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White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East-North Africa."[2] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[3] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is often used interchangeably with "White", although the terms are not synonymous.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

White Americans
Map of White Americans.png
The countries from which White Americans claim their ancestry.
Total population
Increase223,553,265
72.4% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
Non-Hispanic whites
Increase196,817,552
63.7% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
White Hispanics
Increase26,735,713[1]
8.7% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States
Languages

English
Albanian  · Arabic  · American Sign Language  · Neo-Aramaic  · Armenian  · Azerbaijani  · Belarusian  · Czech  · Danish  · Dutch  · Finnish  · French  · German  · Greek  · Hebrew  · Hungarian  · Italian  · Kurdish  · Ladino  · Lithuanian  · Norwegian  · Pashto  · Persian  · Polish  · Portuguese  · Romanian  · Russian  · Slovak  · South Slavic  · Spanish  · Swedish  · Tamazight  · Turkish  · Ukrainian  · Yiddish

 · other languages
Religion
Predominantly Christian (Protestantism; Roman Catholic is the largest single denomination; Significantly: Orthodoxy), Mormonism, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Europeans, Middle Eastern Americans, White Latin Americans, White Canadians, White Australians, White New Zealanders, European diasporas from other parts of the world

The largest ancestries of American Whites are: German Americans (16.5%), Irish Americans (11.9%), English Americans (9.2%), Welsh Americans (6%), Scots-Irish Americans (12%), Italian Americans (5.5%), Mexican Americans (5.4%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (1.9%), Dutch Americans (1.6%), Finnish Americans (2%), Danish Americans (5%), Norwegian Americans (1.5%), and Swedish Americans (1.4%).[10][not specific enough to verify][11] However, the English-Americans and British-Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply 'Americans' (6.9%), due to the length of time they have inhabited America.[6][7][8][9]

Whites (including Hispanics who identify as White) constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, or 77.35% of the population as of 2014. Non-Hispanic Whites totaled about 197,870,516, or 62.06% of the U.S. population.

Contents

Historical and present definitionsEdit

Definitions of who is "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States.

Current U.S. Census definitionEdit

The term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."[12]

The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and\or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows:

"White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "White" or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian.[2]

In U.S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race.[13][14] Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country.[15][16]

President Abraham Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln and was of English and Welsh ancestry.
Actress Raquel Welch of Spanish (via Bolivia) and English ancestry back to the Mayflower.[17]

In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U.S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value.

Additionally, people who reported Muslim (or a sect of Islam such as Shi'ite or Sunni), Jewish, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White.[18] The US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.[19]

Social definitionEdit

In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U.S. Census, such as Jewish-Americans, Arab-Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, and may not be perceived to be, White.[20][21][22][23][24][25]

The definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Irish, Swedes, Germans, Finns, Russians and French.[25][26][27]

Early on in the United States, white generally referred to those of British ancestry or northern (Nordic) and northwestern (British and French) European descent.[28]

David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[29] The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship.[30]

Critical race theory definitionEdit

Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth, rationality and judicial neutrality, and by critical theory. Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the civil African-American Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans supposedly enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards. Liberal ideas such as meritocracy and equal opportunity, they argued, hid and reinforced deep structural inequalities and thus serves the interests of a white elite. Critical race theorists see racism as embedded in public attitudes and institutions, and highlight institutional racism and unconscious biases. Legal scholar Derrick Bell advanced the interest convergence principle, which suggests that whites support minority rights only when doing so is also in their self-interest.[31]

As Whites, especially White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, or WASPs, are the dominant racial and cultural group, according to sociologist Steven Seidman, writing from a critical theory perspective, "White culture constitutes the general cultural mainstream, causing non-White culture to be seen as deviant, in either a positive or negative manner. Moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political, economic, and cultural institutions."

Yet, according to Seidman, Whites are most commonly unaware of their privilege and the manner in which their culture has always been dominant in the US, as they do not identify as members of a specific racial group but rather incorrectly perceive their views and culture as "raceless", when in fact it is ethno-national (ethnic/cultural) specific, with a racial base component.[32]

Demographic informationEdit

White Americans 1790–2010[33][34]
Year Population  % of the US Year Population  % of the US
1790 3,172,006 80.7 1910 81,731,957 88.9
1800 4,306,446 81.1 1920 94,820,915 89.7
1810 5,862,073 81.0 1930 110,286,740 89.8 (highest)
1820 7,866,797 81.6 1940 118,214,870 89.8 (highest)
1830 10,532,060 81.9 1950 134,942,028 89.5
1840 14,189,705 83.2 1960 158,831,732 88.6
1850 19,553,068 84.3 1970 177,748,975 87.5
1860 26,922,537 85.6 1980 188,371,622 83.1
1870 33,589,377 87.1 1990 199,686,070 80.3
1880 43,402,970 86.5 2000 211,460,626 75.1[35]
1890 55,101,258 87.5 2010 223,553,265 72.4[36]
1900 66,809,196 87.9

