|45th President of the United States|
|Assumed office |
January 20, 2017
|Vice President||Mike Pence|
|Preceded by||Barack Obama|
Donald John Trump
June 14, 1946
Queens, New York City
|Political party||Republican (1987–1999, 2009–2011, 2012–present)|
|Education||The Wharton School (BS in Econ.)|
|Net worth||US$3.1 billion (March 2019)[a]|
|Awards||List of honors and awards|
Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens, and received a B.S. degree in economics from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He took charge of his family's real-estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded its operations from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. In the 1980s and 1990s, following setbacks in several highly leveraged real estate ventures, Trump diversified into various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion.
Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated 16 other candidates in the primaries. His political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. He was elected in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, although he lost the popular vote.[b] He became the oldest first-term U.S. president,[c] and the first one without prior military or government service. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Many of his comments and actions have also been characterized as racially charged or racist.
During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, which also rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge. He appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs triggering a trade war with China, and started negotiations with North Korea towards their denuclearization.
A special counsel investigation did not find sufficient evidence to establish criminal charges of conspiracy or coordination with Russia, but found that the Trump campaign welcomed the foreign interference under the belief that it was politically advantageous. Trump was also personally investigated for obstruction of justice and was neither indicted nor exonerated. In a July 2019 telephone call, Trump asked the president of Ukraine to investigate Hunter Biden, whose father Joe Biden is a potential rival presidential candidate for 2020. A whistleblower alleged that Trump had applied pressure by withholding military aid scheduled for Ukraine, and that the White House had tried to cover up Trump's request. In response, the House of Representatives initiated an an impeachment inquiry alleging abuse of office for political gain.
- 1 Family and personal life
- 2 Business career
- 3 Media career
- 4 Political career
- 4.1 Political activities up to 2015
- 4.2 2016 presidential campaign
- 4.3 Election to the presidency
- 4.4 Protests
- 4.5 2020 presidential campaign
- 5 Presidency
- 5.1 Early actions
- 5.2 Domestic policy
- 5.3 Immigration
- 5.4 Foreign policy
- 5.5 Personnel
- 5.6 Dismissal of James Comey
- 6 Public profile
- 7 Investigations
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Family and personal life
Early life and education
Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City. His father was Frederick Christ Trump, a Bronx-born real estate developer, whose own parents were German immigrants. His mother was Scottish-born housewife and socialite Mary Anne MacLeod Trump. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, and attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school. He excelled at sports. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University. Two years later he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at the family business, Elizabeth Trump & Son, graduating in May 1968 with a B.S. in economics. Profiles of Trump published in The New York Times in 1973 and 1976 erroneously reported that he had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, he had never made the school's honor roll.
While in college, Trump obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination, and in July 1968 a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was medically deferred and classified 1-Y (unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency). Trump's presidential campaign stated that he had minor bone spurs in both heels. In 1972, he was reclassified 4-F, which permanently disqualified him from service.
Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in the Bronx and started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15. Their company, "E. Trump & Son",[d] founded in 1923, was active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn, building and selling thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments. In spite of his German ancestry, Fred claimed to be Swedish amid the anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II; Trump repeated this claim until the 1990s. Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Scotland. Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens. Trump grew up with three elder siblings – Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth – and younger brother Robert.
In 1977, Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková. They have three children, Donald Jr. (born 1977), Ivanka (born 1981), and Eric (born 1984), and ten grandchildren. Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988. The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples. Maples and Trump married in 1993 and had one daughter, Tiffany (born 1993). They were divorced in 1999, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in California. In 2005, Trump married Slovenian model Melania Knauss. They have one son, Barron (born 2006). Melania gained United States citizenship in 2006.
Trump is a Presbyterian. As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, where he had his confirmation. In the 1970s, his parents joined the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, part of the Reformed Church. The pastor at Marble, Norman Vincent Peale, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993.
Trump says he is "not sure" whether he ever asked God for forgiveness: "If I do something wrong, I just try and make it right. I don't bring God into that picture." He tries to take Holy Communion as often as possible because it makes him "feel cleansed". While campaigning, Trump referred to The Art of the Deal as his second favorite book saying, "Nothing beats the Bible."
Trump has associations with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called his "closest spiritual confidant". In 2015, he released a list of religious advisers, which included James Dobson, Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, Michele Bachmann, and Robert Jeffress.
Health and lifestyle
Trump abstains from alcohol, a reaction to his older brother Fred Trump Jr.'s alcoholism and early death, and claims to have never smoked cigarettes or cannabis. He is known to enjoy eating fast food. He has said he prefers three to four hours of sleep per night.
In December 2015, Harold Bornstein, who had been Trump's personal physician since 1980, released a letter stating that he would "be the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency". In May 2018, Bornstein said Trump himself had dictated the contents of the December 2015 letter, and that Trump representatives had taken away his medical records in February 2017.
In January 2018, White House physician Ronny Jackson said Trump was in excellent health and that his cardiac assessment revealed no issues, although his weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended. In February 2019, after a new examination, White House physician Sean Conley said Trump was in "very good health overall", although he was clinically obese.
He has called golfing his "primary form of exercise", although he usually does not walk the course. He considers exercise a waste of energy, because he believes the body is "like a battery, with a finite amount of energy" which is depleted by exercise.
In 1982, Trump was listed on the initial Forbes List of wealthy individuals as having a share of his family's estimated $200 million net worth. His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995. In its 2019 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $3.1 billion[a] (715th in the world, 259th in the U.S.) making him one of the richest politicians in American history and the first billionaire American president. During the three years since Trump announced his presidential run in 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth declined 31% and his ranking fell 138 spots. When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth over $50 million, yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million. Trump stated in a 2007 deposition, "My net worth fluctuates, and it goes up and down with markets and with attitudes and with feelings, even my own feelings."
Journalist Jonathan Greenberg reported in April 2018 that Trump, using a pseudonym "John Barron", called him in 1984 to falsely assert he then owned "in excess of ninety percent" of the Trump family's business in an effort to secure a higher ranking on the Forbes 400 list of wealthy Americans. Greenberg also wrote that Forbes had vastly overestimated Trump's wealth and wrongly included him on the Forbes 400 rankings of 1982, 1983, and 1984.
Trump has often said he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father, and that he had to pay it back with interest. In October 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump "was a millionaire by age 8", borrowed at least $60 million from his father, largely failed to reimburse him, and had received $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father's business empire over his lifetime. According to the report, Trump and his family committed tax fraud, which a lawyer for Trump denied; the tax department of New York says it is "vigorously pursuing all appropriate avenues of investigation" into it. Analyses by The Economist and The Washington Post have concluded that Trump's investments underperformed the stock market. Forbes estimated in October 2018 that the value of Trump's personal brand licensing business had declined by 88% since 2015, to $3 million.
Trump's tax returns from 1985 to 1994 show net losses totaling $1.17 billion over the ten-year period, in contrast to his claims about his financial health and business abilities. The New York Times reported that "year after year, Mr. Trump appears to have lost more money than nearly any other individual American taxpayer", and Trump's "core business losses in 1990 and 1991 – more than $250 million each year – were more than double those of the nearest taxpayers in the I.R.S. information for those years". In 1995 his reported losses were $915.7 million.
Trump began his career in 1968 at his father Fred's real estate development company, E. Trump & Son, which owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs. He assisted his father in the attempted turnaround of the troubled Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, which the elder Trump had bought at foreclosure in 1964. In 1971, when his father promoted him to president of the family company, he renamed it The Trump Organization.
Trump attracted public attention in 1978 with the launch of his family's first Manhattan venture, the renovation of the derelict Commodore Hotel, adjacent to Grand Central Terminal. The financing was facilitated by a $400 million city property tax abatement arranged by Fred Trump, who also joined Hyatt in guaranteeing $70 million in bank construction financing. The hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel, and that same year, Trump obtained rights to develop Trump Tower, a mixed-use skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan. That building now houses Trump's primary residence and the headquarters of the Trump Organization.
In 1988, Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan with a loan of $425 million from a consortium of banks. Two years later, the hotel filed for bankruptcy protection, and a reorganization plan was approved in 1992. In 1995, Trump lost the hotel to Citibank and investors from Singapore and Saudi Arabia, who assumed $300 million of the debt.
In 1996, Trump acquired a vacant 71-story skyscraper at 40 Wall Street. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building. In the early 1990s, Trump won the right to develop a 70-acre tract in the Lincoln Square neighborhood near the Hudson River. Struggling with debt from other ventures in 1994, Trump sold most of his interest in the project to Asian investors who were able to finance completion of the project, Riverside South. Trump, along with other investors, retained an interest in adjacent properties that they sold in 2005 for $1.8 billion, at that time the biggest residential sale in New York City history.
Palm Beach estate
In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida. Trump used a wing of the estate as a home, while converting the remainder into a private club with an initiation fee and annual dues. The initiation fee was $100,000 until 2016; it was doubled to $200,000 in January 2017.
Atlantic City casinos
In 1984, Trump opened Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey with financing from the Holiday Corporation, who also managed the operation. Gambling had been legalized there in 1977 in an effort to revitalize the once-popular seaside destination. Soon after it opened the casino was renamed "Trump Plaza", but the property's poor financial results worsened tensions between Holiday and Trump, who paid Holiday $70 million in May 1986 to take sole control of the property. Earlier, Trump had also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million. Upon its completion in 1985, that hotel and casino was called Trump Castle. Trump's then-wife Ivana managed it until 1988.
Trump acquired a third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal, in 1988 in a highly leveraged transaction  It was financed with $675 million in junk bonds and completed at a cost of $1.1 billion, opening in April 1990.  The project went bankrupt the following year, and the reorganization left Trump with only half of his initial ownership stake and required him to pledge personal guarantees of future performance. Facing "enormous debt", he gave up control of his money-losing airline, Trump Shuttle, and sold his 282-foot (86 m) mega yacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.
In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary, Indiana. THCR purchased the Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent successive bankruptcies in 2004, 2009, and 2014, leaving Trump with only a ten percent ownership stake. He remained chairman of THCR until 2009.
As of December 2016[update], the Trump Organization owns or operates 18 golf course and golf resorts in the United States and abroad. According to Trump's FEC personal financial disclosure, his 2015 golf and resort revenue amounted to $382 million, while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.
Trump began acquiring and constructing golf courses in 1999; his first property was the Trump International Golf Club, West Palm Beach in Florida. By 2007, he owned four courses around the U.S. Following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, he began purchasing existing golf courses and re-designing them. His use of these courses during his presidency was controversial. Despite frequently criticizing his predecessor Barack Obama for his numerous golf outings, Trump golfed eleven times during his first eight weeks in office. He visited one of his golf resorts on 187 of his first 848 days in office, 22 percent of the time.
Branding and licensing
After the many bankruptcies involving its properties in the 1990s, The Trump Organization refocused its business on branding, management and licensing the Trump name for projects owned and operated by others that do not require capital investment by Trump. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, it licensed the Trump brand to The Trump Organization and expanded its footprint beyond New York with the branding and management of various developers' hotel towers around the world. These included projects in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City, Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-branded buildings in Dubai, Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.
The Trump name has also been licensed for various consumer products and services, including the short-lived Cadillac Trump Series, foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings. According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than fifty licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies. By 2018 only two consumer goods companies continued to license his name.
Lawsuits and bankruptcies
As of April 2018[update], Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today. As of 2016[update], he or one of his companies had been the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.
Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy. His hotel and casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds. Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt. The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).
During the 1980s, more than seventy banks had lent Trump $4 billion, but in the aftermath of his corporate bankruptcies of the early 1990s, most major banks declined to lend to him, with a notable exception of Deutsche Bank.
In April 2019, the House Oversight Committee (HOC) issued subpoenas seeking financial details from Trump's banks, Deutsche Bank and Capital One, and his accounting firm, Mazars USA. In response, Trump sued the banks, Mazars, and HOC chairman Elijah Cummings to prevent the disclosures. In May, DC District Court judge Amit Mehta ruled that Mazars must comply with the subpoena, and judge Edgardo Ramos of the Southern District Court of New York ruled that the banks must also comply. Trump's attorneys appealed the rulings, arguing that Congress was attempting to usurp the "exercise of law-enforcement authority that the Constitution reserves to the executive branch".
After taking over control of the Trump Organization in 1971, Trump expanded its real estate operations and ventured into other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.
In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals – an American football team that played in the United States Football League (USFL). After the 1985 season, the league folded largely due to Trump's strategy of moving games to a fall schedule where they competed with the NFL for audience, and trying to force a merger with the NFL by bringing an antitrust lawsuit against the organization.
Trump's businesses have hosted several boxing matches at the Atlantic City Convention Hall adjacent to and promoted as taking place at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, including Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael Spinks. In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia.
In 1988, Trump founded Trump Shuttle, purchasing 21 planes and landing rights at three airports in New York City, Boston, and the Washington, D.C., area, from the defunct Eastern Air Lines, costing $380 million financed from 22 banks. The airline offered charter services in addition to scheduled shuttle flights, and was eventually sold to USAir Group in 1992 after failing to operate at a profit.
From 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe pageants, including Miss USA and Miss Teen USA. Due to disagreements with CBS about scheduling, he took both pageants to NBC in 2002. In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work as producer of Miss Universe. In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization, and sold the entire company to the William Morris talent agency.
In 2004, Trump co-founded a company called Trump University that sold real estate training courses priced at between $1,500 and $35,000. After New York State authorities twice notified the company that its use of the word "university" violated state law, its name was changed to the "Trump Entrepreneurial Institute" in 2010.
In 2013, the State of New York filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers. In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court; they named Trump personally as well as his companies. Internal documents of the company revealed that employees were instructed to use a hard-sell approach, and former employees said in depositions that Trump University had defrauded or lied to its students. Shortly after he won the presidency, Trump agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases and agreed to pay a total of $25 million. New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman called the settlement and payment "a stunning reversal by Donald Trump and a major victory for the over 6,000 victims of his fraudulent university." Trump denied any wrongdoing.
The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal. The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump, who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.
The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. In 2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about forty groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000). From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of WWE, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007.
In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion. Also in 2016, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the Trump Foundation that the foundation appeared to be in violation of New York laws regarding charities, ordering it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York. A Trump spokesman called the Attorney General's investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with [his] role as President". According to an IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intended to shut down and distribute its assets (about $970,000) to other charities. However, the New York Attorney General's office had to complete their ongoing investigation before the foundation could legally shut down, and in June 2018 they filed a civil suit against the foundation for $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties. The suit names Trump himself as well as his adult children Donald Jr., Eric, and Ivanka.
In December 2018, the foundation agreed to cease operation and disburse all its assets. Attorney General Barbara Underwood, who oversaw the investigation and lawsuit, said the investigation uncovered a "shocking pattern of illegality".
Conflicts of interest
Before being inaugurated as president, Trump moved his businesses into a revocable trust run by his eldest sons and a business associate. According to ethics experts, as long as Trump continues to profit from his businesses, the measures taken by Trump do not help to avoid conflicts of interest. Because Trump would have knowledge of how his administration's policies would affect his businesses, ethics experts recommend that Trump sell off his businesses. While Trump has said his organization would eschew "new foreign deals", the Trump Organization has since pursued expansions of its operations in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic. Multiple lawsuits have been filed alleging that Trump is violating the emoluments clause of the United States Constitution, which forbids presidents from taking money from foreign governments, due to his business interests; they argue that these interests allow foreign governments to influence him. Previous presidents in the modern era have either divested their holdings or put them in blind trusts, and he is the first president to be sued over the emoluments clause. According to The Guardian, "NBC News recently calculated that representatives of at least 22 foreign governments – including some facing charges of corruption or human rights abuses such as Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Turkey and the Philippines – seem to have spent funds at Trump properties while he has been president."
In 2015, Trump said that he "makes a lot of money with" the Saudis and that "they pay me millions and hundreds of millions." And at a political rally, Trump said about Saudi Arabia: "They buy apartments from me. They spend $40 million, $50 million. Am I supposed to dislike them? I like them very much."
