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The Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1795, to March 4, 1797, during the last two years of George Washington's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. The Senate had a Federalist majority, and the House had a Democratic-Republican majority.

4th United States Congress
3rd ←
→ 5th
Congress Hall exterior.jpg
March 4, 1795 – March 4, 1797
Senate PresidentJohn Adams (F)
Senate President pro temHenry Tazewell (F)
Samuel Livermore (F)
William Bingham (F)
House SpeakerJonathan Dayton (F)
Members30-32 senators
106-107 members of the House
1 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Federalist
House Majority Democratic-Republican
Sessions
Special: June 8, 1795 – June 26, 1795
1st: December 7, 1795 – June 1, 1796
2nd: December 5, 1796 – March 3, 1797

Major eventsEdit

Major legislationEdit

Treaties ratifiedEdit

States admittedEdit

Party summaryEdit

 
President of the Senate John Adams
 
President pro tempore Henry Tazewell

This was the first Congress to have organized political parties. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

SenateEdit

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 13[a] 17[b] 30 0
Begin 10 20 30 0
End 11 21 32
Final voting share 34.4% 65.6%
Beginning of next congress 9 22 31 1

House of RepresentativesEdit

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 54[c] 49[d] 103 2
Begin 58 46 104 1
End 59 47 1060
Final voting share 55.7% 44.3%
Beginning of next congress 57 49 106 0

LeadershipEdit

 
Speaker of the House
Jonathan Dayton

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

MembersEdit

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

SenateEdit

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1796; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1798; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1800.

House of RepresentativesEdit

Changes in membershipEdit

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress

SenateEdit

There were 10 resignations, 2 new seats, and 1 election to replace an appointee. There was a 1-seat gain for both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[e]
Georgia
(2)
James Jackson (DR) Resigned sometime in 1795 George Walton (F) Appointed November 16, 1795
Georgia
(2)
George Walton (F) Interim appointment expired February 20, 1796, with an election Josiah Tattnall (DR) Elected February 20, 1796
Connecticut
(1)
Oliver Ellsworth (F) Resigned March 8, 1796 James Hillhouse (F) Elected March 12, 1796
New York
(2)
Rufus King (F) Resigned May 23, 1796, having been appointed Minister to England John Laurance (F) Elected November 9, 1796
Massachusetts
(2)
Caleb Strong (F) Resigned June 1, 1796 Theodore Sedgwick (F) Elected June 11, 1796
Massachusetts
(1)
George Cabot (F) Resigned June 9, 1796 Benjamin Goodhue (F) Elected June 11, 1796
Connecticut
(3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (F) Resigned June 10, 1796 Uriah Tracy (F) Elected October 13, 1796
Tennessee
(1)
New seat Tennessee was admitted to the Union William Cocke (DR) Elected August 2, 1796
Tennessee
(2)
William Blount (DR)
Vermont
(1)
Moses Robinson (DR) Resigned October 15, 1796 Isaac Tichenor (F) Elected October 18, 1796
Maryland
(1)
Richard Potts (F) Resigned October 24, 1796 John E. Howard (F) Elected November 30, 1796
South Carolina
(2)
Pierce Butler (DR) Resigned October 25, 1796 John Hunter (DR) Elected December 8, 1796
New Jersey
(2)
Frederick Frelinghuysen (F) Resigned November 12, 1796 Richard Stockton (F) Elected November 12, 1796

House of RepresentativesEdit

There were 9 resignations, 1 death of a Representative-elect, and 1 new seat. There was a 1-seat gain for both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[e]
Pennsylvania 4 Vacant Election was contested and then the apparent winner, James Morris, died July 10, 1795.
The House then declared the seat won by the challenger.
John Richards (DR) Seated January 18, 1796
Maryland 3 Jeremiah Crabb (F) Resigned sometime in 1796. William Craik (F) Seated December 5, 1796
Rhode Island at-large Benjamin Bourne (F) Resigned sometime in 1796. Elisha Potter (F) Seated December 19, 1796
Massachusetts 1 Theodore Sedgwick (F) Resigned sometime in June, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator. Thomson Skinner (DR) Seated January 27, 1797
Maryland 2 Gabriel Duvall (DR) Resigned March 28, 1796, having been elected judge of the Supreme Court of Maryland. Richard Sprigg, Jr. (DR) Seated May 5, 1796
North Carolina 4 Absalom Tatom (DR) Resigned June 1, 1796. William Strudwick (F) Seated December 13, 1796
Massachusetts 10 Benjamin Goodhue (F) Resigned sometime in June 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator. Samuel Sewall (F) Seated December 7, 1796
Connecticut at-large James Hillhouse (F) Resigned July 1, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator. James Davenport (F) Seated December 5, 1796
Territory South of the River Ohio James White Served until June 1, 1796, when Tennessee was admitted to the Union. District eliminated
Tennessee at-large New seat Tennessee was admitted to the Union June 1, 1796. Seat remained vacant until December 5, 1796. Andrew Jackson (DR) Seated December 5, 1796
Pennsylvania 5 Daniel Hiester (DR) Resigned July 1, 1796. George Ege (F) Seated December 8, 1796
Connecticut at-large Uriah Tracy (F) Resigned October 13, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator. Samuel Dana (F) Seated January 3, 1797

CommitteesEdit

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Joint committeesEdit

OfficersEdit

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Anti-Administration
  2. ^ Pro-Administration
  3. ^ Anti-Administration
  4. ^ Pro-Administration
  5. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

ReferencesEdit

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External linksEdit