 3
Begin (January 3, 2019)[c] 235 0 0 199 434 1
January 23, 2019[d] 198 433 2
February 10, 2019[e] 197 432 3
May 21, 2019[d] 198 433 2
July 4, 2019[f] 1 197
September 10, 2019[c][e] 199 435 0
September 23, 2019[g] 198 434 1
October 1, 2019[h] 197 433 2
October 17, 2019[i] 234 432 3
November 3, 2019[j] 233 431 4
December 19, 2019[k] 232 198
January 13, 2020[l] 197 430 5
March 30, 2020[m] 196 429 6
April 29, 2020[i] 233 430 5
May 1, 2020[f] 0 1
May 12, 2020[j][g] 198 432 3
May 22, 2020[n] 197 431 4
June 23, 2020[h] 198 432 3
July 17, 2020[o] 232 431 4
October 4, 2020[p] 197 430 5
Latest voting share 54.0% 0.0% 0.2% 45.8%  
Non-voting members 3 1 0 2 6 0

LeadershipEdit

SenateEdit

Senate President
President pro tempore

Majority (Republican) LeadershipEdit

Minority (Democratic) LeadershipEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

House Speaker

Majority (Democratic) LeadershipEdit

Minority (Republican) LeadershipEdit

DemographicsEdit

Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.[27][28][29]

SenateEdit

The Senate includes 74 men and 26 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 14 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 30 states are represented by 2 men. During the 116th Congress, Georgia had Johnny Isakson retire, and Kelly Loeffler was appointed. This increased the number of women from 25 after the 2018 elections to 26. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial (Black/Asian) senators. Additionally, 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.[1][30][better source needed]

House of RepresentativesEdit

There are 101 women in the House, the largest number in history.[31] There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 American Indian. Seven identify as LGBTQ+.[32] Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history.[33] Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two Native American women elected as well.[34]

With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee,[35] women now chair a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including representatives Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor who chairs the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis.[35] In addition, women chair a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger are also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.

Diversity of the freshman classEdit

The demographics of the 116th U.S. Congress freshmen were more diverse than any previous incoming class.[36][37][38]

At least 25 new congressional representatives were Hispanic, Native American, or persons of color, and the incoming class included the first Native American women, the first Muslim women, and the two youngest women ever elected.[36] The 116th congress included more women elected to the House than any previous congress.[37][38]

MembersEdit

SenateEdit

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of RepresentativesEdit

CaucusesEdit

Changes in membershipEdit

SenateEdit

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[v]
Florida
(1)
Vacant Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.[39] Rick Scott
(R)
January 8, 2019
Georgia
(3)
Johnny Isakson
(R)
Incumbent resigned December 31, 2019.[40]
A successor was appointed the same day[q] to continue the term until the November 3, 2020 special election.[40]
Kelly Loeffler
(R)
January 6, 2020[50]

House of RepresentativesEdit

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[v]
North Carolina 9 Vacant Vacant from the start of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[51]
Dan Bishop
(R)
September 17, 2019[52]
Pennsylvania 12 Tom Marino
(R)
Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector.[47]
A special election was held May 21, 2019.[53]
Fred Keller
(R)
June 3, 2019
North Carolina 3 Walter B. Jones Jr.
(R)
Died February 10, 2019.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[54]
Greg Murphy
(R)
September 17, 2019[55]
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
(R)
Changed party July 4, 2019.[7] Justin Amash
(I)
July 4, 2019
Wisconsin 7 Sean Duffy
(R)
Resigned September 23, 2019.
A special election was held May 12, 2020.[56]
Tom Tiffany
(R)
May 19, 2020
New York 27 Chris Collins
(R)
Resigned October 1, 2019.
A special election was held June 23, 2020.[57]
Chris Jacobs
(R)
July 21, 2020
Maryland 7 Elijah Cummings
(D)
Died October 17, 2019.
A special election was held April 28, 2020.[45][58]
Kweisi Mfume
(D)
May 5, 2020
California 25 Katie Hill
(D)
Resigned November 3, 2019, due to allegations of improper relationships with staffer.
A special election was held March 3, 2020 and a runoff election was held May 12, 2020.[59][60]
Mike Garcia
(R)
May 19, 2020
New Jersey 2 Jeff Van Drew
(D)
Changed party December 19, 2019.[61] Jeff Van Drew
(R)
December 19, 2019
California 50 Duncan D. Hunter
(R)
Resigned January 13, 2020, following felony indictment.[62] Vacant until the next Congress
North Carolina 11 Mark Meadows
(R)
Resigned March 30, 2020, to become White House Chief of Staff.[63][64] Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
(I)
Changed party May 1, 2020.[2] Justin Amash
(L)
May 1, 2020
Texas 4 John Ratcliffe
(R)
Resigned May 22, 2020, to become Director of National Intelligence.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
Georgia 5 John Lewis
(D)
Died July 17, 2020.
A special election runoff will be held December 1, 2020.[65]
TBD TBD
Georgia 14 Tom Graves
(R)
Resigned October 4, 2020.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress

CommitteesEdit

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed by chamber and then alphabetically by committee name, including chair and ranking member.