In December 2015, Trump stated in a radio interview that he had a "conflict of interest" in dealing with Turkey and Turkish president Tayyip Erdoğan because of his Trump Towers Istanbul, saying "I have a little conflict of interest because I have a major, major building in Istanbul and it's a tremendously successful job ... It's called Trump Towers — two towers instead of one ... I've gotten to know Turkey very well".
Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987 was Trump: The Art of the Deal, in which he is credited as co-author with Tony Schwartz, who has said he did all the writing. It reached the top of the New York Times Best Seller list, stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list for 48 weeks. According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful dealmaker and tycoon." Trump's published writings shifted post-2000 from stylized memoirs to financial tips and political opinion.
Trump has had a sporadic relationship with professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment since the late 1980s; in 1988 and 1989, WrestleMania IV and V, which took place at the Atlantic City Convention Hall, was billed as taking place at the nearby Trump Plaza. He has appeared in several WWE storylines, including a scripted feud with WWE owner Vince McMahon leading into a proxy hair match at WrestleMania 23 in 2007 and a storyline in 2009 in which Trump "bought" and later "sold" Monday Night Raw. In 2013, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame as part of the weekend festivities surrounding WrestleMania 29. McMahon and his wife Linda – who later served under President Trump as the Administrator of the Small Business Administration – have also made donations to Trump's endeavors, including a combined total of $5 million to the Donald Trump Foundation after Trump's WWE appearances in 2007 and 2009, and $6 million to his presidential campaign in 2016.
In July 2017, Trump posted an altered video clip with the hashtag "FraudNewsCnn" to his personal Twitter account. The clip, which was retweeted by the official @POTUS Twitter account, showed him at WrestleMania 23 seeming to knock McMahon to the ground and punch him; in the edited version, a CNN logo is superimposed on McMahon's head. Following months of Trump attacking the media and particularly CNN as "fake news" and "enemies of the people", the tweet was criticized as appearing to incite violence against journalists.
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a one-year management job with the Trump Organization; applicants were successively eliminated from the game with the catchphrase "You're fired." He later co-hosted The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities.
In February 2015, Trump said he was "not ready" to sign on for another season of the show because of the possibility of a presidential run. Despite this, NBC announced production of a 15th season. In June, NBCUniversal announced the end of their deal, citing "recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants" in his announcement of his presidential campaign.
Trump has made cameo appearances in twelve films and 14 television series, including as the father of one of the characters in The Little Rascals. He performed a song with Megan Mullally at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2005. Trump receives a pension as a member of the Screen Actors Guild. His financial disclosure forms mentioned an annual pension of $110,000 in 2016 and $85,000 in 2017.
Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show, but he has made no appearances since he became president. He also had his own short-form talk radio program called Trumped! (one to two minutes on weekdays) from 2004 to 2008. In 2011, he was given a weekly unpaid guest commentator spot on Fox & Friends that continued until he started his presidential candidacy in 2015.
Political activities up to 2015
Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times. He registered as a Republican in Manhattan in 1987, switched to the Reform Party in 1999, the Democratic Party in 2001, and back to the Republican Party in 2009. He made donations to both the Democratic and the Republican parties, party committees, and candidates until 2010 when he stopped donating to Democrats and increased his donations to Republicans considerably.
In 1987, Trump spent $94,801 (equivalent to $209,068 in 2018) to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, proclaiming "America should stop paying to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves." The advertisements also advocated for "reducing the budget deficit, working for peace in Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union." After rumors of a presidential run, Trump was invited by then U.S. senator John Kerry (Democrat from Massachusetts), House speaker Jim Wright of Texas, and Arkansas congressman Beryl Anthony Jr. to host a fundraising dinner for Democratic congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony told The New York Times that "the message Trump has been preaching is a Democratic message." Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump denied being a candidate, but said, "I believe that if I did run for President, I'd win." According to a Gallup poll in December 1988, Trump was the tenth most admired man in America.
2000 presidential campaign
In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election. A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support. Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but still went on to win the Reform Party primaries in California and Michigan. After his run, he left the party due to the involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani. He also considered running for president in 2004. In 2005, Trump said he had voted for George W. Bush. In 2008, he endorsed Republican John McCain for president.
2012 presidential speculation
Trump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012 election, and made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party. On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election. In February 2012, Trump endorsed Mitt Romney for president.
Trump's presidential ambitions were generally not taken seriously at the time. Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice. Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump "accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world" after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in April 2011.
In 2011, according to Evan Jones, the headmaster of the New York Military Academy at the time, the then-superintendent Jeffrey Coverdale had demanded Trump's academic records, to hand them over to "prominent, wealthy alumni of the school who were Mr. Trump's friends" at their request. Coverdale said he had refused to hand over Trump's records to trustees of the school, and instead sealed Trump's records on campus. Jones stated: "It was the only time in my education career that I ever heard of someone's record being removed," while Coverdale further said: "It's the only time I ever moved an alumnus's records." The incident reportedly happened days after Trump demanded President Barack Obama's academic records.
In 2013, Trump was a featured CPAC speaker. In a sparsely-attended speech, he railed against illegal immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested that the government "take" Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers. He spent over $1 million that year to research a possible 2016 candidacy.
In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship. A February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election.
Trump's former personal lawyer Michael Cohen revealed during a congressional hearing that Trump had instructed him to threaten schools he attended not to release Trump's academic records, including Fordham University and the New York Military Academy. Cohen provided copies of a May 2015 letter threatening Fordham University with civil and criminal actions if any were released without Trump's permission which Fordham University confirmed receiving. A former dean of academics at the New York Military Academy, Mika Saarela, also acknowledged receiving a similar letter.
2016 presidential campaign
On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump discussed illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt, and Islamic terrorism, which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan: "Make America Great Again". Trump said his wealth would make him immune to pressure from campaign donors. He declared that he was funding his own campaign, but according to The Atlantic, "Trump's claims of self-funding have always been dubious at best and actively misleading at worst."
In the primaries, Trump was one of seventeen candidates vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American history. Trump's campaign was initially not taken seriously by political analysts, but he quickly rose to the top of opinion polls.
On Super Tuesday, Trump won the plurality of the vote, and he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump was poised to win the Republican nomination. After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016 – which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns – RNC chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee.
General election campaign
After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump shifted his focus to the general election. Trump began campaigning against Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016.
Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy.
On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. Four days later, the two were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention. The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the other prior nominees did not attend.
On September 26, 2016, Trump and Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate, which was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York. The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The beginning of that debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of Trump making sexually explicit comments, which Trump countered by referring to alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the debate, Trump had invited four women who had accused Bill Clinton of impropriety to a press conference. The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy.
Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. During the campaign Trump repeatedly called NATO "obsolete".
His political positions have been described as populist, and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation, consistent with Republican Party policies, along with significant infrastructure investment, usually considered a Democratic Party policy. According to political writer Jack Shafer, Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.
Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time. Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign.
In his campaign, Trump said he disdained political correctness; he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias. In part due to his fame, and due to his willingness to say things other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is gaining ground automatically provides a compelling news story, Trump received an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.
Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of false statements compared to other candidates. At least four major publications – Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times – have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements, with the Los Angeles Times saying that "Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has". NPR said Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive.
Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and where puffery abounds. Trump adopted his ghostwriter's phrase "truthful hyperbole" to describe his public speaking style.
Support from the far right
According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream. During his presidential campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists. He retweeted open racists, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists. Duke himself enthusiastically supported Trump throughout the 2016 primary and election, and has stated that he and like-minded people voted for Trump because of his promises to "take our country back".
After repeated questioning by reporters, Trump said he disavowed David Duke and the KKK. Trump said on MSNBC's Morning Joe: "I disavowed him. I disavowed the KKK. Do you want me to do it again for the 12th time? I disavowed him in the past, I disavow him now."
The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration. Members of the alt-right enthusiastically supported Trump's campaign. In August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon – the executive chairman of Breitbart News – as his campaign CEO; Bannon described Breitbart News as "the platform for the alt-right". In an interview days after the election, Trump condemned supporters who celebrated his victory with Nazi salutes.
As a presidential candidate, Trump disclosed details of his companies, assets, and revenue sources to the extent required by the FEC. His 2015 report listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $265 million. The 2016 form showed little change.
Trump has not release his tax returns, contrary to usual practice by every candidate since 1976 and his promise in 2014 to do so if he ran for office. He said his tax returns were being audited, and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them. Trump has told the press his tax rate was none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible".
In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times. They show that Trump declared a loss of $916 million that year, which could have let him avoid taxes for up to 18 years. During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied.
On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MSNBC. The document states that Trump had a gross adjusted income of $150 million and paid $38 million in federal taxes. The White House confirmed the authenticity of the documents.
On April 3, 2019, the House Ways and Means Committee made a formal request to the Internal Revenue Service for Trump's personal and business tax returns from 2013 to 2018, setting a deadline of April 10. That day, Treasury secretary Steven Mnuchin stated the deadline would not be met, and the deadline was extended to April 23, which also was not honored, and on May 6 Mnuchin said the request would be denied. On May 10, 2019, committee chairman Richard Neal subpoenaed the Treasury Department and the IRS for the returns and seven days later the subpoenas were defied. A fall 2018 draft IRS legal memo asserted that Trump must provide his tax returns to Congress unless he invokes executive privilege, contradicting the administration's justification for defying the earlier subpoena. Mnuchin asserted the memo actually addressed a different matter.
Election to the presidency
On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides. Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote.[e] Clinton was ahead nationwide by 2.1 percentage points, with 65,853,514 votes (48.18%) to 62,984,828 votes (46.09%); neither candidate reached a majority.
Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset by most observers, as polls had consistently showed Hillary Clinton with a nationwide – though diminishing – lead, as well as a favorable advantage in most of the competitive states. Trump's support had been modestly underestimated throughout his campaign, and many observers blamed errors in polls, partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters. The polls were relatively accurate, but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite a large number of undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states.
Trump won 30 states, including Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been considered a blue wall of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and the District of Columbia. Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with control of both chambers of Congress.
Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after adjusting for inflation, and the oldest person to take office as president. He is also the first president who did not serve in the military or hold elective or appointed government office prior to being elected. Of the 43[f] previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not held elective office but had served in the Cabinet, and three had never held public office but had been commanding generals.
Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice versa both inside and outside the venues. Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that these were "professional protesters, incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country."
In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which gathered 2,600,000 people worldwide, including 500,000 in Washington alone. Moreover, marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just nine days after his inauguration.
2020 presidential campaign
Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency. This transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one. Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a rally in Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office. By January 2018, Trump's reelection committee had $22 million in hand, and it had raised a total amount exceeding $67 million as of December 2018[update]. $23 million were spent in the fourth quarter of 2018, as Trump supported various Republican candidates for the 2018 midterm elections.
Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. During his first week in office, he signed six executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, unlocking the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, reinforcing border security, and beginning the planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border with Mexico.
Upon inauguration, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his sons Eric and Don Jr. His daughter Ivanka resigned from the Trump Organization and moved to Washington, D.C., with her husband Jared Kushner. She serves as an assistant to the President, and he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.
Economy and trade
The economic expansion that began in June 2009 continued through Trump's first three years in office. Throughout his presidency, he has repeatedly and falsely characterized the economy as the best in American history.
In December 2017, Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax credit, doubled the estate tax exemption to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000.
Trump is a skeptic of multilateral trade deals, as he believes they indirectly incentivize unfair trade practices that then tend to go unpoliced. He favors bilateral trade deals, as they allow one party to pull out if the other party is believed to be behaving unfairly. Trump favors neutral or positive balances of trade over negative balances of trade, also known as a "trade deficit". Trump adopted his current skeptical views toward trade liberalization in the 1980s, and he sharply criticized NAFTA during the Republican primary campaign in 2015. He withdrew the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations, imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum imports, and launched a trade war with China by sharply increasing tariffs on 818 categories (worth $50 billion) of Chinese goods imported into the U.S. On several occasions, Trump has said incorrectly that these import tariffs are paid by China into the U.S. Treasury.
Energy and climate
Since his election Trump has made large budget cuts to programs that research renewable energy and has rolled back Obama-era policies directed at curbing climate change and limiting environmental pollution. In June 2017, Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, making the U.S. the only nation in the world to not ratify the agreement. Trump attended the 44th G7 summit held in Canada in 2018 and the 45th G7 summit held in France in 2019, but he skipped the discussions related to the environment and climate. He held a press conference following the 2019 summit in which he said that he is "an environmentalist" adding, "I think I know more about the environment than most people."
Government size and deregulation
Trump's early policies have favored rollback and dismantling of government regulations. He signed a Congressional Review Act disapproval resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall. During his first six weeks in office, he delayed, suspended or reversed ninety federal regulations.
On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze, except for those working in certain areas. Unlike some past freezes, it barred agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving. The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs. The hiring freeze was lifted in April 2017.
A week later Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue. Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups.
During his campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA or "Obamacare"). Shortly after taking office, he urged Congress to repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the House of Representatives voted to repeal it. Over the course of several months' effort, however, the Senate was unable to pass any version of a repeal bill. Trump has expressed a desire to "let Obamacare fail", and the Trump administration has cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment. The tax reform Trump signed into law at the end of his first year in office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate that was a major element of the Obamacare health insurance system; this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.
Trump favored modifying the 2016 Republican platform opposing abortion, to allow for exceptions in cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. He has said he is committed to appointing pro-life justices. He says he personally supports "traditional marriage" but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue. Despite the statement by Trump and the White House saying they would keep in place a 2014 executive order from the Obama administration which created federal workplace protections for LGBT people, in March 2017, the Trump administration rolled back key components of the Obama administration's workplace protections for LGBT people.
Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general, although his views have shifted over time. Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana. He favors capital punishment, as well as the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods.
Trump's proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for it. He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies". He said deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security threats. As president, he frequently described illegal immigration as an "invasion" and conflated immigrants with the gang MS-13, even though research shows undocumented immigrants have a lower crime rate than native-born Americans.
Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a "proven history of terrorism".
On January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning and took effect immediately. Confusion and protests caused chaos at airports. Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, which she deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional; Trump immediately dismissed her. Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its implementation nationwide. On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed priorities for Christian minorities. Again federal judges in three states blocked its implementation. On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States".
The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, along with certain Venezuelan officials. After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June 2019 ruling.
In September 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that DACA would be repealed after six months. Trump argued that "top legal experts" believed DACA was unconstitutional, and called on Congress to use the six-month delay to pass legislation solving the "Dreamers" issue permanently. As of March 2018[update], when the delay expired, no legislation had been agreed on DACA. Several states immediately challenged the DACA rescission in court. Two injunctions in January and February 2018 allowed renewals of applications and stopped the rolling back of DACA, and in April 2018 a federal judge ordered the acceptance of new applications. In August 2018, United States District Judge Andrew Hanen of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas ruled that DACA is likely unconstitutional, but left the program in place as litigation proceeds.
Family separation at border
In April 2018, Trump enacted a "zero tolerance" immigration policy that temporarily took adults irregularly entering the U.S. into custody for criminal prosecution and forcibly separated children from parents, eliminating the policy of previous administrations, which had made exceptions for families with children. By mid-June, more than 2,300 children had been placed in shelters, including Department of Health and Human Services-designated "tender age" shelters for children under thirteen, culminating in demands from Democrats, Republicans, Trump allies, and religious groups that the policy be rescinded. Trump falsely asserted that his administration was merely following the law. On June 20, Trump signed an executive order to end family separations at the U.S. border. On June 26 a federal judge in San Diego issued a preliminary injunction requiring the Trump administration to stop detaining immigrant parents separately from their minor children, and to reunite family groups who had been separated at the border.
