Nuclear program of Iran
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants. In 1970, Iran ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), making its nuclear program subject to the IAEA's verification.
Iran's nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program. The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the last Shah of Iran. Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran was cut off. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country's nuclear development should continue. Negotiations took place with France in the late 1980s and with Argentina in the early 1990s, and agreements were reached. In the 1990s, Russia formed a joint research organization with Iran, providing Iran with Russian nuclear experts and technical information.
In the 2000s, the revelation of Iran's clandestine uranium enrichment program raised concerns that it might be intended for non-peaceful uses. The IAEA launched an investigation in 2003 after an Iranian dissident group revealed undeclared nuclear activities carried out by Iran. In 2006, because of Iran's noncompliance with its NPT obligations, the United Nations Security Council demanded that Iran suspend its enrichment programs. In 2007, the United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) stated that Iran halted an alleged active nuclear weapons program in fall 2003. In November 2011, the IAEA reported credible evidence that Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at designing a nuclear bomb until 2003, and that research may have continued on a smaller scale after that time. On 1 May 2018 the IAEA reiterated its 2015 report, saying it had found no credible evidence of nuclear weapons activity in Iran after 2009.
Iran's first nuclear power plant, the Bushehr I reactor, was completed with major assistance from the Russian government agency Rosatom and officially opened on 12 September 2011. The Russian engineering contractor Atomenergoprom said the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant would reach full capacity by the end of 2012. Iran has also announced that it is working on a new 360 Megawatt Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant, and that it will seek more medium-sized nuclear power plants and uranium mines in the future.
As of 2015, Iran's nuclear program has cost $100 billion in lost oil revenues and lost foreign direct investment because of international sanctions ($500 billion, when including other opportunity costs).
1950s & 1960sEdit
The foundations for Iran's nuclear program were laid on 5 March 1957, when a "proposed agreement for cooperation in research in the peaceful uses of atomic energy" was announced under the auspices of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program.
In 1967, the Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) was established, run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). The TNRC was equipped with a U.S.-supplied, 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor, which was fueled by highly enriched uranium.
Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968 and ratified it in 1970, making Iran's nuclear program subject to IAEA verification.
The Shah approved plans to construct up to 23 nuclear power stations by 2000. In March 1974, the Shah envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out, and declared, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn ... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23,000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."
U.S. and European companies scrambled to do business in Iran. Bushehr, the first plant, would supply energy to the city of Shiraz. In 1975, the Erlangen/Frankfurt firm Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196 MWe, and was to have been completed in 1981.
In 1975 Sweden's 10% share in Eurodif went to Iran. The French government subsidiary company Cogéma and the Iranian Government established the Sofidif (Société franco–iranienne pour l'enrichissement de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse) enterprise with 60% and 40% shares, respectively. In turn, Sofidif acquired a 25% share in Eurodif, which gave Iran its 10% share of Eurodif. Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi lent 1 billion dollars (and another 180 million dollars in 1977) for the construction of the Eurodif factory, to have the right of buying 10% of the production of the site.
"President Gerald Ford signed a directive in 1976 offering Tehran the chance to buy and operate a U.S.-built reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel. The deal was for a complete 'nuclear fuel cycle'." The Ford strategy paper said the "introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals."
A 1974 CIA proliferation assessment stated "If [the Shah] is alive in the mid-1980s ... and if other countries [particularly India] have proceeded with weapons development we have no doubt Iran will follow suit."
Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran was cut off. Kraftwerk Union stopped working at the Bushehr nuclear project in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete, and they fully withdrew from the project in July 1979. The company said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments, while other sources claim the construction was halted under pressure from the United States. The United States cut off the supply of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the Tehran Nuclear Research Center, which forced the reactor to shut down for a number of years. The French Eurodif international enrichment facility stopped supplying enriched uranium to Iran as well. Iran has later argued that these experiences indicate foreign facilities and foreign fuel supplies are an unreliable source of nuclear fuel supply.
In 1981, Iranian governmental officials concluded that the country's nuclear development should continue. Reports to the IAEA included that a site at Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center (ENTEC) would act "as the center for the transfer and development of nuclear technology, as well as contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain a very ambitious program in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology." The IAEA also was informed about Entec's largest department, for materials testing, which was responsible for UO
2 pellet fuel fabrication and a chemical department whose goal was the conversion of U
8 to nuclear grade UO
In 1983, IAEA officials were keen to assist Iran in chemical aspects of reactor fuel fabrication, chemical engineering and design aspects of pilot plants for uranium conversion, corrosion of nuclear materials, LWR fuel fabrication, and pilot plant development for production of nuclear grade UO
2. However, the U.S. government "directly intervened" to discourage IAEA assistance in Iranian production of UO
2 and UF
6. A former U.S. official said "we stopped that in its tracks." Iran later set up a bilateral cooperation on fuel cycle related issues with China, but China also agreed to drop most outstanding nuclear commerce with Iran, including the construction of the UF
6 plant, due to U.S. pressure.