SenateEdit

Committee Chair Ranking Member[66]
Aging (Special) Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services Jim Inhofe (R-OK) Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Roger Wicker (R-MS) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Joe Manchin (D-WV)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
James Lankford (R-OK) from January 2020[67]
Chris Coons (D-DE)
Finance Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Jim Risch (R-ID) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Gary Peters (D-MI)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) until May 15, 2020
Marco Rubio (R-FL) Acting from May 18, 2020
Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) John Cornyn (R-TX) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Judiciary Lindsey Graham (R-SC) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Marco Rubio (R-FL) Ben Cardin (D-MD)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
Jerry Moran (R-KS) from January 2020[68]
Jon Tester (D-MT)

House of RepresentativesEdit

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Collin Peterson (D-MN) Mike Conaway (R-TX)
Appropriations Nita Lowey (D-NY) Kay Granger (R-TX)
Armed Services Adam Smith (D-WA) Mac Thornberry (R-TX)
Budget John Yarmuth (D-KY) Steve Womack (R-AR)
Climate Crisis (Select) Kathy Castor (D-FL) Garret Graves (R-LA)
Education and Labor Bobby Scott (D-VA) Virginia Foxx (R-NC)
Energy and Commerce Frank Pallone (D-NJ) Greg Walden (R-OR)
Ethics Ted Deutch (D-FL) Kenny Marchant (R-TX)
Financial Services Maxine Waters (D-CA) Patrick McHenry (R-NC)
Foreign Affairs Eliot Engel (D-NY) Michael McCaul (R-TX)
Homeland Security Bennie Thompson (D-MS) Mike Rogers (R-AL)
House Administration Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Devin Nunes (R-CA)
Judiciary Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Doug Collins (R-GA) (until March 12, 2020)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (from March 12, 2020)
Modernization of Congress (Select) Derek Kilmer (D-WA) Tom Graves (R-GA)[69]
Natural Resources Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Rob Bishop (R-UT)
Oversight and Reform Elijah Cummings (D-MD) (until October 17, 2019)[45]
Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (from October 17, 2019)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (until March 12, 2020, from March 31, 2020 – June 29, 2020)
Mark Meadows (R-NC) (March 12, 2020 – March 30, 2020)
James Comer (from June 29, 2020)
Rules Jim McGovern (D-MA) Tom Cole (R-OK)
Science, Space and Technology Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) Frank Lucas (R-OK)
Small Business Nydia Velázquez (D-NY) Steve Chabot (R-OH)
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter DeFazio (D-OR) Sam Graves (R-MO)
Veterans' Affairs Mark Takano (D-CA) Phil Roe (R-TN)
Ways and Means Richard Neal (D-MA) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

JointEdit

Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Economic Mike Lee (R-UT) Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (until January 16, 2020)
Don Beyer (D-VA) (from January 16, 2020)
David Schweikert (R-AZ) Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Library Roy Blunt (R-MO) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Printing Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Taxation[w] Richard Neal (D-MA) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Employees and legislative agency directorsEdit

Also called "elected" or "appointed" officials, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.[70]

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Legislative branch agency directorsEdit

See alsoEdit

ElectionsEdit

Membership listsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Florida: Rick Scott (R) assumed office late January 8, 2019.
  2. ^ a b In Georgia: Senator Johnny Isakson (R) resigned December 31, 2019, and Kelly Loeffler (R) was appointed January 6, 2020, to continue the term.
  3. ^ a b c In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities. Dan Bishop (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  4. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019, and Fred Keller (R) was elected May 21, 2019.
  5. ^ a b In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019, and Greg Murphy (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  6. ^ a b In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed parties from Republican to Independent July 4, 2019,[7] then changed to Libertarian May 1, 2020.[2]
  7. ^ a b In Wisconsin's 7th district: Sean Duffy (R) resigned September 23, 2019, and Tom Tiffany (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  8. ^ a b In New York's 27th district: Chris Collins (R) resigned October 1, 2019, and Chris Jacobs (R) was elected June 23, 2020.
  9. ^ a b In Maryland's 7th district: Elijah Cummings (D) died October 17, 2019, and Kweisi Mfume (D) was elected April 29, 2020.
  10. ^ a b In California's 25th district: Katie Hill (D) resigned November 3, 2019, and Mike Garcia (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  11. ^ In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed parties from Democratic to Republican December 19, 2019.
  12. ^ In California's 50th district: Duncan D. Hunter (R) resigned January 13, 2020.
  13. ^ In North Carolina's 11th district: Mark Meadows (R) resigned March 30, 2020.
  14. ^ In Texas's 4th district: John Ratcliffe (R) resigned May 22, 2020.
  15. ^ In Georgia's 5th district: John Lewis (D) died July 17, 2020.
  16. ^ In Georgia's 14th district: Tom Graves (R) resigned October 4, 2020.
  17. ^ a b Loeffler's appointment was "effective December 31, 2019."[41]
  18. ^ a b c d e f g The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  19. ^ Although Sanders ran for U.S. President in the Democratic primary and claimed to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent senator.[42]
  20. ^ In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent, July 4, 2019.[7] He became a Libertarian on May 1, 2020.[2]
  21. ^ In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed from Democratic to Republican, December 19, 2019.
  22. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.
  23. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.

ReferencesEdit

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