2018–2019 federal government shutdown
On December 22, 2018, the federal government was partially shut down after Trump declared that any funding extension must include $5.6 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall to partly fulfill his campaign promise. The shutdown was caused by a lapse in funding for nine federal departments, affecting about one-fourth of federal government activities. Trump said he would not accept any bill that does not include funding for the wall, and Democrats, who control the House, said they would not support any bill that does. Senate Republicans have said they will not advance any legislation that Trump would not sign. In earlier negotiations with Democratic leaders, Trump commented that he would be "proud to shut down the government for border security".
Trump has been described as a non-interventionist and as an American nationalist. In 2019, Trump gave a speech at the UN General Assembly calling for world leaders to look after their own interests. He has repeatedly said he supports an "America First" foreign policy. He supports increasing United States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region. He says America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs.
His foreign policy has been marked by repeated praise and support of authoritarian strongmen and criticism of democratically-led governments. Trump has cited China's president Xi Jinping, Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Turkey's president Tayyip Erdoğan, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Italy's prime minister Giuseppe Conte, Brazil's president Jair Bolsonaro and Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán as examples of good leaders. Trump has also praised Poland under the EU-skeptic, anti-immigrant Law and Justice party (PiS) as a defender of Western civilization.
ISIS and foreign wars
In April 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack. According to investigative journalist Bob Woodward, Trump had ordered his defense secretary James Mattis to assassinate Syrian president Bashar al-Assad after the chemical attack, but Mattis declined; Trump denied doing so. In April 2018, he announced missile strikes against Assad's regime, following a suspected chemical attack near Damascus.
In December 2018, Trump declared "we have won against ISIS," and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria, contradicting Department of Defense assessments. Mattis resigned the next day over disagreements in foreign policy, calling this decision an abandonment of Kurd allies who had played a key role in fighting ISIS. One week after his announcement, Trump said he would not approve any extension of the American deployment in Syria. On January 6, 2019, national security advisor John Bolton announced America would remain in Syria until ISIS is eradicated and Turkey guaranteed it would not strike America's Kurdish allies.
Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia. Trump also praised his relationship with Saudi Arabia's powerful Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman.
U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan increased from 8,500 to 14,000, as of January 2017[update]. reversing Trump's pre-election position critical of further involvement in Afghanistan. U.S. officials said then that they aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in January 2018, however, Trump spoke against talks with the Taliban.
In October 2019, after Trump spoke to Turkish president Tayyip Erdoğan, the White House acknowledged that Turkey would be carrying out a planned military offensive into northern Syria; as such, U.S. troops in northern Syria were withdrawn from the area to avoid interference with that operation. The statement also passed responsibility for the area's captured ISIS fighters to Turkey. In the following days, Trump suggested that the Kurds intentionally released ISIS prisoners in order to gain sympathy, suggested that they were only fighting for their own financial interests, suggested that some of them were worse than ISIS, and termed them "no angels". 
Congress members of both parties denounced the move, including Republican allies of Trump such as Senator Lindsey Graham. They argued that the move betrayed the American-allied Kurds, and would benefit ISIS, Turkey, Russia, Iran, and Bashar al-Assad's Syrian regime. Trump defended the move, citing the high cost of supporting the Kurds, and the lack of support from the Kurds in past U.S. wars. After the U.S. pullout, Turkey proceeded to attack Kurdish-controlled areas in northeastern Syria. On October 16, the United States House of Representatives, in a rare bipartisan vote of 354 to 60, "condemned" Trump's withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria, for, in the view of both parties, "abandoning U.S. allies, undermining the struggle against ISIS, and spurring a humanitarian catastrophe".
Trump has described the regime in Iran as "the rogue regime". He has repeatedly criticized the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or "Iran nuclear deal") that was negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015, calling it "terrible" and saying the Obama administration had negotiated the agreement "from desperation". At one point Trump said that, despite opposing the content of the deal, he would attempt to enforce it rather than abrogate it.
Following Iran's ballistic missile tests on January 29, 2017, the Trump administration imposed sanctions on 25 Iranian individuals and entities in February 2017. Trump reportedly lobbied "dozens" of European officials against doing business with Iran during the May 2017 Brussels summit; this likely violated the terms of the JCPOA, under which the U.S. may not pursue "any policy specifically intended to directly and adversely affect the normalization of trade and economic relations with Iran". The Trump administration certified in July 2017 that Iran had upheld its end of the agreement. On August 2, 2017, Trump signed into law the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) that grouped together sanctions against Iran, Russia, and North Korea. On May 18, 2018, Trump announced the unilateral departure of the U.S. from the JCPOA.
In May 2017, strained relations between the U.S. and Iran escalated when Trump deployed military bombers and a carrier group to the Persian Gulf. Trump hinted at war on social media, provoking a response from Iran for what Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif called "genocidal taunts". Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman are allies in the conflict with Iran. Trump has approved the deployment of additional U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates following the attack on Saudi oil facilities which the United States has blamed on Iran.
Trump has supported the policies of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. On May 22, 2017, he was the first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip. Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and warnings from world leaders. He subsequently opened a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem in May 2018. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the move, adopting a resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem". In March 2019, Trump reversed decades of U.S. policy by recognizing Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights, a move condemned by the European Union and Arab League.
Before and during his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused China of taking unfair advantage of the U.S. During his presidency, Trump has launched a trade war against China, sanctioned Huawei for its alleged ties to Iran, significantly increased visa restrictions on Chinese nationality students and scholars and classified China as a "currency manipulator". In the wake of the significant deterioration of relations, many political observers have warned against a new cold war between China and the U.S.
Nuclear and missile tests conducted by North Korea in 2017 indicated that its nuclear weapons were a serious threat to the United States. In August, Trump dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that further provocation against the U.S. would be met with "fire and fury like the world has never seen". In response, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un threatened to direct the country's next missile test toward Guam.
On June 12, 2018, Trump and Kim held their first summit in Singapore, resulting in North Korea affirming its April 2018 promise to South Korea to work toward complete denuclearization. Six months later, North Korea said they would not cease their nuclear weapons program until the U.S. removed its nuclear threat from the Korean peninsula and the surrounding areas. A second summit took place in February 2019, in Hanoi, Vietnam. It ended abruptly without an agreement, both sides blaming each other and offering differing accounts of the negotiations. On June 30, 2019, Trump and Kim held brief talks at the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), along with South Korean president Moon Jae-in, marking the first time a sitting U.S. president had set foot on North Korean soil. They agreed to resume negotiations "in the coming weeks".
On October 6, 2019, the North Korean Foreign Ministry announced that it was withdrawing from negotiations calling them sickening and stating theat "The U.S. has actually not made any preparations for the negotiations but sought to meet its political goal of abusing the D.P.R.K.-U.S. dialogue for its domestic political interests".
During his campaign and as president, Trump repeatedly said he wants better relations with Russia, and he has praised Russian president Vladimir Putin as a strong leader. He also said Russia could help the U.S. in its fight against ISIS. According to Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.
After Trump met Putin at the Helsinki Summit on July 16, 2018, Trump drew bipartisan criticism for siding with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community.
Trump has made both pro- and anti-Russia statements regarding Crimea, Syria, Ukraine, North Korea, Venezuela, election meddling, and Skripal poisoning. Trump also said U.S. oil companies, including Exxon Mobil, cannot resume oil drilling in Russia.
In November 2017, the Trump administration tightened the rules on trade with Cuba and individual visits to the county, undoing the Obama administration's loosening of restrictions. According to an administration official, the new rules were intended to hinder trade with businesses with ties to the Cuban military, intelligence and security services.
On August 11, 2017, Trump said he is "not going to rule out a military option" to confront the government of Nicolás Maduro. In September 2018, Trump called "for the restoration of democracy in Venezuela" and said that "socialism has bankrupted the oil-rich nation and driven its people into abject poverty." On January 23, 2019, Maduro announced that Venezuela was breaking ties with the United States following Trump's announcement of recognizing Juan Guaidó, the Venezuelan opposition leader, as the interim president of Venezuela.
As a candidate, Trump questioned whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members, and suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance. As president, he reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO in March 2017. However, he has repeatedly accused fellow NATO members of paying less than their fair share of the expenses of the alliance.
In January 2019, The New York Times quoted senior administration officials as saying Trump has privately suggested on multiple occasions that the United States should withdraw from NATO. The next day Trump said the United States is going to "be with NATO one hundred percent" but repeated that the other countries have to "step up" and pay more.
The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned. As of early July 2018[update], 61 percent of Trump's senior aides had left and 141 staffers had left in the past year. Both figures set a record for recent presidents – more change in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two years. Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Mike Flynn (after just 25 days in office), Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, replaced by retired Marine general John F. Kelly on July 28, 2017, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close personal aides to Trump such as Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee and Keith Schiller, have quit or been forced out.
Trump's cabinet nominations included U.S. senator from Alabama Jeff Sessions as Attorney General, financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury, retired Marine Corps general James Mattis as Secretary of Defense, and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State. Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, such as neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and South Carolina governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations.
Two of Trump's 15 original cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy. EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt resigned in July 2018 amidst multiple investigations into his conduct, while Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke resigned five months later as he also faced multiple investigations.
Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying that many of the positions are unnecessary. As of October 2017[update], there were hundreds of sub-cabinet positions without a nominee. By January 8, 2019, of 706 key positions, 433 had been filled (61%) and Trump had no nominee for 264 (37%).
Dismissal of James Comey
On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI director James Comey. He first attributed this action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein, which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails. On May 11, Trump said he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing" and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier, regardless of DOJ advice.
According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into Michael Flynn. In March and April, Trump had told Comey the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation. He also asked intelligence chiefs Dan Coats and Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election. Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal. Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself.
Presidential approval polls taken during the first ten months of Trump's term have shown him to be the least popular U.S. president in the history of modern opinion polls. A Pew Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a median of just 22 percent has confidence in Trump to do the right thing when it comes to international affairs". This compares to a median of 64 percent rate of confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama. Trump received a higher rating in only two countries: Russia and Israel. An August 2017 Politico/Morning Consult poll found on some measures "that majorities of voters have low opinions of his character and competence". By December 2018, Trump's approval ratings, averaged over many polls, stood at roughly 42%, two points below Obama's at the same time in his presidency, and one point above Ronald Reagan's. Trump's two-year average Gallup approval rating was the lowest of any president since World War II.
Trump is the only elected president who did not place first on Gallup's poll of Americans' most admired men in his first year in office, coming in second behind Obama. The Gallup poll near the end of Trump's second year in office named him the second most admired man in America – behind Obama – for the fourth consecutive year.
As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers; academics and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. This trait of his was similarly observed when he was a presidential candidate. His falsehoods have also become a distinctive part of his political identity.
Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office, according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office, according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post. By the Post's tally, it took Trump 601 days to reach 5,000 false or misleading statements and another 226 days to reach the 10,000 mark. For the seven weeks leading up to the midterm elections, it rose to an average of thirty per day from 4.9 during his first hundred days in office. The Post's reported tally is 13,435 as of October 9, 2019.
Trump has made numerous comments and taken certain actions that have been characterized as racially charged or racist, both by those within the U.S. and by those abroad. Trump has repeatedly denied he is a racist. Many of his supporters say the way he speaks reflects his general rejection of political correctness, while others accept it simply because they share such beliefs.
Several studies and surveys have found that racist attitudes fueled Trump's political ascendance and have been more important than economic factors in determining the allegiance of Trump voters. In a June 2018 Quinnipiac University poll, 49 percent of respondents believed he was racist, while 47 percent believed he was not. Additionally, 55 percent said he "has emboldened people who hold racist beliefs to express those beliefs publicly". Trump has asserted "I am the least racist person there is anywhere in the world."
In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters. He has also been accused of racism for insisting a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger case, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. He maintained his position on the matter into 2019.
Trump launched his political career in 2011 as a leading proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama, the first black U.S. president, was born in Kenya. In April 2011, Trump claimed credit for pushing the White House to publish the "long-form" birth certificate, which he considered fraudulent, and later stated that his stance had made him "very popular". In September 2016, he acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S.
According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly, Trump made "explicitly racist appeals to whites" during his 2016 presidential campaign. In particular, his campaign launch speech drew widespread criticism for saying Mexican immigrants were "bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists". His later comments about a Mexican-American judge presiding over a civil suit regarding Trump University were also criticized as racist.
In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation, he reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African nations as "shithole countries". His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress.
In July 2019, Trump tweeted that four Democratic members of Congress – all of whom are women of color and three of whom are native-born Americans – should "go back" to the countries they came from. Two days later the House of Representatives voted 240–187, mostly along party lines, to condemn his "racist comments". White nationalist publications and social media sites praised his remarks, which continued over the following days.
Allegations of sexual misconduct
Twenty-two women have publicly accused Trump of sexual misconduct as of June 2019[update]. There were allegations of rape, violence, being kissed and groped without consent, looking under women's skirts, and walking in on naked women. In 2016, he denied all accusations, calling them "false smears", and alleged there was a conspiracy against him.
In October 2016, two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was recorded bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women. The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the tape, Trump said: "I just start kissing them ... I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy." During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily".
Trump's language on the tape has been described as vulgar, sexist, and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident's widespread media exposure led to Trump's first public apology during the campaign, and caused outrage across the political spectrum, resulting in a group of GOP senators and representatives withdrawing their support for his candidacy, some requesting that he step aside. In addition to the two women who had previously alleged sexual misconduct against Trump, fifteen more came forward in 2016, during the aftermath of the tape's release with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted kissing and groping. Trump publicly apologized for his inappropriate boasting on the tape but also defended it as "locker room talk", and instead deflected his actions by asserting allegations of inappropriate behavior by Bill and Hillary Clinton.
Allegations of inciting violence
Over the years, Trump has been accused of inciting violence due to racist and nationalist rhetoric along with goading or praising individuals who commit such violence. Language from his speeches and tweets has been referenced in the manifestos of white supremacist shooters, such as those in El Paso, TX, Christchurch, NZ, and Poway, CA.
Some research suggests Trump's rhetoric causes an increased incidence of hate crimes. During the 2016 campaign, he sometimes urged or praised physical attacks against protesters or reporters. Since then, some individuals or their attorneys have cited Trump's rhetoric as a defense for their hate speech or violent actions. In August 2019 it was reported that a man who allegedly assaulted a minor for perceived disrespect toward the national anthem had cited Trump's rhetoric in his own defense. It was also reported in August 2019 that a nationwide review conducted by ABC News had identified at least 36 criminal cases where Trump was invoked in direct connection with violence or threats of violence. Of these, 29 were based around someone echoing presidential rhetoric, while the other seven were someone protesting it or not having direct linkage.
Relationship with the press
Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention. His interactions with the press turned into what some sources called a "love-hate" relationship. Trump began promoting himself in the press in the 1970s. Fox News anchor Bret Baier and former House speaker Paul Ryan have characterized Trump as a "troll" who makes controversial statements to see people's "heads explode".
Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign and his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused the press of intentionally misinterpreting his words and of being biased, calling them "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people". In the campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. New York Times writer Amy Chozick wrote in September 2018 that one of the reasons for Trump's appeal was his media dominance. To answer the question of why the U.S. public could not stop being enthralled by his actions, she wrote "Even in the so-called golden age of TV, Mr. Trump hasn't just dominated water-cooler conversation; he's sucked the water right out, making all other entertainment from N.F.L. games to awards shows pale in comparison." Chozick quoted Brent Montgomery, the creator of the reality TV show Pawn Stars, saying "Part of what he's doing that makes it feel like a reality show is that he is feeding you something every night. You can't afford to miss one episode or you're left behind."
After winning the election, Trump told journalist Lesley Stahl he intentionally demeaned and discredited the media "so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you". Into his presidency, Trump has described negative media coverage as "fake news". Trump has privately and publicly mused about taking away critical reporters' White House press credentials. In 2019, a member of the foreign press reported many of the same concerns as those of media in the U.S., expressing concern that a normalization process by reporters and media results in an inaccurate characterization of Trump.
