South Carolina's 1st congressional district

The 1st congressional district of South Carolina is a coastal congressional district in South Carolina, represented by Democrat Joe Cunningham since January 3, 2019. He succeeded Republican Mark Sanford, who was defeated by Katie Arrington in the Republican primary. Cunningham is the first Democrat to represent the district since the 1980s.

South Carolina's 1st congressional district
South Carolina US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif
South Carolina's 1st congressional district since January 3, 2019
Representative
  Joe Cunningham
DCharleston
Population (2000)668,668
Median income$66,337[1]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+10

The district has historically been based in Charleston. It has included Myrtle Beach, which became a major tourist destination in the late 20th century, as well as other coastal areas that have attracted retirees and seasonal visitors. From 1993 to 2013, the district boundaries extended from Seabrook Island in the south to the North Carolina border and included parts of Charleston, Dorchester, Berkeley and Georgetown counties and all of Horry County to the North Carolina line.

In 2010, the state received another seat in Congressional apportionment due to an increase in population. The state's districts had to be redrawn, which was completed in 2013. In the final plan, the 1st congressional district was redrawn to reach from Hilton Head to mid-coast South Carolina, ending at the Santee River and comprising parts of Charleston, Berkeley, Dorchester and Beaufort counties. This configuration is similar to the one it had for most of the 20th century. Horry County was included in the new 7th congressional district.

Election results from presidential racesEdit

Year Office Result
2000 President Bush 59 - 38%
2004 President Bush 61 - 39%
2008 President McCain 56.1 - 42.7%
2012 President Romney 58.3 - 40.2%
2016 President Trump 53.5 - 40.4%

HistoryEdit

Following the Civil War and granting of citizenship to former slaves, in 1870, Charleston's population was 53 percent black; and Charleston County had a 73 percent black majority.[2] The city's large population of free people of color had developed many leaders who advanced in the changing society. These population majorities protected freedmen against some of the election-related violence that occurred in other parts of the state in the 1870s as white Democrats worked to suppress black voting and regain political control of the state.[2] During Reconstruction, the mostly black Republicans from this district supported Republican candidates, including four terms for Joseph H. Rainey as US Representative to Congress, a record by an African-American legislator not surpassed until the 1950s.

After the Democrats regained control of the state in 1876, during an election season marked by violence and fraud, and Reconstruction ended in 1877, they passed laws establishing racial segregation and making voter registration and voting more difficult, such as the "eight-box law." African-American George W. Murray finally won in the disputed 1894 congressional election from this district; he challenged the Republican candidate's victory because of election fraud and was upheld by the House Committee on Elections. But passage of a new state constitution by Democrats in 1895 effectively disfranchised most African-American citizens in 1896. Their participation in the political system was ended for seven decades. The white Democrats established a one-party state and used various devices to maintain the exclusion of blacks until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.

Party realignments in the late 20th century resulted in many new black voters supporting the national Democratic Party. White conservatives in the South shifted and joined the Republican Party, in 1980 electing the first Republican congressman from the state to be elected in the 20th century. Since the buildup of the military in this region, especially the Navy, the area's white voters have supported conservative candidates.

Given the crippling of the Republican Party by the disfranchisement of blacks, a Republican was not elected to a full term in this district in the 20th century until 1980, when Tommy Hartnett was swept in by Reagan's coattails. But, his election represented a different party and was the result of a major realignment of white conservative voters in the late 20th century to the Republican, rather than the Democratic Party. Starting with national candidates in the late 1960s and 1970s, white voters in South Carolina began to shift to the Republican Party.

As after every decennial census, the state legislature conducted redistricting after the 1990 census. The white Republican-controlled legislature shifted most of Charleston's African-American majority areas into South Carolina's 6th congressional district, creating a majority-minority district. To make up for the loss of population, the 1st was extended all the way up the Atlantic coast to Myrtle Beach. The 2010 redistricting cut the district back to the southeastern corner of the state.

Since that time, the 1st congressional district has had a majority-white population. But, in 2008, with the appeal of the Barack Obama presidential campaign, Democrat Linda Ketner came within two points of winning the 1st district congressional seat. In the following off-year election of 2010, Republican Tim Scott, a conservative African American, won the seat with 65 percent of the vote.

During the 2018 South Carolina primaries on June 12, 2018, Mark Sanford lost re-nomination to the seat. The Republicans would go on to lose the seat to the Democrats after the district swung heavily to the Democrats in the 2018 midterm elections.