Whites (non-Hispanic and Hispanic) made up 79.8% or 75% of the American population in 2008.[15][16][37][38] This latter number is sometimes recorded as 77.1% when it includes about 2% of the population who are identified as white in combination with one or more other races. The largest ethnic groups (by ancestry) among White Americans were Germans, followed by Irish and English.[39] In the 1980 census 49,598,035 Americans cited that they were of English ancestry, making them 26% of the country and the largest group at the time, and in fact larger than the population of England itself.[40] Slightly more than half of these people would cite that they were of "American" ancestry on subsequent censuses and virtually everywhere that "American" ancestry predominates on the 2000 census corresponds to places where "English" predominated on the 1980 census.[41][42]

White Americans are projected to remain the majority, though with their percentage decreasing to 72% of the total population by 2050. However, projections state that non-Hispanic Whites of that group will become less than 50% of the population by 2042 because Non-Hispanic Whites have the lowest fertility rate of any major racial group in the United States,[43] mass-immigration of other ethnic groups with higher birth rates, and because of intermarriage with Hispanic Whites.

While over ten million White people can trace part of their ancestry back to the Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620 (this common statistic overlooks the Jamestown, Virginia foundations of America and roots of even earlier colonist-descended Americans, such as Spanish Americans in St. Augustine, Florida), over 35 million whites have at least one ancestor who passed through the Ellis Island immigration station, which processed arriving immigrants from 1892 until 1954. See also: European Americans.

Geographic distributionEdit

According to the Census definition, White Americans are the majority racial group in almost all of the United States. They are not the majority in Hawaii, many American Indian reservations, parts of the South known as the Black Belt, the District of Columbia, all US territories, and in many urban areas throughout the country. Non-Hispanic whites are also not the majority in several southwestern states.

Overall the highest concentration of those referred to as "White alone" by the Census Bureau was found in the Midwest, New England, the Rocky Mountain states, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The lowest concentration of whites was found in southern and mid-Atlantic states.[3][44][45]

Although all large geographical areas are dominated by White Americans, much larger differences can be seen between specific parts of large cities.

States with the highest percentages of White Americans, as of 2007:[46]

States with the highest percentages of non-Hispanic Whites, as of 2007:[47]

Income and educational attainmentEdit

White Americans have the second highest median household income and personal income levels in the nation, by cultural background. The median income per household member was also the highest, since White Americans had the smallest households of any racial demographic in the nation. In 2006, the median individual income of a White American age 25 or older was $33,030, with those who were full-time employed, and of age 25 to 64, earning $34,432. Since 42% of all households had two income earners, the median household income was considerably higher than the median personal income, which was $48,554 in 2005. Jewish Americans rank first in household income, personal income, and educational attainment among White Americans.[48] In 2005, White households had a median household income of $48,977, which is 10.3% above the national median of $44,389. Among Cuban Americans, with 86% classifying as White, those persons born in the US have a higher median income and educational attainment level than most other Whites.[49]

The poverty rates for White Americans are the second-lowest of any racial group, with 10.8% of white individuals living below the poverty line, 3% lower than the national average.[50] However, due to Whites' majority status, 48% of Americans living in poverty are white.[51]

White Americans' educational attainment is the second-highest in the country, after Asian Americans'. Overall, nearly one-third of White Americans had a Bachelor's degree, with the educational attainment for Whites being higher for those born outside the United States: 37.6% of foreign born, and 29.7% of native born Whites had a college degree. Both figures are above the national average of 27.2%.[52]

Gender income inequality was the greatest among Whites, with White men outearning White women by 48%. Census Bureau data for 2005 reveals that the median income of White females was lower than that of males of all races. In 2005, the median income for White American females was only slightly higher than that of African American females.[53]

White Americans are more likely to live in suburbs and small cities than their black counterparts.[54]

Population by state or territoryEdit

[55]