Trump has been the subject of comedians, Flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Garrison. The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a future Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called The President Show debuted in April 2017 on Comedy Central, while another one called Our Cartoon President debuted on Showtime in February 2018.
Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip-hop lyrics since the 1980s, as he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone. Mentions of Trump turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015.
Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily on Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's Twitter activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as president. As of May 2019, he is in the top 15 for most Twitter followers at over 60 million. Trump has frequently used Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press. Many of the assertions he tweeted have been proven false.
In 1983, Trump received the Jewish National Fund Tree of Life Award, after he helped fund the building of two playgrounds, a park, and a reservoir in Israel. In 1986, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in recognition of "patriotism, tolerance, brotherhood and diversity", and in 1995 was awarded the President's Medal from the Freedoms Foundation for his support of youth programs. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007, and was indicted in the WWE Hall of Fame in 2013. Liberty University awarded Trump an honorary Doctorate of Business in 2012 and an honorary Doctor of Laws in 2017, during his first college commencement speech as president. In 2015, Robert Gordon University revoked the honorary Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) they had granted him in 2010, stating that "Mr. Trump has made a number of statements that are wholly incompatible with the ethos and values of the university."
In December 2016, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year", but Trump took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America". In the same month, he was named Financial Times Person of the Year and was ranked by Forbes the second most powerful person in the world after Vladimir Putin. As president, Trump received the Collar of The Order of Abdulaziz al Saud from Saudi Arabia in 2017.
The Crossfire Hurricane FBI investigation into possible links between Russia and the Trump campaign was launched in mid-2016 during the campaign season. Since he assumed the presidency, Trump has been the subject of increasing Justice Department and congressional scrutiny, with investigations covering his election campaign, transition and inauguration, actions taken during his presidency, along with his private businesses, personal taxes, and charitable foundation. The New York Times reported in May 2019 that there were 29 open investigations of Trump, including ten federal criminal investigations, eight state and local investigations, and eleven Congressional investigations.
American Media Inc (AMI) paid $150,000 to Playboy model Karen McDougal in August 2016, and Trump's attorney Michael Cohen paid $130,000 to adult film actress Stormy Daniels in October 2016. Both women were paid for non-disclosure agreements regarding their alleged affairs with Trump between 2006 and 2007. Cohen pleaded guilty in 2018 to breaking campaign finance laws, stating that he had arranged the payments at the direction of Trump in order to influence the presidential election. AMI admitted paying McDougal to prevent publication of stories that might damage Trump's electoral chances. Trump denied the affairs, and claimed he was not aware of Cohen's payment to Daniels, but reimbursed him in 2017. Federal prosecutors asserted that Trump had been involved in discussions regarding non-disclosure payments as early as 2014. Court documents showed that the FBI believed Trump was directly involved in the payment to Daniels, based on calls he had with Cohen in October 2016. The closure of the federal investigation into the matter was announced in July 2019, but days later the Manhattan District Attorney subpoenaed the Trump Organization and AMI for records related to the hush payments and in August subpoenaed eight years of tax returns for Trump and the Trump Organization.
In January 2017, American intelligence agencies – the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence – jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump. In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."
The connections between Trump associates and Russia have been widely reported by the press. One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych win the Ukrainian presidency. Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials. Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump. Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election. On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Trump later fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions. The Washington Post reported that Trump had told Sergei Lavrov and Sergey Kislyak in May 2017 he was unconcerned about Russian interference in U.S. elections.
Special counsel investigation
On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) investigating "any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation", taking over the existing FBI investigation into the matter. The special counsel also investigated whether Trump's dismissal of James Comey as FBI director constituted obstruction of justice, and possible campaign ties to other national governments. Trump repeatedly denied any collusion between his campaign and the Russian government. Mueller also investigated the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China.
Trump sought to fire Mueller on several occasions – in June 2017, December 2017, and April 2018 – and close the investigation, but backed down after his staff objected or after changing his mind. He tried repeatedly to get Attorney General Jeff Sessions to withdraw his recusal regarding Russia matters, believing Sessions would then put an end to the special counsel investigation.
On March 22, 2019, the special counsel concluded his investigation and gave his report to Attorney General William Barr. On March 24, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress summarizing what he said were the "principal conclusions" in the report. He said the report did not conclude the President had committed any crimes, although it did not exonerate him for obstruction of justice. Barr wrote on March 24 that given his authority to decide whether Trump had committed a crime, he and Rosenstein felt there was insufficient evidence to establish obstruction by Trump. Trump interpreted Mueller's report a "complete exoneration", a phrase he repeated multiple times in the ensuing weeks. Mueller privately complained to Barr on March 27 that his summary did not accurately reflect what the report said and there was now "public confusion". Some legal analysts said Barr's description of the report's contents was misleading.
A redacted version of the final Mueller Report was released to the public on April 18, 2019, with the first volume finding that Russia interfered to favor Trump's candidacy and hinder Clinton's. Despite "numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", the prevailing evidence "did not establish" that Trump campaign members conspired or coordinated with Russian interference. The evidence was incomplete due to encrypted, deleted, or unsaved communications as well as false, incomplete, or declined testimony. The report states that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election was illegal and occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and details how Trump and his campaign "welcomed and encouraged" Russian foreign interference under the belief that they would politically benefit.
The second volume of the Mueller Report dealt with possible obstruction of justice by Trump. The report did not exonerate him of obstruction, saying investigators were not confident of his innocence after examining his intent and actions. Investigators decided they could not "apply an approach that could potentially result in a judgment that the President committed crimes", as they could not indict a sitting president per an Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) opinion, and would not accuse him of a crime when he cannot clear his name in court. The report concluded that Congress, having the authority to take action against a president for wrongdoing, "may apply the obstruction laws".
On August 21, 2018, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud. Trump said he felt very badly for Manafort and praised him for resisting the pressure to make a deal with prosecutors, saying "Such respect for a brave man!" According to Giuliani, Trump had sought advice about pardoning Manafort but was counseled against it.
In September Manafort faced a second trial on multiple charges, but reached a plea bargain under which he pleaded guilty to conspiracy and witness tampering and agreed to cooperate fully with investigators. In November, Mueller's office said in a court filing that Manafort had repeatedly lied to investigators, thus violating the terms of the plea agreement. It was also revealed that Manafort, through his attorney, had been briefing White House attorneys about his interactions with the special counsel's office. Trump publicly hinted that he might pardon Manafort, but the incoming chair of the House Judiciary Committee warned that "dangling a pardon in front of Manafort" could lead to charges of obstruction of justice.
On November 29, Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to lying to Congress about Trump's 2016 attempts to reach a deal with Russia to build a Trump Tower in Moscow. Cohen said he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as "Individual-1" in the court documents.
The five Trump associates who have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in Mueller's investigation or related cases include Paul Manafort, Rick Gates, George Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn, and Michael Cohen. On January 25, 2019, Trump adviser Roger Stone was arrested at his home in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and indicted on seven criminal charges.
2019 congressional investigation
In March 2019, the House Judiciary Committee launched a broad investigation of Trump for possible obstruction of justice, corruption, and abuse of power. Committee chairman Jerrold Nadler sent letters demanding documents to 81 individuals and organizations associated with Trump's presidency, business, and private life, saying it is "very clear that the president obstructed justice". Three other committee chairmen wrote the White House and State Department requesting details of Trump's communications with Putin, including any efforts to conceal the content of those communications. The White House refused to comply with that request, asserting that presidential communications with foreign leaders are protected and confidential. According to Senator Mark Warner, vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, there is "enormous" evidence of the Trump campaign's involvement with Russia. Representative Adam Schiff, chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, said there is "direct evidence" of collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia.
During much of Trump's presidency, Democrats were divided on the question of impeachment. Fewer than 20 representatives in the House supported impeachment by January 2019, but this number grew after the Mueller Report was released in April and after special counsel Robert Mueller testified in July, up to around 140 representatives before the Trump–Ukraine scandal began.
In September 2019, a revelation emerged that Trump had asked the Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky to investigate Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter. In response, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi initiated a formal impeachment inquiry. According to the testimony of multiple White House officials, the events were a part of a broader pressure campaign to further Trump's "personal interests" by abusing the power of the presidency.
The Trump administration released a non-verbatim transcript of the July phone call between Trump and Zelensky, confirming that after Zelensky discussed the possibility of buying American anti-tank missiles to defend Ukraine, Trump instead asked for a favor, suggesting an investigation of the company Crowdstrike, in an apparent continuation of Trump's efforts to undermine the finding that Russia had hacked the Democratic National Committee server in the 2016 elections. Trump then asked Zelensky to look into investigating the Bidens, and to discuss these matters with Trump's personal attorney Rudy Giuliani and Attorney General William Barr.
The impeachment inquiry came in the wake of a whistleblower complaint focused on abuse surrounding the Trump–Zelensky call, as well as other allegations: that the White House attempted to "lock down" the call records in a cover-up, and that the call was part of a wider pressure campaign by Giuliani and the Trump administration to urge Ukraine to investigate the Bidens. The whistleblower further alleged that the pressure campaign may have included Trump's canceling Vice President Mike Pence's May 2019 Ukraine trip, and Trump's withholding financial aid from Ukraine in July 2019. Trump confirmed he had indeed temporarily withheld military aid from Ukraine, while offering contradicting reasons for his decision.
Within days, Ukraine envoy Kurt Volker resigned and three House committees issued a subpoena to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to schedule depositions for Volker and four other State Department employees, and to compel the release of documents. A subpoena was also issued to Giuliani for production of documents.
During a discussion on October 3, 2019, about a potential end to the United States–China trade war, Trump, unprompted, urged the government of China to begin a criminal investigation into Joe Biden and Hunter Biden's business activities in China, after adding that the United States has "tremendous power" so they should "do what we want".
William Taylor testimony
On October 22, 2019, William Taylor, the United States top envoy to the Ukraine, testified to investigators of the existence of a "quid-pro-quo" extortion campaign led by Donald Trump and his administration.
Taylor testified that Trump and his administration threatened Ukranian President Volodymr Zelensky and its government by telling them that the United States would withdraw critical military aid given to the country in order to prevent the annexation of Donbass by Russian separatists if they did give into a series of demands intended to ensure that Trump would be reelected in 2020. Taylor went on to state that this included coercing Zelensky into publicly reading a statement drafted by diplomats Kurt Volker and Gordon Sondland that would be resd live on CNN sometime during the 2020 presidential campaign. The statement would read that the Ukraine would open a series of politically-motivated investigations into Joe Biden's family and other prominent Democrats during this time; apparently to damage Trump's opponents in the eyes of the public and ensure that he would win reelection.
Politico additionally reported that he went on to tell investigators "of intense efforts by administration officials to secure investigations of Trump's political rivals in exchange for a White House meeting with Ukraine's president and critical military aid." The Intercept reported that by early September 2019 Zelensky had been successfully extorted into complying with the demand, under the belief that refusing to do so would cripple Ukranian efforts in Donbass.The reported plan did not come into fruition by the time that the whistleblower report came to the attention of the public in late September 2019.
He went on to state that Sondland told him:
- Ambassador Sondland also told me that he now recognized that he had made a mistake by earlier telling the Ukrainian officials to whom he spoke that a White House meeting with President Zelensky was dependent on a public announcement of investigations — in fact, Ambassador Sondland said, "everything" was dependent on such an announcement, including security assistance. He said that President Trump wanted President Zelensky "in a public box" by making a public statement about ordering such investigations.
- This estimate is by Forbes in their annual ranking. Bloomberg Billionaires Index listed Trump's net worth as $2.84 billion in May 2018, and Wealth-X listed it as at least $3.2 billion in May 2019.
- Presidential elections in the United States are decided by the Electoral College, in which each state names a number of electors equal to its representation in Congress, and all delegates from each state usually vote for the winner of the local state vote (except for faithless electors). Consequently, it is possible for the president-elect to have received fewer votes from the country's total population (the popular vote). This situation has occurred five times since 1824.
- Ronald Reagan was older upon his second-term inauguration.
- Some modern sources, including Donald Trump's The Art of the Deal, refer to the company as "Elizabeth Trump & Son". Contemporary sources, however, refer to it as "E. Trump & Son".
- Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no one had a majority in the electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality).
- Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.
- "Certificate of Birth". Department of Health – City of New York – Bureau of Records and Statistics. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2018 – via ABC News.
- "Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump" (PDF). The Jamaica Hospital. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2018 – via Fox News.
- Rozhon, Tracie (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 32.
- Horowitz, Jason (September 22, 2015). "Donald Trump's Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 45.
- Viser, Matt (August 28, 2015). "Even in college, Donald Trump was brash". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Blair 2015b, p. 241.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (September 3, 2015). "The real reason Donald Trump is so rich". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- "The Best Known Brand Name in Real Estate". The Wharton School. Spring 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. May 20, 1968. pp. 19–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2016.
- Selk, Avi (May 20, 2018). "It's the 50th anniversary of the day Trump left college and (briefly) faced the draft". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- Lee, Kurtis (August 4, 2016). "How deferments protected Donald Trump from serving in Vietnam". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Montopoli, Brian (April 29, 2011). "Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show". CBS News. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Donald John Trump's Selective Service Draft Card and Selective Service Classification Ledger". National Archives. August 15, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2019. – via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
- Whitlock, Craig (July 21, 2015). "Questions linger about Trump's draft deferments during Vietnam War". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Eder, Steve; Philipps, Dave (August 1, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- Emery, David (August 2, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft Deferments". Snopes.com. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
- Trump, Donald; Schwartz, Tony (1987). The Art of the Deal. Random House. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-345-47917-4.
- Knight, Gladys L. (August 11, 2014). Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 874. ISBN 978-0-313-39883-4.
- "Advertisement for E. Trump & Son". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 6, 1927. p. D3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Real estate news". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 5, 1930. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
- Blair, Gwenda (December 4, 2001). The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7432-1079-9.
- Blair, Gwenda (August 24, 2015). "The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is". Politico. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Blair 2015b, p. 159.
- Hansler, Jennifer (November 28, 2017). "Trump's family denied German heritage for years". CNN.
- Horowitz, Jason (August 21, 2016). "For Donald Trump's Family, an Immigrant's Tale With 2 Beginnings". The New York Times.
- Pilon, Mary (June 24, 2016). "Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- McGrane, Sally (April 29, 2016). "The Ancestral German Home of the Trumps". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Blair 2015, p. 300.
- Brenner, Marie (September 1990). "After The Gold Rush". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- "Lara and Eric Trump welcome second child". NBC Montana. August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
- "Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen". The Lewiston Journal. Associated Press. May 27, 1988. Retrieved August 21, 2015 – via Google News.
- "Ivana Trump to write memoir about raising US president's children". The Guardian. Associated Press. March 16, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "The Donald Bids Hearts For Marla Trump Wedding Draws 1,100 Friends, But Not Many Stars". The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 21, 1993. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- Capuzzo, Mike (December 21, 1993). "Marla Finally Becomes Mrs. Trump It Was 'Paparazzi' Aplenty And Glitz Galore As The Couple Pledged Their Troth". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- Graham, Ruth (July 20, 2016). "Tiffany Trump's Sad, Vague Tribute to Her Distant Father". Slate. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Baylis, Sheila Cosgrove (August 7, 2013). "Marla Maples Still Loves Donald Trump". People. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Stanley, Alessandra (October 1, 2016). "The Other Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Brown, Tina (January 27, 2005). "Donald Trump, Settling Down". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "Donald Trump Fast Facts". CNN. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Gunter, Joel (March 2, 2018). "What is the Einstein visa? And how did Melania Trump get one?". BBC. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
- Glueck, Katie (December 7, 2016). "Trump's religious dealmaking pays dividends". Politico. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
Trump is a Presbyterian, and speculation is already underway over whether, and where, he might go to church regularly in Washington.
- Barron, James (September 5, 2016). "Overlooked Influences on Donald Trump: A Famous Minister and His Church". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Schwartzman, Paul (January 21, 2016). "How Trump got religion – and why his legendary minister's son now rejects him". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Blair, Leonardo (August 28, 2015). "Marble Collegiate Church Says Donald Trump Is Not an Active Member". The Christian Post. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 81.