In April 1984, West German intelligence reported that Iran might have a nuclear bomb within two years with uranium from Pakistan. The Germans leaked this news in the first public Western intelligence report of a post-revolutionary nuclear weapons program in Iran. Later that year, Minority Whip of the United States Senate Alan Cranston asserted that the Islamic Republic of Iran was seven years away from being able to build its own nuclear weapon.
During the Iran–Iraq War, the two Bushehr reactors were damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes and work on the nuclear program came to a standstill. Iran notified the International Atomic Energy Agency of the blasts, and complained about international inaction and the use of French made missiles in the attack. In late 2015, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani revealed that Iran considered pursuing weapons of mass destruction during the war against Iraq.
In 1985, Iran began to put pressure on France in order to recover its debt from the Eurodif's investment and to get the enriched uranium delivered. French hostages were taken in Lebanon from spring 1985; in 1986, terror attacks were perpetrated in Paris and Eurodif manager Georges Besse was assassinated. In their investigation La République atomique, France-Iran le pacte nucléaire, David Carr-Brown and Dominique Lorentz pointed to the Iranian intelligence services' responsibility. On 6 May 1988, French premier Jacques Chirac signed an accord with Iran: France agreed to accept Iran back in its share-holder status of Eurodif and to deliver it enriched uranium "without restrictions".
In 1987–88, Argentina's National Atomic Energy Commission signed an agreement with Iran to help in converting the reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to 19.75% low-enriched uranium, and to supply the low-enriched uranium to Iran. According to a report by the Argentine justice in 2006, during the late 1980s and early 1990s the US pressured Argentina to terminate its nuclear cooperation with Iran, and from early 1992 to 1994 negotiations between Argentina and Iran took place with the aim of re-establishing the three agreements made in 1987–88. Some have linked attacks such as the 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires and the AMIA bombing as part of an Iranian campaign to pressure Argentina into honoring the agreements. The uranium was delivered in 1993.
From the beginning of the 1990s, Russia formed a joint research organization with Iran called Persepolis which provided Iran with Russian nuclear experts, and technical information. Five Russian institutions, including the Russian Federal Space Agency helped Tehran to improve its missiles. The exchange of technical information with Iran was personally approved by the SVR director Trubnikov. President Boris Yeltsin had a "two track policy" offering commercial nuclear technology to Iran and discussing the issues with Washington.
In 1992 Iran invited IAEA inspectors to visit all the sites and facilities they asked. Director General Blix reported that all activities observed were consistent with the peaceful use of atomic energy. The IAEA visits included undeclared facilities and Iran's nascent uranium mining project at Saghand. In the same year, Argentine officials disclosed that their country had canceled a sale to Iran of civilian nuclear equipment worth $18 million, under US pressure.
In 1995, Iran signed a contract with Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy to resume work on the partially complete Bushehr plant, installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915 MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor, with completion expected in 2009.
In 1996, the U.S. convinced the People's Republic of China to pull out of a contract to construct a uranium conversion plant. However, the Chinese provided blueprints for the facility to the Iranians, who advised the IAEA that they would continue work on the program, and IAEA Director Mohamed ElBaradei even visited the construction site.
In 2003, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) first reported that Iran had not declared sensitive enrichment and reprocessing activities. Enrichment can be used to produce uranium for reactor fuel or (at higher enrichment levels) for weapons. Iran says its nuclear program is peaceful, and has enriched uranium to less than 5%, consistent with fuel for a civilian nuclear power plant. Iran also claims that it was forced to resort to secrecy after US pressure caused several of its nuclear contracts with foreign governments to fall through. After the IAEA Board of Governors reported Iran's noncompliance with its safeguards agreement to the UN Security Council, the Council demanded that Iran suspend its nuclear enrichment activities while Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has argued that the sanctions are "illegal," imposed by "arrogant powers," and that Iran has decided to pursue the monitoring of its self-described peaceful nuclear program through "its appropriate legal path," the International Atomic Energy Agency.
After public allegations about Iran's previously undeclared nuclear activities, the IAEA launched an investigation that concluded in November 2003 that Iran had systematically failed to meet its obligations under its NPT safeguards agreement to report those activities to the IAEA, although it also reported no evidence of links to a nuclear weapons program. The IAEA Board of Governors delayed a formal finding of non-compliance until September 2005, and reported that non-compliance to the UN Security Council in February 2006. After the IAEA Board of Governors reported Iran's noncompliance with its safeguards agreement to the United Nations Security Council, the Council demanded that Iran suspend its enrichment programs. The Council imposed sanctions after Iran refused to do so. A May 2009 U.S. Congressional Report suggested "the United States, and later the Europeans, argued that Iran's deception meant it should forfeit its right to enrich, a position likely to be up for negotiation in talks with Iran."