 
Percentage of population self-reported as White American by state in 2010 :
   less than 50 %
   50 - 60 %
   60 - 70 %
   70 - 80 %
   80 - 90 %
   more than 90 %
White Population by state(2015)[56]
State/Territory Pop 2015 % pop 2015
  Alabama 3,204,989 66.3%
  Alaska 457,470 62.4%
  Arizona 3,752,853 56.5%
  Arkansas 2,177,308 73.6%
  California 14,879,258 38.7%
  Colorado 3,646,224 69.1%
  Connecticut 2,487,119 69.2%
  Delaware 591,922 63.9%
  District of Columbia 230,489 35.6%
  Florida 11,013,749 56.1%
  Georgia 5,460,401 54.6%
  Hawaii 321,832 22.9%
  Idaho 1,342,562 83.1%
  Illinois 8,041,878 62.5%
  Indiana 5,288,121 80.5%
  Iowa 2,703,612 87.4%
  Kansas 2,228,789 77.0%
  Kentucky 3,762,154 85.6%
  Louisiana 2,751,183 59.5%
  Maine 1,247,808 93.9%
  Maryland 3,144,084 53.0%
  Massachusetts 4,982,325 74.3%
  Michigan 7,513,622 75.9%
  Minnesota 4,427,809 81.7%
  Mississippi 1,714,674 57.4%
  Missouri 4,849,886 80.2%
  Montana 882,585 87.0%
  Nebraska 1,509,631 80.8%
  Nevada 1,455,277 52.0%
  New Hampshire 1,210,369 91.4%
  New Jersey 5,093,430 57.2%
  New Mexico 817,048 39.2%
  New York 11,170,518 56.8%
  North Carolina 6,324,373 64.2%
  North Dakota 628,158 87.0%
  Ohio 9,291,303 80.3%
  Oklahoma 2,591,292 67.3%
  Oregon 3,043,010 77.2%
  Pennsylvania 9,979,754 78.1%
  Rhode Island 785,245 74.5%
  South Carolina 3,051,116 63.9%
  South Dakota 701,699 83.2%
  Tennessee 4,856,869 74.7%
  Texas 11,635,757 43.8%
  Utah 2,308,090 79.5%
  Vermont 586,547 93.6%
  Virginia 5,237,848 63.4%
  Washington 4,943,228 70.8%
  West Virginia 1,713,434 92.5%
  Wisconsin 4,729,911 82.4%
  Wyoming 489,665 84.5%
  United States of America 197,258,278 62.3%

CultureEdit

From their earliest presence in North America, White Americans have contributed literature, art, cinema, religion, agricultural skills, foods, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to American culture. White American culture derived its earliest influences from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of American culture.[57] The overall American culture reflects White American culture. The culture has been developing since long before the United States formed a separate country. Much of American culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[58]

Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in AmericaEdit

 
Three members of the Kennedy political dynasty, John, Robert and Edward. All eight of their great-grandparents emigrated from Ireland.

In his 1989 book Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, David Hackett Fischer explores the details of the folkways of four groups of settlers from the British Isles that came to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries from distinct regions of Britain and Ireland. His thesis is that the culture of each group persisted (albeit in modified form), providing the basis for the modern United States.[59]

According to Fischer, the foundation of America's four regional cultures was formed from four mass migrations from four regions of the British Isles by four distinct ethno-cultural groups. New England's formative period occurred between 1629 and 1640 when Puritans, mostly from East Anglia, settled there, thus forming the basis for the New England regional culture.[60] The next mass migration was of southern English Cavaliers and their working class English servants to the Chesapeake Bay region between 1640 and 1675. This spawned the creation of the American Southern culture.[61]

Then, between 1675 and 1725, thousands of Irish, Cornish, English and Welsh Quakers plus many Germans sympathetic to Quaker ideas, led by William Penn, settled the Delaware Valley. This resulted in the formation of the General American culture, although, according to Fischer, this is really a "regional culture", even if it does today encompass most of the U.S. from the mid-Atlantic states to the Pacific Coast.[62] Finally, a huge number of settlers from the borderlands between England and Scotland, and from northern Ireland, migrated to Appalachia between 1717 and 1775. This resulted in the formation of the Upland South regional culture, which has since expanded to the west to West Texas and parts of the American Southwest.[63]

In his book, Fischer brings up several points. He states that the U.S. is not a country with one "general" culture and several "regional" culture, as is commonly thought. Rather, there are only four regional cultures as described above, and understanding this helps one to more clearly understand American history as well as contemporary American life. Fischer asserts that it is not only important to understand where different groups came from, but when. All population groups have, at different times, their own unique set of beliefs, fears, hopes and prejudices. When different groups came to America and brought certain beliefs and values with them, these ideas became, according to Fischer, more or less frozen in time, even if they eventually changed in their original place of origin.[64]

AdmixtureEdit

Admixture in Non-Hispanic WhitesEdit

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans).[65] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans[66]

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture.[67] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture.[68] Shriver discovered his ancestry is 10 percent African, and Shriver's partner in DNA Print Genomics, J.T. Frudacas, contradicted him two years later stating "Five percent of European Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry."[69]

From the 23andMe database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry.[70] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry.[71] White Americans (European Americans) on average are: “98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American.” Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas.[70][71]

Admixture in Hispanic WhitesEdit

Most Hispanic Americans self-identify racially as white in the US Census; however, a large amount of them would rather consider themselves as ethnically mestizo (of mixed European and Native background) or mulatto (of mixed African and European background); for instance, just a tenth of those who considers themselves as mestizo or mulatto select multiracial on the census, preferring to answer just white in the census.[72] Genetic research has found that the average European admixture among self-identified White Hispanic Americans is 73% (the average for Hispanic Americans regardless of race is 65.1%), contrasting to that of non-Hispanic European Americans, whose European ancestry totals 98.6% in average.[70][73]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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