- Scott, Eugene (July 19, 2015). "Trump believes in God, but hasn't sought forgiveness". CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Weigel, David (August 11, 2015). "In Michigan, Trump attacks China, critiques auto bailout, and judges Bernie Sanders 'weak'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- Burke, Daniel (October 24, 2016). "The guilt-free gospel of Donald Trump". CNN. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Trump campaign announces evangelical executive advisory board". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (Press release). June 21, 2016. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Shellnutt, Kate; Zylstra, Sarah Eekhoff (June 22, 2016). "Who's Who of Trump's 'Tremendous' Faith Advisers". Christianity Today. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Horowitz, Jason (January 2, 2016). "For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "Part 2: Donald Trump on 'Watters' World'". Watters' World. Fox News. February 6, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
Watters: "Have you ever smoked weed?" Trump: "No, I have not. I have not. I would tell you one hundred percent because everyone else seems to admit it nowadays, so I would actually tell you. This is almost like, it's almost like 'Hey, it's a sign'. No, I have never. I have never smoked a cigarette, either."
- Parker, Ashley (August 8, 2016). "Donald Trump's Diet: He'll Have Fries With That". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- Meredith, Sam; Bryer, Tania (January 17, 2017). "Donald Trump is the poster child of sleep deprivation: Arianna Huffington". CNBC. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- Herreria, Carla (May 1, 2018). "Trump's Doctor Says Trump Basically Wrote That Glowing Health Letter: Report". HuffPost. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Marquardt, Alex; Crook, Lawrence III (May 1, 2018). "Bornstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- Schecter, Anna (May 1, 2018). "Trump doctor Harold Bornstein says bodyguard, lawyer 'raided' his office, took medical files". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 1, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- Watson, Kathryn (May 1, 2018). "Trump's ex-personal doctor claims his office was "raided" for Trump's records". CBS News. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Barclay, Eliza; Belluz, Julia (January 16, 2018). "Trump's first full presidential physical exam, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Ducharme, Jamie (January 17, 2018). "The White House Doctor Called President Trump's Health 'Excellent.' Here's the Full Summary of His Physical Exam". Time. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Howard, Jacqueline; Liptak, Kevin (February 14, 2019). "Trump in 'very good health overall' but obese, according to physical exam results". CNN. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (July 14, 2018). "I have arrived in Scotland and will be at Trump Turnberry for two days of meetings, calls and hopefully, some golf - my primary form of exercise! The weather is beautiful, and this place is incredible! Tomorrow I go to Helsinki for a Monday meeting with Vladimir Putin" (Tweet). Retrieved July 4, 2019 – via Twitter.
- "Donald Trump says he gets most of his exercise from golf, then uses cart at Turnberry". Golf News Net. July 14, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- Mason, Jeff; Holland, Steve (January 18, 2018). "Exercise? I get more than people think, Trump says". Reuters.
He gets exercise by playing golf, he said, even though he typically rides around the course in a golf cart.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Liptak, Kevin (February 7, 2019). "Ahead of annual physical, Trump has not followed doctor's orders". CNN.
Nearly a dozen White House officials and sources close to Trump said they don't believe he's set foot in the fitness room in the White House residence, maintaining his view that exercise would be a waste of the energy he has always touted as one of his best attributes.
- "Trump thinks that exercising too much uses up the body's finite energy". The Washington Post. May 12, 2017.
Trump mostly gave up athletics after college because he "believed the human body was like a battery, with a finite amount of energy, which exercise only depleted".
- O'Brien, Timothy L. (October 23, 2005). "What's He Really Worth?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- "Bloomberg Billionaires Index – Donald Trump". Bloomberg News. May 31, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- "Donald John Trump – Wealth-X Dossiersier". Wealth-X. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- "#715 Donald Trump". Forbes. 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Walsh, John (October 3, 2018). "Trump has fallen 138 spots on Forbes' wealthiest-Americans list, his net worth down over $1 billion, since he announced his presidential bid in 2015". Business Insider. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Lewandowski, Corey R.; Hicks, Hope (July 15, 2015). "Donald J. Trump Files Personal Financial Disclosure Statement With Federal Election Commission" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators". Yahoo! News. July 22, 2015. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (August 10, 2016). "Trump: A True Story". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- Greenberg, Jonathan (April 20, 2018). "Trump lied to me about his wealth to get onto the Forbes 400. Here are the tapes". The Washington Post.
- Stump, Scott (October 26, 2015). "Donald Trump: My dad gave me 'a small loan' of $1 million to get started". CNBC. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2018). "11 Takeaways From The Times's Investigation Into Trump's Wealth". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2018). "Trump Engaged in Suspect Tax Schemes as He Reaped Riches From His Father". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- Campbell, Jon; Spector, Joseph (October 3, 2018). "New York could levy hefty penalties if Trump tax fraud is proven". USA Today. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- Woodward, Calvin; Pace, Julie (December 16, 2018). "Scope of investigations into Trump has shaped his presidency". AP News. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "From the Tower to the White House". The Economist. February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
Mr Trump's performance has been mediocre compared with the stockmarket and property in New York.
- Swanson, Ana (February 29, 2016). "The myth and the reality of Donald Trump's business empire". The Washington Post.
- Breuninger, Kevin (October 2, 2018). "Trump tumbles down the Forbes 400 as his net worth takes major hit". CNBC. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Buettner, Russ; Craig, Susanne (May 8, 2019). "Decade in the Red: Trump Tax Figures Show Over $1 Billion in Business Losses". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (May 8, 2019). "The Secret That Was Hiding in Trump's Taxes". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- Trump & Schwartz 2009, p. 46.
- Mahler, Jonathan; Eder, Steve (August 27, 2016). "'No Vacancies' for Blacks: How Donald Trump Got His Start, and Was First Accused of Bias". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Korte, Gregory (September 1, 2002). "Complex was troubled from beginning". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- Kelly, Meg (February 28, 2018). "The tall tale of President Trump's Cincinnati 'success'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- Blair 2015b, p. 250.
- Rich, Frank (April 29, 2018). "The Original Donald Trump". New York. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Kessler, Glenn (March 3, 2016). "Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father". The Washington Post.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 84.
- Wooten 2009, p. 32–35.
- Geist, William (April 8, 1984). "The Expanding Empire of Donald Trump". The New York Times.
- Dohan, William C. (September 28, 2015). "Decades-Old Questions Over Trump's Wealth and Education". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Flegenheimer, Matt; Haberman, Maggie (March 29, 2016). "With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Burns, Alexander (December 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Loves New York. But It Doesn't Love Him Back". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "Trump's Plaza Hotel bankruptcy plan approved". The New York Times. Reuters. December 12, 1992. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Stout, David; Gilpin, Kenneth (April 12, 1995). "Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Satow, Julie (May 23, 2019). "That Time Trump Sold the Plaza Hotel at an $83 Million Loss". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Wooten 2009, p. 81–82.
- Bagli, Charles V. (June 1, 2005). "Trump Group Selling West Side Parcel for $1.8 billion". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Peterson-Withorn, Chase (April 23, 2018). "Donald Trump Has Gained More Than $100 Million On Mar-a-Lago". Forbes. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- "Trump Fights Property Taxes". AP News. March 29, 1988. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Dangremond, Sam (December 22, 2017). "A History of Mar-a-Lago, Donald Trump's American Castle". Town & Country. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 161.
- Dangremond, Sam (October 9, 2017). "Here's What We Know About the Membership of Mar-a-Lago". Town & Country. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Wooten 2009, p. 57–58.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 128.
- "Trump Stake in Holiday". The New York Times. September 5, 1986. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Crudele, John (November 13, 1986). "Holiday Corp. Plans Restructuring". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Wooten 2009, p. 59–60.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 137.
- Cuff, Daniel (December 18, 1988). "Seven Acquisitive Executives Who Made Business News in 1988: Donald Trump – Trump Organization; The Artist of the Deal Turns Sour into Sweet". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Glynn, Lenny (April 8, 1990). "Trump's Taj – Open at Last, With a Scary Appetite". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- "Trump reaches agreement with bondholders on Taj Mahal". United Press International. April 9, 1991. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 135.
- Bingham, Amy (April 21, 2011). "Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times". ABC News. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Taj Mahal is out of Bankruptcy". The New York Times. October 5, 1991. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Hylton, Richard (May 11, 1990). "Trump Is Reportedly Selling Yacht". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Schneider, Karen S. (May 19, 1997). "The Donald Ducks Out". People. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 132–133.
- Norris, Floyd (June 7, 1995). "Trump Plaza casino stock trades today on Big Board". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- McQuade, Dan (August 16, 2015). "The Truth About the Rise and Fall of Donald Trump's Atlantic City Empire". Philadelphia. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Tully, Shawn (March 10, 2016). "How Donald Trump Made Millions Off His Biggest Business Failure". Fortune. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- Garcia, Ahiza (December 29, 2016). "Trump's 17 golf courses teed up: Everything you need to know". CNN Money. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
- "Donald Trump Personal Financial Disclosure Form 2015" (PDF). The Washington Post. July 15, 2015.
- Alesci, Cristina; Frankel, Laurie; Sahadi, Jeanne (May 19, 2016). "A peek at Donald Trump's finances". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Melby, Caleb (July 19, 2016). "Trump Is Richer in Property and Deeper in Debt in New Valuation". Bloomberg News.
In the year that Donald Trump was transformed ... into the presumptive Republican nominee, the value of his golf courses and his namesake Manhattan tower soared ... His net worth rose to $3 billion on the Bloomberg Billionaires Index ...
- "Donald Trump: King of Clubs". Golf. February 21, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- DiMeglio, Steve (March 3, 2015). "Donald Trump brings new life to world of golf". USA Today. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Beall, Joel (March 20, 2017). "President Trump appears to still really like golf, makes 11th trip to course in eight weeks in office". Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Johnstone, Liz (December 29, 2017). "Tracking President Trump's visits to Trump properties". NBC News.
- Wang, Jennifer (March 20, 2017). "From Manila to Hawaii, Meet The Licensing Partners Who Paid Trump The Most". Forbes. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Autoweek Staff (January 13, 2017). "When Donald Trump and Cadillac joined forces to build the 'most opulent' limo ever". Autoweek. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Ehrenfreund, Max; Tankersley, Jim (December 22, 2016). "Donald Trump has a favorite carmaker, and that might be a problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (August 26, 2016). "How many Trump products were made overseas? Here's the complete list". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Anthony, Zane; Sanders, Kathryn; Fahrenthold, David A. (April 13, 2018). "Whatever happened to Trump neckties? They're over. So is most of Trump's merchandising empire". The Washington Post.
- Williams, Aaron; Narayanswamy, Anu (January 25, 2017). "How Trump has made millions by selling his name". Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- "Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits". USA Today. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Penzenstadler, Nick; Page, Susan (June 2, 2016). "Exclusive: Trump's 3,500 lawsuits unprecedented for a presidential nominee". USA Today. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
About 100 additional disputes centered on other issues at the casinos. Trump and his enterprises have been named in almost 700 personal-injury claims and about 165 court disputes with government agencies ... Due to his branding value, Trump is determined to defend his name and reputation.
- Savransky, Rebecca (June 2, 2016). "Trump brags about winning record in lawsuits". The Hill.
- Hylton, Richard D. (June 27, 1990). "Banks Approve Loans for Trump, But Take Control of His Finances". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Hood, Bryan (June 29, 2015). "4 Times Donald Trump's Companies Declared Bankruptcy". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Li, Hao (April 12, 2011). "Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies". International Business Times. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Stone, Peter (May 5, 2011). "Donald Trump's lawsuits could turn off conservatives who embrace tort reform". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Kurtz, Howard (April 24, 2011). "Kurtz: The Trump Backlash". Newsweek. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Winter, Tom. "Trump Bankruptcy Math Doesn't Add Up". NBC News. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- O'Connor, Clare (April 29, 2011). "Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him". Forbes. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Flitter, Emily (July 17, 2016). "Art of the spin: Trump bankers question his portrayal of financial comeback". Reuters. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- Smith, Allan (December 8, 2017). "Trump's long and winding history with Deutsche Bank could now be at the center of Robert Mueller's investigation". Business Insider. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "Trump sues Deutsche Bank and Capital One over Democrat subpoenas". BBC News. April 30, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Fahrenthold, David; Bade, Rachael; Wagner, John (April 22, 2019). "Trump sues in bid to block congressional subpoena of financial records". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Savage, Charlie (May 20, 2019). "Accountants Must Turn Over Trump's Financial Records, Lower-Court Judge Rules". The New York Times.
- Merle, Renae; Kranish, Michael; Sonmez, Felicia (May 22, 2019). "Judge rejects Trump's request to halt congressional subpoenas for his banking records". The Washington Post.
- Flitter, Emily (May 22, 2019). "Deutsche Bank Can Release Trump Records to Congress, Judge Rules". The New York Times.
- Hutzler, Alexandra (May 21, 2019). "Trump's appeal to keep finances away from Democrats goes to court headed by Merrick Garland". Newsweek.
- Vogel, Mikhaila (June 10, 2019). "Trump Legal Team Files Brief in Mazars Appeal". Lawfare. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Merle, Renae (May 28, 2019). "House subpoenas for Trump's bank records put on hold while President appeals". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- Zurcher, Anthony (July 23, 2015). "Five take-aways from Donald Trump's financial disclosure". BBC Online. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Koffler, Jacob (August 7, 2015). "Donald Trump's 16 Biggest Business Failures and Successes". Time.
- Markazi, Arash (July 14, 2015). "5 things to know about Donald Trump's foray into doomed USFL". ESPN.
- Morris, David (September 24, 2017). "Donald Trump Fought the NFL Once Before. He Got Crushed". Fortune. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- "Trump Gets Tyson Fight". The New York Times. February 25, 1988. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- O'Donnell & Rutherford 1991, p. 137.
- Hogan, Kevin (April 10, 2016). "The Strange Tale of Donald Trump's 1989 Biking Extravaganza". Politico. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Kessler, Glenn (August 11, 2016). "Too good to check: Sean Hannity's tale of a Trump rescue". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- "Donald Trump just sold off the entire Miss Universe Organization". Business Insider. September 14, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Rutenberg, Jim (June 22, 2002). "Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- De Moraes, Lisa (June 22, 2002). "There She Goes: Pageants Move to NBC". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- Zara, Christopher (October 29, 2016). "Why the heck does Donald Trump have a Walk of Fame star, anyway? It's not the reason you think". Fast Company. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Gitell, Seth (March 8, 2016). "I Survived Trump University". Politico. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Cohan, William D. "Big Hair on Campus: Did Donald Trump Defraud Thousands of Real Estate Students?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Barbaro, Michael (May 19, 2011). "New York Attorney General Is Investigating Trump's For-Profit School". The New York Times.
- Halperin, David (March 1, 2016). "NY Court Refuses to Dismiss Trump University Case, Describes Fraud Allegations". The Huffington Post.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (February 27, 2016). "Donald Trump's misleading claim that he's 'won most of' lawsuits over Trump University". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- McCoy, Kevin (August 26, 2013). "Trump faces two-front legal fight over 'university'". USA Today.
- Barbaro, Michael; Eder, Steve (May 31, 2016). "Former Trump University Workers Call the School a 'Lie' and a 'Scheme' in Testimony". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- Montenaro, Domenico (June 1, 2016). "Hard Sell: The Potential Political Consequences of the Trump University Documents". NPR. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- "Judge Orders Documents Unsealed in Trump University Lawsuit". The New York Times. Reuters. May 30, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Hamburger, Tom (May 28, 2016). "Judge bashed by Trump orders release of company records". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Eder, Steve (November 18, 2016). "Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Kendall, Brent; Randazzo, Sara (November 19, 2016). "Trump University Fraud Cases Settled for $25 Million". The Wall Street Journal.