2013 special electionEdit

Tim Scott, a Republican from North Charleston, was elected as the 1st district's representative in 2010. He resigned after he was appointed by Governor Nikki Haley to the United States Senate when Jim DeMint resigned on January 1, 2013.

The district boundaries had been redrawn in 2011. A special election was held on May 7, 2013 to fill the vacancy created by Scott's resignation. In a Primary Election held on March 19, 2013, Elizabeth Colbert-Busch, the sister of comedian Stephen Colbert, won the Democratic nomination. Former Governor Mark Sanford, who represented the district from 1995 to 2001, and former Charleston County Councilman Curtis Eilliott Bostic faced each other in a runoff Primary for the Republican nomination on April 2, 2013. Sanford won the nomination, and defeated challengers Colbert-Busch and South Carolina Green Party candidate Eugene Platt in the special election on May 7.

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history Location
 
William L. Smith
Pro-Administration March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1795
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Elected in 1788.
Re-elected in 1790.
Re-elected in 1793.
Re-elected in 1794.
Re-elected in 1796.
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to Portugal.
1789–1793
"Charleston Division"
 
South Carolina congressional districts, 1789–1793
  1st district, Charleston
  2nd district, Beaufort-Orangeburg
  3rd district, Georgetown-Cheraw
  4th district, Camden
  5th district, Ninety-Six
1793–1833
"Charleston District"
Federalist March 4, 1795 –
July 10, 1797
Vacant July 10, 1797 –
November 23, 1797
 
Thomas Pinckney
Federalist November 23, 1797 –
March 3, 1801
5th
6th
Elected to finish Smith's term.
Re-elected in 1798.
Retired.
 
Thomas Lowndes
Federalist March 4, 1801 –
March 3, 1805
7th
8th
Elected in 1800.
Re-elected in 1803.
Retired.
Robert Marion Democratic-Republican March 4, 1805 –
December 4, 1810
9th
10th
11th
Elected in 1804.
Re-elected in 1806.
Re-elected in 1808.
Retired and then resigned.
Vacant December 4, 1810 –
December 31, 1810
 
Langdon Cheves
Democratic-Republican December 31, 1810 –
March 3, 1815
11th
12th
13th
Elected in 1810.
Later elected to finish Marion's term and seated January 24, 1811.
Re-elected in 1812.
Retired.
 
Henry Middleton
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1815 –
March 3, 1819
14th
15th
Elected in 1814.
Re-elected in 1816.
Retired.
 
Charles Pinckney
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1819 –
March 3, 1821
16th Elected in 1818.
Retired.
 
Joel R. Poinsett
Democratic-Republican[a] March 4, 1821 –
March 3, 1825
17th
18th
19th
Re-elected in 1820.
Re-elected in 1823.
Re-elected in 1824.
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to Mexico.
Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 7, 1825
Vacant March 7, 1825 –
May 17, 1825
19th
 
William Drayton
Jacksonian May 17, 1825 –
March 3, 1833
19th
20th
21st
22nd
Elected May 16, 1825 to finish Poinsett's term and seated December 5, 1825.
Re-elected in 1826.
Re-elected in 1828.
[data unknown/missing]
Henry L. Pinckney Nullifier March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
23rd
24th
[data unknown/missing] 1833–1843
[data unknown/missing]
 
Hugh S. Legaré
Democratic March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1839
25th [data unknown/missing]
Isaac E. Holmes Democratic March 4, 1839 –
March 3, 1843
26th
27th
[data unknown/missing]
Redistricted to the 6th district.
James A. Black Democratic March 4, 1843 –
April 3, 1848
28th
29th
30th
[data unknown/missing]
Died.
1843–1853
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant April 3, 1848 –
June 12, 1848
30th
 
Daniel Wallace
Democratic June 12, 1848 –
March 3, 1853
30th
31st
32nd
Elected to finish Black's term.
[data unknown/missing]
 
John McQueen
Democratic March 4, 1853 –
December 21, 1860
33rd
34th
35th
36th
Redistricted from the 4th district.
Retired.
1853–1863:
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant December 21, 1860 –
July 18, 1868
36th
37th
38th
39th
40th
Civil War and Reconstruction
1863–1873:
[data unknown/missing]
 