- Stanglin, Doug (November 19, 2016). "Trump tweets he settled $25M fraud case because he's too busy". USA Today. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Lovett, Kenneth; Dillon, Nancy (November 18, 2016). "Donald set to pay $25M in Trump University fraud case settlement". New York Daily News. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Tigas, Mike; Wei, Sisi. "Nonprofit Explorer – ProPublica". ProPublica. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Donald J Trump Foundation Inc – GuideStar Profile". GuideStar. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (September 1, 2016). "Trump pays IRS a penalty for his foundation violating rules with gift to aid Florida attorney general". The Washington Post.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; Helderman, Rosalind S. (April 10, 2016). "Missing from Trump's list of charitable giving: His own personal cash". The Washington Post.
- Solnik, Claude (September 15, 2016). "Taking a peek at Trump's (foundation) tax returns". Long Island Business News.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; Rindler, Danielle (August 18, 2016). "Searching for evidence of Trump's personal giving". The Washington Post.
- Qiu, Linda. "Yes, Donald Trump has given to the Clinton Foundation". PolitiFact. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- Cillizza, Chris; Fahrenthold, David A. (September 15, 2016). "Meet the reporter who's giving Donald Trump fits". The Washington Post.
- Bradner, Eric; Frehse, Rob (September 14, 2016). "NY attorney general is investigating Trump Foundation practices". CNN. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
The Post had reported that the recipients of five charitable contributions listed by the Trump Foundation had no record of receiving those donations. But the newspaper updated its report after CNN questioned the accuracy of three of the five donations it had cited.
- Toh, Michelle (September 14, 2016). "Trump Foundation Falls Under Investigation By New York Attorney General". Fortune. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (October 3, 2016). "Trump Foundation ordered to stop fundraising by N.Y. attorney general's office". The Washington Post.
- Jacobs, Ben (December 24, 2016). "Donald Trump to dissolve his charitable foundation after mounting complaints". The Guardian. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
- Dilanian, Ken; Gardella, Rich; Martin, Patrick (November 20, 2017). "Donald Trump is shutting down his charitable foundation". NBC News. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris; Schuman, Melanie (June 14, 2018). "New York attorney general sues Trump Foundation". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (June 14, 2018). "Five things to know about the lawsuit against the Trump Foundation". The Hill. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Goldmacher, Shane (December 18, 2018). "Trump Foundation Will Dissolve, Accused of 'Shocking Pattern of Illegality'". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- Fahrenthold, David (December 19, 2018). "A shocking pattern of illegality': Trump Foundation shuts down". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- Geewax, Marilyn (January 20, 2018). "Trump Has Revealed Assumptions About Handling Presidential Wealth, Businesses". NPR.
- "A list of Trump's potential conflicts". BBC Online. April 18, 2017.
- Venook, Jeremy (August 9, 2017). "Trump's Interests vs. America's, Dubai Edition". The Atlantic.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (January 25, 2018). "Lawsuit on Trump Emoluments Violations Gains Traction in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Stone, Peter (July 19, 2019). "How Trump's businesses are booming with lobbyists, donors and governments". The Guardian.
- "Trump stands by Saudi prince despite journalist Khashoggi's murder". Reuters. November 20, 2018.
- "President Trump has a massive conflict of interest on Saudi Arabia". The Washington Post. October 18, 2018.
- "Trump's decision on Syria crystallizes questions about his business — and his presidency". The Washington Post. October 7, 2019.
- Przybyla, Heidi; Schecter, Anna (October 9, 2019). "Donald Trump's longtime business connections in Turkey back in the spotlight". NBC News.
- Mayer, Jane (July 18, 2016). "Donald Trump's Ghostwriter Tells All". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Lozada, Carlos (July 30, 2015). "I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Lelinwalla, Mark (March 4, 2016). "Looking Back At Donald Trump's WWE Career". Tech Times. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Donald Trump bio". WWE. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Kelly, Chris; Wetherbee, Brandon (December 9, 2016). "Heel in Chief". Slate. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Graser, Marc (February 25, 2013). "Donald Trump Enters WWE's Hall of Fame". Variety. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- "Donald Trump posts video clip of him 'beating' CNN in wrestling". BBC. July 2, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Silva, Daniella (July 2, 2017). "President Trump Tweets Wrestling Video of Himself Attacking 'CNN'". NBC News. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Grynbaum, Michael M.; Parker, Ashley (July 16, 2016). "Donald Trump the Political Showman, Born on 'The Apprentice'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Fisher, Marc (March 15, 2018). "On TV, Trump loved to say 'You're fired.' In real life, he leaves the dirty work to others". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
- Nussbaum, Emily (July 31, 2017). "The TV That Created Donald Trump". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Feely, Paul (February 27, 2015). "Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run". New Hampshire Union Leader. Archived from the original on July 10, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Byers, Dylan (March 18, 2015). "NBC still planning for 'Apprentice', despite Donald Trump's presidential claims". Politico. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Siegel, Jacob (June 29, 2015). "NBC Just Fired Presidential Hopeful Donald Trump from 'The Apprentice'". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Fischer, Russ (November 30, 2009). "Casting Notes: Donald Trump Cameos in Wall Street 2; Jeremy Piven and Kate Walsh go to Canada". Slashfilm.com. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- LaFrance, Adrienne (December 21, 2015). "Three Decades of Donald Trump Film and TV Cameos". The Atlantic.
- Lockett, Dee (June 21, 2016). "Yes, Donald Trump Did Actually Play a Spoiled Rich Kid's Dad in The Little Rascals". Vulture. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Shanley, Patrick (September 15, 2016). "Emmys Flashback: When Trump Sang the 'Green Acres' Theme in Overalls". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Nededog, Jethro (December 15, 2016). "Megan Mullally regrets helping Trump with a 'landslide' win: 'I'm not giving him any points'". Business Insider. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Handel, Jonathan (July 22, 2015). "How Did Donald Trump Get a $110K SAG Pension?". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Palmeri, Christopher (July 22, 2015). "Inside Donald Trump's $110,000 Hollywood Pension Disclosure". Bloomberg News. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Handler, Jonathan (June 16, 2017). "Trump Ethics Filing Reveals SAG Pension, Entertainment Income". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 166.
- Massie, Christopher; Kaczynski, Andrew (March 16, 2016). "There Are Hours Of Audio Of Donald Trump's Nationally Syndicated Radio Show In The 2000s". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (April 29, 2004). "The Donald to Get New Wife, Radio Show". People. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Tedeschi, Bob (February 6, 2006). "Now for Sale Online, the Art of the Vacation". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (July 1, 2018). "Fox News Once Gave Trump a Perch. Now It's His Bullhorn". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Gertz, Matthew (January 5, 2018). "I've Studied the Trump-Fox Feedback Loop for Months. It's Crazier Than You Think". Politico. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Montopoli, Brian (April 1, 2011). "Donald Trump gets regular Fox News spot". CBS News. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (September 9, 2016). "How the conservative media is taking over the Republican Party". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- Gillin, Joshua (August 24, 2015). "Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade'". PolitiFact. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Kurtzleben, Danielle (July 28, 2015). "Most of Donald Trump's Political Money Went To Democrats – Until 5 Years Ago". NPR. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Oreskes, Michael (September 2, 1987). "Trump Gives a Vague Hint of Candidacy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Butterfield, Fox (November 18, 1987). "Trump Urged To Head Gala Of Democrats". The New York Times.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 3.
- Gallup 1990, p. 3.
- Trump, Donald J. (February 19, 2000). "What I Saw at the Revolution". The New York Times.
- Winger, Richard (December 25, 2011). "Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries". Ballot Access News.
- Johnson, Glen. "Donald Trump eyeing a run at the White House". Standard-Speaker. Hazelton, Pennsylvania.
- "CA Secretary of State – Primary 2000 – Statewide Totals". ca.gov. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Travis, Shannon (May 17, 2011). "Was he ever serious? How Trump strung the country along, again". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- "Donald Trump in the No Spin Zone". Fox News. September 22, 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "Trump endorses McCain". CNN. September 18, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Belonsky, Andrew (February 10, 2011). "GOProud Leads 'Trump in 2012' Movement at CPAC". Towleroad.com.
- CNN Political Unit (May 16, 2011). "Trump not running for president". CNN. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- "Trump endorses Romney, cites tough China position and electability". Fox News. February 2, 2012.
- MacAskill, Ewen (May 16, 2011). "Donald Trump bows out of 2012 US presidential election race". The Guardian.
Few US political commentators took his campaign seriously and many suggested he was only in it for the publicity.
- Grier, Peter (February 10, 2011). "Donald Trump says he might run for president. Three reasons he won't". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Linkins, Jason (February 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President' Act To CPAC". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Haberman, Maggie; Burns, Alexander (March 12, 2016). "Donald Trump's Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Fisher, Marc (March 5, 2019). "'Grab that record': How Trump's high school transcript was hidden". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Moody, Chris (March 5, 2013). "Donald Trump to address CPAC". Yahoo! News. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Madison, Lucy (March 15, 2013). "Trump: Immigration reform a "suicide mission" for GOP". CBS News.
- Amira, Dan (March 15, 2013). "Photos of Donald Trump Delivering His Self-Aggrandizing CPAC Speech to a Half-Empty Ballroom". New York (magazine).
- "Trump researching 2016 run". Page Six. May 27, 2013.
- Spector, Joseph (October 14, 2013). "N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor". USA Today. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Miller, Jake (February 13, 2014). "Trump trumped by Cuomo in N.Y. governor race, poll finds". CBS News. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Ashford, Grace (February 27, 2019). "Michael Cohen Says Trump Told Him to Threaten Schools Not to Release Grades". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Frazin, Rachel (February 27, 2019). "Cohen: Trump directed me to threaten schools not to release grades, SAT scores". The Hill. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Trump, Donald (June 16, 2015). Here's Donald Trump's Presidential Announcement Speech (Speech). Trump Tower, New York City – via Time. Transcript of full speech
- "Donald Trump Presidential Campaign Announcement Full Speech (C-SPAN)" (Video). YouTube. C-SPAN. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- Lerner, Adam B. (June 16, 2015). "The 10 best lines from Donald Trump's announcement speech". Politico. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (September 5, 2015). "By self-funding my campaign, I am not controlled by my donors, special interests or lobbyists. I am only working for the people of the U.S.!" (Tweet). Retrieved June 7, 2018 – via Twitter.
- Graham, David A. (May 13, 2016). "The Lie of Trump's 'Self-Funding' Campaign". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Linshi, Jack (July 7, 2015). "More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever". Time. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Reeve, Elspeth (October 27, 2015). "How Donald Trump Evolved From a Joke to an Almost Serious Candidate". The New Republic. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Bump, Philip (March 23, 2016). "Why Donald Trump is poised to win the nomination and lose the general election, in one poll". The Washington Post.
- Nussbaum, Matthew (May 3, 2016). "RNC Chairman: Trump is our nominee". Politico. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Hartig, Hannah; Lapinski, John; Psyllos, Stephanie (July 19, 2016). "Poll: Clinton and Trump Now Tied as GOP Convention Kicks Off". NBC News.
- "2016 General Election: Trump vs. Clinton". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "General Election: Trump vs. Clinton". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Levingston, Ivan (July 15, 2016). "Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence for VP". CNBC.
- "Trump closes the deal, becomes Republican nominee for president". Fox News. July 19, 2016.
- Timm, Jane C. (July 17, 2016). "9 Elephants in the Room at RNC: Who's Missing From the Speakers List". NBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Raju, Manu (May 5, 2016). "Flake, McCain split over backing Trump". CNN. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "2016 Presidential Debate Schedule". September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "US presidential debate: Trump won't commit to accept election result". BBC News. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "How US media reacted to the third presidential debate". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Trump's promises before and after election". BBC Online. September 19, 2017.
- Edwards, Jason A. (2018). "Make America Great Again: Donald Trump and Redefining the U.S. Role in the World". Communication Quarterly. 66 (2): 176. doi:10.1080/01463373.2018.1438485. ISSN 0146-3373.
On the campaign trail, Trump repeatedly called North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 'obsolete'
- Muller, Jan-Werner (2016). What Is Populism?. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8122-9378-4.
- Kazin, Michael (March 22, 2016). "How Can Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Both Be 'Populist'?". The New York Times Magazine.
- Becker, Bernie (February 13, 2016). "Trump's 6 populist positions". Politico.
- "Tax Reform". Donald J. Trump for president website. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (December 16, 2015). "Liberals will love something Donald Trump said last night". The Washington Post.
- Sharman, Jon (December 21, 2016). "Democrats can finally agree with Donald Trump on something". The Independent. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Williams, Mason B. (January 7, 2017). "Would Trump's Infrastructure Plan Fix America's Cities?". The Atlantic.
- Shafer, Jack (May 2016). "Did We Create Trump?". Politico.
... Trump's outrageous comments about John McCain, Muslims, the 14th Amendment and all the rest ...
- Trump & Schwartz 2009, p. 56.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (August 17, 2015). "20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June". The Washington Post.
- Hensch, Mark (July 12, 2015). "'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops". The Hill.
- Noah, Timothy (July 26, 2015). "Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?". Politico.
- Timm, Jane C. "A Full List of Donald Trump's Rapidly Changing Policy Positions". NBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Walsh, Kenneth T. (August 15, 2016). "Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt'". U.S. News & World Report.
'If the disgusting and corrupt media covered me honestly and didn't put false meaning into the words I say, I would be beating Hillary by twenty percent,' Trump also tweeted Sunday.
- Koppel, Ted (July 24, 2016). "Trump: "I feel I'm an honest person"". CBS News.
Well, I think that I'm an honest person ... I feel I'm an honest person. And I don't mind being criticized at all by the media, but I do wanna – you know, I do want them to be straight about it.
- Blake, Aaron (July 6, 2015). "Donald Trump is waging war on political correctness. And he's losing". The Washington Post.
- Cillizza, Chris (June 14, 2016). "This Harvard study is a powerful indictment of the media's role in Donald Trump's rise". The Washington Post.
- "The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump". FactCheck.org. December 21, 2015.
- Holan, Angie Drobnic; Qiu, Linda (December 21, 2015). "2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump". PolitiFact.
- Farhi, Paul (February 26, 2016). "Think Trump's wrong? Fact checkers can tell you how often. (Hint: A lot.)". The Washington Post.
- Stelter, Brian (September 26, 2016). "The weekend America's newspapers called Donald Trump a liar". CNN.
- McCammon, Sarah (August 10, 2016). "Donald Trump's controversial speech often walks the line". NPR.
Many of Trump's opaque statements seem to rely on suggestion and innuendo.
- Flitter, Emily; Oliphant, James (August 28, 2015). "Best president ever! How Trump's love of hyperbole could backfire". Reuters.
- Konnikova, Maria (January 20, 2017). "Trump's Lies vs. Your Brain". Politico. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Barkun, Michael (2017). "President Trump and the Fringe". Terrorism and Political Violence. 29 (3): 437. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1313649. ISSN 1556-1836.
- Lopez, German (August 14, 2017). "We need to stop acting like Trump isn't pandering to white supremacists". Vox. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Blow, Charles M. (September 18, 2017). "Is Trump a White Supremacist?". The New York Times.
- Kharakh, Ben; Primack, Dan (March 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists". Fortune.
- White, Daniel (January 26, 2016). "Trump Criticized for Retweeting Racist Account". Time.
- "White Nationalists and the Alt-Right Celebrate Trump's Victory". Southern Poverty Law Center. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Chan, Melissa (February 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Refuses to Condemn KKK, Disavow David Duke Endorsement". Time. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- Lozada, Carlos (December 30, 2016). "Donald Trump and the alt-right: A marriage of convenience". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Nelson, Libby (August 12, 2017). ""Why we voted for Donald Trump": David Duke explains the white supremacist Charlottesville protests". Vox. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Cummings, William (August 15, 2017). "Former KKK leader David Duke praises Trump for his 'courage'". USA Today. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Scott, Eugene (March 3, 2016). "Trump denounces David Duke, KKK". CNN.
- Ohlheiser, Abby (June 3, 2016). "Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme". The Washington Post.
- Weigel, David (August 20, 2016). "'Racialists' are cheered by Trump's latest strategy". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Krieg, Gregory (August 25, 2016). "Clinton is attacking the 'Alt-Right' – What is it?". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- Sevastopulo, Demetri. "'Alt-right' movement makes mark on US presidential election". Financial Times.
- Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54600-3.
- Wilson, Jason (November 15, 2016). "Clickbait scoops and an engaged alt-right: everything to know about Breitbart News". The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "Trump disavows 'alt-right' supporters". BBC Online. November 23, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's New York Times Interview: Full Transcript". The New York Times. November 23, 2016.
- "Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report (U.S. OGE Form 278e)" (PDF). U.S. Office of Government Ethics. July 15, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2015 – via Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Rappeport, Alan (May 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Breaks With Recent History by Not Releasing Tax Returns". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Isidore, Chris; Sahadi, Jeanne (February 26, 2016). "Trump says he can't release tax returns because of audits". CNN. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Kopan, Tal (May 13, 2016). "Trump on his tax rate: 'None of your business'". CNN.
- Eder, Steve; Twohey, Megan (October 10, 2016). "Donald Trump Acknowledges Not Paying Federal Income Taxes for Years". The New York Times.
- Baker, Peter; Drucker, Jesse; Craig, Susanne; Barstow, David (March 15, 2017). "Trump Wrote Off $100 Million in Business Losses in 2005". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Jagoda, Naomi. "WH releases Trump tax info ahead of MSNBC report: He paid $38M in federal taxes in '05". The Hill. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Gordon, Marcy (April 4, 2019). "House chairman asks IRS for 6 years of Trump's tax returns". AP News.
- Stein, Jeff; Paletta, Damian (April 10, 2019). "Treasury says it will miss Democrats' deadline for turning over Trump tax returns, casts skepticism over request". The Washington Post.
- Lorenzo, Aaron (April 23, 2019). "IRS blows deadline to hand over Trump tax returns". Politico.
- Rappeport, Alan (May 6, 2019). "Steven Mnuchin Refuses to Release Trump's Tax Documents to Congress". The New York Times.
- Fandos, Nicholas (May 10, 2019). "House Ways and Means Chairman Subpoenas Trump Tax Records". The New York Times.
- Rubin, Richard (May 17, 2019). "Mnuchin Defies Subpoena for President Trump's Tax Returns". The Wall Street Journal.
- Stein, Jeff; Dawsey, Josh (May 21, 2019). "Confidential draft IRS memo says tax returns must be given to Congress unless president invokes executive privilege". The Washington Post.
- Eckert, Toby (May 22, 2019). "Mnuchin dismisses IRS memo saying Congress must be given Trump's tax returns". Politico.
- Schmidt, Kiersten; Andrews, Wilson (December 19, 2016). "A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Desilver, Drew (December 20, 2017). "Trump's victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones". Pew Research Center.
- Thomas, G. Scott (2015). Counting the Votes: A New Way to Analyze America's Presidential Elections. ABC-CLIO. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-4408-3883-5.
- Cheney, Kyle (December 14, 2016). "Trump lawyer cites 1876 crisis to rebuke Electoral College suit". Politico.
- "Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. December 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
- Tani, Maxwell (November 9, 2016). "Trump pulls off biggest upset in U.S. history". Politico. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Cohn, Nate (November 9, 2016). "Why Trump Won: Working-Class Whites". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Silver, Nate (January 17, 2017). "Can You Trust Trump's Approval Rating Polls?". FiveThirtyEight.
- Silver, Nate (September 21, 2017). "The Media Has A Probability Problem". FiveThirtyEight.
- Martin, Emmie (January 23, 2017). "Donald Trump is officially the richest US president in history". Business Insider. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- Kurtzlebel, Danielle (June 14, 2016). "It's Trump's Birthday. If He Wins, He'd Be The Oldest President Ever To Take Office". NPR. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
- Weber, Peter (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump will be the first U.S. president with no government or military experience". The Week.
- Yomtov, Jesse (November 8, 2016). "Where Trump ranks among least experienced presidents". USA Today.
- Crockett, Zachary (November 11, 2016). "Donald Trump will be the only US president ever with no political or military experience". Vox. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- "Will Trump Be The 44th Or 45th President? Yes And Yes". NPR. November 10, 2016. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Moyer, Justin Wm.; Starrs, Jenny; Larimer, Sarah (March 11, 2016). "Trump supporter charged after sucker-punching protester at North Carolina rally". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Sullivan, Sean; Miller, Michael E. (June 3, 2016). "Ugly, bloody scenes in San Jose as protesters attack Trump supporters outside rally". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Diamond, Jeremy (May 28, 2016). "Pro-Trump, anti-Trump groups clash in San Diego". CNN. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Cummings, William (November 11, 2016). "Trump calls protests 'unfair' in first controversial tweet as president-elect". USA Today. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Colson, Thomas (November 11, 2016). "Trump says protesters have 'passion for our great country' after calling demonstrations 'very unfair'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Przybyla, Heidi M.; Schouten, Fredreka (January 22, 2017). "At 2.6 million strong, Women's Marches crush expectations". USA Today (online ed.). Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Buncombe, Andrew (January 22, 2017). "We asked ten people why they felt empowered wearing a pink 'pussy' hat". The Independent. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Varkiani, Adrienne Mahsa (January 28, 2017). "Here's your list of all the protests happening against the Muslim Ban". ThinkProgress. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Westwood, Sarah (January 22, 2017). "Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things'". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Morehouse, Lee (January 31, 2017). "Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". Phoenix, Arizona: KTVK. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Graham, David A. (February 15, 2017). "Trump Kicks Off His 2020 Reelection Campaign on Saturday". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- McCormick, John; Jacobs, Jennifer (January 31, 2018). "Trump's 2020 Re-Election Committee Has $22.1 Million in the Bank". Bloomberg News. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- "Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. / Presidential – Principal campaign committee / Financial summary". Federal Election Commission. December 31, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (January 31, 2019). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1312481". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Quigley, Aidan (January 25, 2017). "All of Trump's executive actions so far". Politico. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Lipton, Eric; Craig, Susanne (February 12, 2017). "Trump Sons Forge Ahead Without Father, Expanding and Navigating Conflicts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- V.v.B (March 31, 2017). "Ivanka Trump's new job". The Economist. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Lipton, Eric; Savage, Charlie (January 21, 2017). "Jared Kushner, Trump's Son-in-Law, Is Cleared to Serve as Adviser". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Barnes, Robert (January 31, 2017). "Trump picks Colo. appeals court judge Neil Gorsuch for Supreme Court". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Kessler, Glenn (September 7, 2018). "President Trump's repeated claim: 'The greatest economy in the history of our country'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- Andrews, Wilson; Parlapiano, Alicia (December 15, 2017). "What's in the Final Republican Tax Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- Schlesinger, Jacob M. (November 15, 2018). "Trump Forged His Ideas on Trade in the 1980s – And Never Deviated". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Epstein, Reid J.; Nelson, Colleen McCain (June 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech". The Wall Street Journal (subscription required). Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Trump calls NAFTA a "disaster"". CBS News. September 25, 2015.
- Bradner, Eric (January 23, 2017). "Trump's TPP withdrawal: 5 things to know". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- Inman, Phillip (March 10, 2018). "The war over steel: Trump tips global trade into new turmoil". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Haberman, Maggie (January 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Lawder, David; Blanchard, Ben (June 16, 2018). "Trump sets tariffs on $50 billion in Chinese goods; Beijing strikes". Reuters.
- Newburger, Emma (May 12, 2019). "Kudlow acknowledges US will pay for China tariffs, contradicting Trump". CNBC. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Parker, Ashley; Davenport, Coral (May 26, 2016). "Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules". The New York Times.
- Samenow, Jason (March 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's unsettling nonsense on weather and climate". The Washington Post.
- "Trump proposes cuts to climate and clean-energy programs". National Geographic Society. February 12, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (March 3, 2017). "Trump Got Nearly $1 Million in Energy-Efficiency Subsidies in 2012". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- Dennis, Brandy. "As Syria embraces Paris climate deal, it's the United States against the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Liptak, Kevin (June 9, 2018). "Trump departs G7 ahead of climate change talks". CNN.
- Teirstein, Zoya (August 26, 2019). "Donald 'I'm an environmentalist' Trump skips G7 climate meeting". Grist. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
- Adriance, Sam (February 16, 2017). "President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years". The National Law Review. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Farand, Chloe (March 6, 2017). "Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House". The Independent. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples". The New York Times. March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017 – via DocumentCloud.
More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target.
- Shear, Michael D. (January 23, 2017). "Trump Orders Broad Hiring Freeze for Federal Government". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- "Trump Orders Hiring Freeze for Much of Federal Government". Fox News. January 24, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Yoder, Eric (February 16, 2017). "Hiring freeze could add to government's risk, GAO chief warns". The Washington Post.
'We've looked at hiring freezes in the past by prior administrations and they haven't proven to be effective in reducing costs and they cause some problems if they're in effect for a long period of time', Comptroller General Gene Dodaro told a House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing.
- Rappeport, Alan (April 11, 2017). "Trump's Directive Will Lift Hiring Freeze, as It Asks Agencies for Cuts". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "Trump Signs Executive Order to Drastically Cut Federal Regs". Fox News. January 30, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (January 30, 2017). "Presidential Executive Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs". Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Calabresi, Massimo (March 9, 2017). "Inside Donald Trump's War against the State". Time.
Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests.
- Kodjak, Alison (November 9, 2016). "Trump Can Kill Obamacare With Or Without Help From Congress". All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Walsh, Deirdre; Lee, MJ (January 10, 2017). "Trump wants Obamacare repeal 'quickly', but Republicans aren't ready". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Sullivan, Peter (May 4, 2017). "House passes Obamacare repeal". The Hill. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "GOP Obamacare repeal bill fails in dramatic late-night vote". CNN. July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Nelson, Louis (July 18, 2017). "Trump says he plans to 'let Obamacare fail'". Politico. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Young, Jeffrey (August 31, 2017). "Trump Ramps Up Obamacare Sabotage With Huge Cuts To Enrollment Programs". HuffPost. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Pradhan, Rachana (August 31, 2017). "Trump administration slashes Obamacare outreach". Politico. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Pear, Robert (December 18, 2017). "Without the Insurance Mandate, Health Care's Future May Be in Doubt". The New York Times.
- Sullivan, Peter (December 2, 2017). "Senate GOP repeals ObamaCare mandate". The Hill.
- Jost, Timothy (December 20, 2017). "The Tax Bill And The Individual Mandate: What Happened, And What Does It Mean?". Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hblog20171220.323429 (inactive May 5, 2019).
- Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion". CNN.
- De Vogue, Ariane (November 15, 2016). "Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled', but Roe v Wade can be changed". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (July 22, 2015). "Here's what Donald Trump really believes". The Washington Post.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (January 30, 2017). "Obama's Protections for L.G.B.T. Workers Will Remain Under Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- O'Hara, Mary Emily. "LGBTQ Advocates Say Trump's New Executive Order Makes Them Vulnerable to Discrimination". NBC News. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Gorman, Michele (May 20, 2016). "A brief history of Donald Trump's stance on gun rights". Newsweek.
- "Second Amendment Rights". Donald J. Trump for President. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended.
- Krieg, Gregory (June 20, 2016). "The times Trump changed his positions on guns". CNN.
- "Donald Trump on Marijuana". C-SPAN. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- Diamond, Jeremy (December 11, 2015). "Trump: Death penalty for cop killers". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Foderaro, Lisa (May 1, 1989). "Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return of the Death Penalty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- McCarthy, Tom. "Donald Trump: I'd bring back 'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding'". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding". ABC News. February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- "Who pays for Donald Trump's wall?". BBC Online. February 6, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- "Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Oh, Inae (August 19, 2015). "Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- "Trump retreats on deportations, vows no amnesty". Houston, Texas: KTRK-TV. Associated Press. September 1, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Fritze, John (August 8, 2019). "A USA TODAY analysis found Trump used words like 'invasion' and 'killer' at rallies more than 500 times since 2017". USA Today. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- Scott, Eugene (December 13, 2015). "Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban". CNN.
- Barro, Josh (December 15, 2015). "How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask". The New York Times.
Donald J. Trump's proposal to bar Muslim noncitizens from entering the United States ...
- Colvin, Jill; Barrow, Bill (December 14, 2015). "Donald Trump's supporters see plenty of sense in views that his critics denounce". U.S. News & World Report.
He said American citizens, including Muslim members of the military, would be exempt, as would certain world leaders and athletes coming to the U.S. to compete.
- Johnson, Jenna (June 25, 2016). "Trump now says Muslim ban only applies to those from terrorism-heavy countries". Chicago Tribune.
[A] reporter asked Trump if [he] would be OK with a Muslim from Scotland coming into the United States and he said it 'wouldn't bother me.' Afterward, [spokeswoman] Hicks said in an email that Trump's ban would now just apply to Muslims in terror states ...
- Detrow, Scott (June 13, 2016). "Trump Calls To Ban Immigration From Countries With 'Proven History Of Terrorism'". NPR.
I will suspend immigration from areas of the world where there's a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies until we fully understand how to end these threats.
- Park, Haeyoun (July 22, 2016). "Trump Vows to Stop Immigration From Nations 'Compromised' by Terrorism. How Could It Work?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- "Trump signs new travel ban directive". BBC News. March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella; Park, Madison (January 30, 2017). "2nd day of protests over Trump's immigration policies". CNN. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- "US airports on frontline as Donald Trump's travel ban causes chaos and protests". The Guardian. January 28, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
- Perez, Evan; Diamond, Jeremy (January 30, 2017). "Trump fires acting AG after she declines to defend travel ban". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- "Statement on the Appointment of Dana Boente as Acting Attorney General". The White House. January 30, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Landler, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt; Lichtblau, Eric (January 30, 2017). "Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him". The New York Times. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin; Frosch, Dan (February 4, 2017). "Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees". The Wall Street Journal.
- Liptak, Adam (February 5, 2017). "Where Trump's Travel Ban Stands". The New York Times.
- Chakraborty, Barnini (March 6, 2017). "Trump Signs New Immigration Order, Narrows Scope of Travel Ban". Fox News. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Levine, Dan; Rosenberg, Mica (March 15, 2017). "Hawaii judge halts Trump's new travel ban before it can go into effect". Reuters.
- Sherman, Mark (June 26, 2017). "Trump says Supreme Court decision on travel ban a 'clear victory for our national security'". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Laughland, Oliver (September 25, 2017). "Trump travel ban extended to blocks on North Korea, Venezuela and Chad". The Guardian. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Hurley, Lawrence (December 4, 2017). "Supreme Court lets Trump's latest travel ban go into full effect". Reuters.
- Wagner, Meg; Ries, Brian (June 26, 2018). "Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban". CNN. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Shear, Michael D.; Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (September 5, 2017). "Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Kopan, Tal (September 5, 2017). "Trump ends DACA, but gives Congress window to save it". CNN.
- Kopan, Tal (March 5, 2018). "DACA's March 5 'deadline' marks only inaction". CNN.
- Kopan, Tal (September 6, 2017). "Blue states sue Trump over DACA". CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Jordan, Miriam (April 24, 2018). "U.S. Must Resume DACA and Accept New Applications, Federal Judge Rules". The New York Times.