Benjamin F. Whittemore
Republican July 18, 1868 –
February 24, 1870
40th
41st
Elected to finish the short term.
Also elected to the next term.
Resigned.
Vacant February 24, 1870 –
December 12, 1870
41st
 
Joseph H. Rainey
Republican December 12, 1870 –
March 3, 1879
41st
42nd
43rd
44th
45th
Elected to finish Wittemore's term.
Lost re-election.
1873–1883:
[data unknown/missing]
 
John S. Richardson
Democratic March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1883
46th
47th
[data unknown/missing]
 
Samuel Dibble
Democratic March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1891
48th
49th
50th
51st
[data unknown/missing]
Retired.
1883–1893
[data unknown/missing]
 
William H. Brawley
Democratic March 4, 1891 –
February 12, 1894
52nd
53rd
Elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
Resigned to become U.S. District Judge.
1893–1903
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant February 12, 1894 –
April 12, 1894
53rd
James F. Izlar Democratic April 12, 1894 –
March 3, 1895
Elected to finish Brawley's term.
[data unknown/missing]
 
William Elliott
Democratic March 4, 1895 –
June 4, 1896
54th [data unknown/missing]
Lost election contest.
 
George W. Murray
Republican June 4, 1896 –
March 3, 1897
Won election contest.
[data unknown/missing]
 
William Elliott
Democratic March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
55th
56th
57th
[data unknown/missing]
 
George S. Legaré
Democratic March 4, 1903 –
January 31, 1913
58th
59th
60th
61st
62nd
[data unknown/missing]
Died.
1903–1913
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant January 31, 1913 –
April 29, 1913
62nd
63rd
 
1913–1933
Berkeley, Charleston, Clarendon, Colleton, and Dorchester Counties[3]
 
Richard S. Whaley
Democratic April 29, 1913 –
March 3, 1921
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Elected to finish Legaré's term.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Retired.
W. Turner Logan Democratic March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1925
67th
68th
Elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Lost renomination.
 
Thomas S. McMillan
Democratic March 4, 1925 –
September 29, 1939
69th
70th
71st
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
Elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Died.
1933–1943
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant September 29, 1939 –
November 7, 1939
76th
 
Clara Gooding McMillan
Democratic November 7, 1939 –
January 3, 1941
Elected to finish her husband's term.
Retired.
 
L. Mendel Rivers
Democratic January 3, 1941 –
December 28, 1970
77th
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
Elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Died.
1943–1953
[data unknown/missing]
1953–1963
[data unknown/missing]
1963–1973
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant December 28, 1970 –
April 27, 1971
 
Mendel Jackson Davis
Democratic April 27, 1971 –
January 3, 1981
92nd
93rd
94th
95th
96th
Elected to finish Rivers's term.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Retired for health reasons.
1973–1983
[data unknown/missing]
 
Thomas Hartnett
Republican January 3, 1981 –
January 3, 1987
97th
98th
99th
Elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Retired to run for Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina.
1983–1993
[data unknown/missing]
 
Arthur Ravenel Jr.
Republican January 3, 1987 –
January 3, 1995
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
Elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Retired to run for Governor of South Carolina.
1993–1995
[data unknown/missing]
 
Mark Sanford'
Republican January 3, 1995 –
January 3, 2001
104th
105th
106th
Elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Retired to run for Governor of South Carolina.
1995–2003
[data unknown/missing]
 
Henry Brown
Republican January 3, 2001 –
January 3, 2011
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
Elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Retired.
2003–2013
 
Tim Scott
Republican January 3, 2011 –
January 2, 2013
112th Elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012, but resigned when appointed U.S. Senator.
Vacant January 2, 2013 –
May 7, 2013
112th
113th
 
2013–present
 
Mark Sanford
Republican May 7, 2013 –
January 3, 2019
113th
114th
115th
Elected to finish Scott's term.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Lost renomination.
 
Joe Cunningham
Democratic January 3, 2019 –
present
116th Elected in 2018.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Supported the Jackson faction in the 1824 United States presidential election.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=45&cd=01
  2. ^ a b Melinda Meeks Hennessy, “Racial Violence During Reconstruction: The 1876 Riots in Charleston and Cainhoy”, South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 86, No. 2, (April 1985), 104-106 (subscription required)
  3. ^ "South Carolina". Official congressional directory. p. 103.

Coordinates: 33°24′N 79°13′W / 33.40°N 79.22°W / 33.40; -79.22