- Rose, Joel (August 31, 2018). "Texas Judge Says DACA Is Probably Illegal, But Leaves It In Place". NPR. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
- Vergano, Dan (June 15, 2018). "Immigrant Children Who Are Forcibly Separated From Their Parents Face Long-Term Trauma". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- Bachega, Hugo (June 7, 2018), "Separation of migrant families: What other countries do", BBC Online
- Burke, Garance; Mendoza, Martha (June 20, 2018). "Toddlers Separated From Parents at the Border Are Being Detained in 'Tender Age' Shelters". Time. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- Colvin, Jill (June 18, 2018). "President Trump's Family Separation Policy Is Dividing Republicans". Time. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Davis, Julie (June 15, 2018). "Separated at the Border From Their Parents: In Six Weeks, 1,995 Children". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- McArdle, Mairead (June 15, 2018). "White House Blames Democrats for Separation of Families at Border". National Review. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Sarlin, Benjy (June 15, 2018). "Despite claims, GOP immigration bill would not end family separation, experts say". NBC News. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Shear, Michael D.; Goodnough, Abby; Haberman, Maggie (June 20, 2018). "Trump Retreats on Separating Families, but Thousands May Remain Apart". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- Jarrett, Laura (June 27, 2018). "Federal judge orders reunification of parents and children, end to most family separations at border". CNN. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Tackett, Michael (January 2, 2019). "Trump and Democrats Dig In After Talks to Reopen Government Go Nowhere". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Wamsley, Laurel (January 9, 2019). "How Is The Shutdown Affecting America? Let Us Count The Ways". NPR.
- Paletta, Damian; Werner, Erica (January 2, 2019). "Trump falsely claims Mexico is paying for wall, demands taxpayer money for wall in meeting with Democrats". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Nakamura, David; Kim, Seung Min (January 9, 2019). "'He's a gut politician': Trump's go-to negotiating tactics aren't working in shutdown standoff". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Cassidy, John (February 29, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Rucker, Philip; Costa, Robert (March 21, 2016). "Trump questions need for NATO, outlines noninterventionist foreign policy". The Washington Post.
- Dueck, Colin (November 3, 2015). "Donald Trump, American Nationalist". The National Interest.
- "Trump calls on nations to reject globalism, embrace nationalism". Reuters. September 24, 2019.
- Amanpour, Christiane (July 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's speech: 'America first', but an America absent from the world". CNN.
- "Donald Trump reveals his isolationist foreign-policy instincts". The Economist. May 22, 2016.
- Carothers, Thomas; Brown, Frances Z. (October 1, 2019). "Can U.S. Democracy Policy Survive Trump?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- "US President Donald Trump praises China's Xi Jinping for consolidating grip on power". Deutsche Welle. March 4, 2018.
- Lemire, Jonathan; Colvin, Jill (November 13, 2017). "Donald Trump repeatedly praises Philippines' President Duterte during Asia trip". Global News.
- Revesz, Rachael (May 21, 2017). "Donald Trump praises Egypt President al-Sisi and plans trip to Cairo". The Independent.
- Talev, Margaret; Jacobs, Jennifer (September 21, 2017). "Trump Praises Erdogan for 'High Marks' Amid Crackdown Concerns". Bloomberg News.
- LaVito, Angelica (November 6, 2017). "Trump praises Saudi king after crackdown". CNBC.
- Spinaci, Di Gianluigi (June 15, 2018). "Donal Trump elogia il premier italiano Giuseppe Conte: "È fantastico" – Video". TPI News (in Italian).
- "Trump praises Brazil's new President Bolsonaro after he vowed to 'strengthen democracy'". CNBC. Reuters. January 1, 2019.
- Calamur, Krishnadev (March 4, 2018). "Nine Notorious Dictators, Nine Shout-Outs From Donald Trump". The Atlantic.
- Gera, Vanessa (July 24, 2017). "Amid protests, Polish leader puts brakes on judicial shakeup". AP News.
- Maizland, Lindsay (July 20, 2017). "Trump praised Poland as a defender of the West. But their democracy is unraveling". Vox.
- "Syria war: Trump's missile strike attracts US praise – and barbs". BBC News. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- "Trump denies he wanted Syria leader killed". BBC Online. September 5, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Joyce, Kathleen (April 14, 2018). "US strikes Syria after suspected chemical attack by Assad regime". Fox News. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- Landler, Mark; Cooper, Helene; Schmitt, Eric (December 19, 2018). "Trump withdraws U.S. Forces From Syria, Declaring 'We Have Won Against ISIS'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- "Syria conflict: Trump's withdrawal plan shocks allies". BBC Online. December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Borger, Julian; Chulov, Martin (December 20, 2018). "Trump shocks allies and advisers with plan to pull US troops out of Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Cooper, Helene (December 20, 2018). "Jim Mattis, Defense Secretary, Resigns in Rebuke of Trump's Worldview". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- Demirjian, Karoun (January 6, 2019). "Contradicting Trump, Bolton says no withdrawal from Syria until ISIS destroyed, Kurds' safety guaranteed". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- Sanger, David E.; Weiland, Noah; Schmitt, Eric (January 6, 2019). "Bolton Puts Conditions on Syria Withdrawal, Suggesting a Delay of Months or Years". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- "Trump praises arms sales as he meets Saudi crown prince". Financial Times. March 20, 2018.
- "Senate Votes Down Ending Trump's Support for Saudi-led War in Yemen". Haaretz. May 21, 2018.
- Phelps, Jordyn; Struyk, Ryan (May 20, 2017). "Trump signs $110 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia on 'a tremendous day'". ABC News. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Jaffe, Greg; Ryan, Missy (January 21, 2018). "Up to 1,000 more U.S. troops could be headed to Afghanistan this spring". The Washington Post.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric; Haberman, Maggie (August 20, 2017). "Trump Settles on Afghan Strategy Expected to Raise Troop Levels". The New York Times.
- Rampton, Roberta; Landay, Jonathan (January 29, 2018). "Trump rejects peace talks with Taliban in departure from Afghan strategy". Reuters.
- LeBlanc, Paul (October 16, 2019). "Trump tweeted a photo attacking Nancy Pelosi. She made it her Twitter cover photo". CNN. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Chappell, Bill; Neuman, Scott (October 7, 2019). "In Major Policy Shift, U.S. Will Stand Aside As Turkish Forces Extend Reach In Syria". NPR. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
- Baker, Peter; Edmondson, Catie (October 16, 2019). "Trump Lashes Out on Syria as Republicans Rebuke Him in House Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Forgey, Quint (October 7, 2019). "Republicans unload on Trump for Syria shift when he needs them most". Politico. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
- "US troops start pullout in Syria as Turkey prepares operation". Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
- Singh, Maanvi (October 9, 2019). "Trump defends Syria decision by saying Kurds 'didn't help us with Normandy'". The Guardian. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- "Turkey Syria offensive: Tens of thousands flee homes". BBC News. October 10, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
- O'Brien, Connor (October 16, 2019). "House condemns Trump's Syria withdrawal". Politico. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Edmondson, Catie (October 16, 2019). "In Bipartisan Rebuke, House Majority Condemns Trump for Syria Withdrawal". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Weiler, Yuram Abdullah (December 2, 2017). "What is Basij and how does it function against U.S. and Zionism?". Khamenei.ir. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Tur, Katy (July 14, 2015). "Donald Trump Weighs in on Iran Deal". NBC News.
- Lederman, Josh (May 8, 2018). "Trump declares US leaving 'horrible' Iran nuclear accord". AP News. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Bobic, Igor (August 16, 2015). "Donald Trump Would Not Rip Up The Iran Deal". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- Borger, Julian; Smith, David (February 2, 2017). "Trump administration 'officially putting Iran on notice', says Michael Flynn". The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Torbati, Yeganeh (February 3, 2016). "Trump administration tightens Iran sanctions, Tehran hits back". Reuters.
- Borger, Julian; Smith, David (February 3, 2017). "Trump administration imposes new sanctions on Iran". The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Aleem, Zeeshan (July 21, 2017). "Iran says the US is violating the nuclear deal. It has a point". Vox. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- "Iran says new U.S. sanctions violate nuclear deal, vows 'proportional reaction'". Reuters. August 2, 2017.
- Budryk, Zack (May 19, 2019). "Trump: 'I will not let Iran have nuclear weapons'". The Hill. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Chamberlain, Samuel (May 19, 2019). "Trump says war will mean 'official end of Iran', warns 'never threaten the United States again'". Fox News. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Wintour, Patrick (May 20, 2019). "Iran hits back at Trump for tweeting 'genocidal taunts'". The Guardian. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Nissenbaum, Dion; Said, Summer; Malsin, Jared (September 17, 2019). "U.S. Tells Saudi Arabia Oil Attacks Were Launched From Iran". The Wall Street Journal.
- "US to deploy more troops to Saudi Arabia after attack on oil industry". The Guardian. September 21, 2019.
- Kaplan Sommer, Allison (July 25, 2019). "How Trump and Netanyahu Became Each Other's Most Effective Political Weapon". Haaretz. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
- Landler, Mark; Horowitz, Jason (May 24, 2017). "With Gift and in Conversation, Vatican Presses Trump on Climate Change". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
- Rafferty, Andrew (May 23, 2017). "Trump Becomes First Sitting U.S. President to Visit Western Wall". NBC News. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
Baker, Luke; Holland, Steve (May 23, 2017). "In U.S. presidential first, Trump prays at Jerusalem's Western Wall". Reuters. London, England. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
Diamond, Jeremy (May 23, 2017). "Trump makes historic visit to Western Wall". CNN. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Nelson, Louis; Nussbaum, Matthew (December 6, 2017). "Trump says U.S. recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital, despite global condemnation". Politico. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- "US Embassy opens in Jerusalem: 'When Trump makes a promise, he keeps it'". Ynetnews. May 14, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
- "Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory – Turkey and Yemen: draft resolution – Status of Jerusalem". United Nations General Assembly. December 19, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Gladstone, Rick (December 21, 2017). "Defying Trump, U.N. General Assembly Condemns U.S. Decree on Jerusalem". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- MacKinnon, Mark (March 22, 2019). "'The jungle is back.' With his Golan Heights tweet, Trump emboldens the annexation agendas of the world's strongmen". The Globe and Mail.
- Huet, Natalie (March 22, 2019). "Outcry as Trump backs Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights". Euronews. Reuters.
- Bose, Nandita; Shalal, Andrea (August 7, 2019). "Trump says China is 'killing us with unfair trade deals'". Reuters. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- Bajak, Frank; Liedtke, Michael. "Huawei sanctions: Who gets hurt in dispute?". USA Today. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- "Trump's Next Trade War Target: Chinese Students in the U.S." Time. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- "Visas Are The Newest Weapon In U.S.-China Rivalry". NPR. April 25, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- Meredith, Sam (August 6, 2019). "China responds to US after Treasury designates Beijing a 'currency manipulator'". CNBC. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
- "Getting acclimatised to the US-China cold war". Financial Times. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- "Is China-US cold war inevitable? Chinese analysts say it can't be ruled out". South China Morning Post. August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- Maru, Mehari Taddele. "A new cold war in Africa". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- Taylor, Adam; Meko, Tim (December 21, 2017). "What made North Korea's weapons programs so much scarier in 2017". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
- Lendon, Brad (July 30, 2017). "US slams North Korea missile test as Kim claims 'whole US mainland' in reach". CNN. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- Wright, David (July 28, 2017). "North Korean ICBM Appears Able to Reach Major US Cities". All Things Nuclear. Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- Rucker, Philip; DeYoung, Karen (August 10, 2017). "Trump reiterates warning to N. Korea: 'Fire and fury' may not have been 'tough enough'". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- Talmadge, Eric; Lemire, Jonathan (August 11, 2017). "Trump doubles down on 'fire and fury' vow as wargames near". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- Yong, Jeremy Au; Wei, Tan Dawn (June 12, 2018). "Trump-Kim summit: Kim Jong Un gave unwavering commitment to denuclearisation, says Trump". The Straits Times. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit". The White House. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Rosenfeld, Everett (June 12, 2018). "Document signed by Trump and Kim includes four main elements related to 'peace regime'". CNBC. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Kim, Tong-Hyung (December 20, 2018). "North Korea Says It Won't Give Up Nuclear Weapons Unless the U.S. Removes Nuclear Threat". Time. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- McArdle, Mairead (December 20, 2018). "North Korea Refuses Nuclear Disarmament until U.S. Eliminates 'Nuclear Threat'". National Review. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- Rucker, Philip; Denyer, Simon; Nakamura, David (February 28, 2019). "North Korea's foreign minister says country seeks only partial sanctions relief". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Wong, Edward (February 28, 2019). "Trump's Talks With Kim Jong-un Collapse, and Both Sides Point Fingers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Diamond, Jeremy (February 28, 2019). "Takeaways from the Trump-Kim Hanoi summit". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- "Trump meets North Korea's Kim at DMZ in landmark visit". Al Jazeera. June 30, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- Sang, Hun (October 6, 2019). "North Korea Rules Out Quick Resumption of 'Sickening' Talks with U.S." New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
- Flores, Reena (January 7, 2017). "Donald Trump urges 'good relationship' with Russia in tweets". CBS News. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- Berry, Lynn (January 29, 2017). "GOP warns Trump not to lift Russia sanctions after call with Putin". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- Viebeck, Elise; Markon, Jerry; DeYoung, Karen (November 14, 2016). "Trump, Putin agree in phone call to improve 'unsatisfactory' relations between their countries, Kremlin says". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Conrad, Peter (January 13, 2017). "Trump and Putin's Bromance Could Change the World". GQ. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- "Trump suggests U.S. accept Russia's annexation of Crimea". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. August 1, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Carroll, Oliver (January 19, 2018). "US-Russia relations fail to improve in Trump's first year and they are likely to get worse". The Independent.
- Osborne, Samuel (April 12, 2017). "Vladimir Putin says US-Russia relations are worse since Donald Trump took office". The Independent.
- Smith, Alexander (March 30, 2018). "U.S.-Russian relations worst Ambassador Antonov can remember". NBC News.
- Zurcher, Anthony (July 16, 2018). "Trump-Putin summit: After Helsinki, the fallout at home". BBC Online. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Calamur, Krishnadev (July 16, 2018). "Trump Sides With the Kremlin, Against the U.S. Government". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Fox, Lauren (July 16, 2018). "Top Republicans in Congress break with Trump over Putin comments". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- "Trump expects Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine: White House". Reuters. February 14, 2017.
- "Trump blames Putin for backing 'Animal Assad'". Politico. April 8, 2018.
- Rampton, Roberta; Sobczak, Pawel (July 6, 2017). "Trump criticizes Russia, calls for defense of Western civilization". Reuters.
- "Exclusive: Trump accuses Russia of helping North Korea evade sanctions; says U.S. needs more missile defense". Reuters. January 17, 2018.
- "Venezuela crisis: Russia hits out at 'boorish' Trump". BBC News. March 28, 2019.
- "Trump vows to 'counteract' any Russia election meddling". Daily Nation. March 7, 2018.
- "Trump expelling 60 Russian diplomats in wake of UK nerve agent attack". CNN. March 26, 2018.
- Borak, Donna; Egan, Matt (April 21, 2017). "Trump denies Exxon permission to drill for oil in Russia". CNN.
- DeYoung, Karen (November 8, 2017). "White House implements new Cuba policy restricting travel and trade". The Washington Post.
- Johnson, Jenna; Wagner, John (August 11, 2017). "Trump won't 'rule out a military option' in Venezuela". The Washington Post.
- Wroughton, Lesley; Ellsworth, Brian (September 25, 2018). "U.S. sanctions Venezuela officials, Trump slams Maduro". Reuters.
- "Venezuela's President breaks diplomatic relations with US over Donald Trump's support of Opposition Leader". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Reuters/AP. January 24, 2019.
- Sanger, David E.; Haberman, Maggie (July 20, 2016). "Donald Trump Sets Conditions for Defending NATO Allies Against Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "What's Trump's Position on NATO?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "Trump supports NATO, but Senate holds up expansion". Newsweek. Reuters. March 1, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- Baker, Peter (May 26, 2018). "Trump Says NATO Allies Don't Pay Their Share. Is That True?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Barnes, Julian E.; Cooper, Helene (January 14, 2019). "Trump Discussed Pulling U.S. From NATO, Aides Say Amid New Concerns Over Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2019.