In exchange for suspending its enrichment program, Iran has been offered "a long-term comprehensive arrangement which would allow for the development of relations and cooperation with Iran based on mutual respect and the establishment of international confidence in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program." However, Iran has consistently refused to give up its enrichment program, arguing that the program is necessary for its energy security, that such "long term arrangements" are inherently unreliable, and would deprive it of its inalienable right to peaceful nuclear technology. In June 2009, in the immediate wake of the disputed Iranian presidential election, Iran initially agreed to a deal to relinquish its stockpile of low-enriched uranium in return for fuel for a medical research reactor, but then backed out of the deal. Currently, thirteen states possess operational enrichment or reprocessing facilities, and several others have expressed an interest in developing indigenous enrichment programs. Iran's position was endorsed by the Non-Aligned Movement, which expressed concern about the potential monopolization of nuclear fuel production.
To address concerns that its enrichment program may be diverted to non-peaceful uses, Iran has offered to place additional restrictions on its enrichment program including, for example, ratifying the Additional Protocol to allow more stringent inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency, operating the uranium enrichment facility at Natanz as a multinational fuel center with the participation of foreign representatives, renouncing plutonium reprocessing and immediately fabricating all enriched uranium into reactor fuel rods. Iran's offer to open its uranium enrichment program to foreign private and public participation mirrors suggestions of an IAEA expert committee which was formed to investigate the methods to reduce the risk that sensitive fuel cycle activities could contribute to national nuclear weapons capabilities. Some non-governmental U.S. experts have endorsed this approach. The United States has insisted that Iran must meet the demands of the UN Security Council to suspend its enrichment program. In every other case in which the IAEA Board of Governors made a finding of safeguards non-compliance involving clandestine enrichment or reprocessing, the resolution has involved (in the cases of Iraq and Libya) or is expected to involve (in the case of North Korea) at a minimum ending sensitive fuel cycle activities. According to Pierre Goldschmidt, former deputy director general and head of the department of safeguards at the IAEA, and Henry D. Sokolski, Executive Director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, some other instances of safeguards noncompliance reported by the IAEA Secretariat (South Korea, Egypt) were never reported to the Security Council because the IAEA Board of Governors never made a formal finding of non-compliance. Though South Korea's case involved enriching uranium to levels near weapons grade, the country itself voluntarily reported the isolated activity and Goldschmidt has argued "political considerations also played a dominant role in the board's decision" to not make a formal finding of non-compliance.
Estimating when Iran might possibly achieve nuclear "breakout" capability, defined as having produced a sufficient quantity of highly enriched uranium to fuel a weapon – if a working design for one existed and the political decision to assemble it was made – is uncertain. A detailed analysis by physicists at the Federation of American Scientists concludes that such an estimate would depend on the total number and overall efficiency of the centrifuges Iran has in operation, and the amount of low-enriched uranium it has stockpiled to serve as "feedstock" for a possible high-enrichment program. A 23 March 2012 U.S. Congressional Research Service report quotes 24 February 2012 IAEA report saying that Iran has stockpiled 240 pounds of 20-percent-enriched uranium – an enrichment level necessary for medical applications – as an indication of their capacity to enrich to higher levels. The authoritarian political culture of Iran may pose additional challenges to a scientific program requiring cooperation among many technical specialists. Some experts argue that the intense focus on Iran's nuclear program detracts from a need for broader diplomatic engagement with the Islamic Republic. U.S. intelligence agency officials interviewed by The New York Times in March 2012 said they continued to assess that Iran had not restarted its weaponization program, which the 2007 National Intelligence Estimate said Iran had discontinued in 2003, although they have found evidence that some weaponization-related activities have continued. The Israeli Mossad reportedly shared this belief.
On 14 August 2002, Alireza Jafarzadeh, a spokesman for an Iranian dissident group National Council of Resistance of Iran, publicly revealed the existence of two nuclear sites under construction: a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz (part of which is underground), and a heavy water facility in Arak. It has been strongly suggested that intelligence agencies already knew about these facilities but the reports had been classified.
The IAEA immediately sought access to these facilities and further information and co-operation from Iran regarding its nuclear program. According to arrangements in force at the time for implementation of Iran's safeguards agreement with the IAEA, Iran was not required to allow IAEA inspections of a new nuclear facility until six months before nuclear material is introduced into that facility. At the time, Iran was not even required to inform the IAEA of the existence of the facility. This "six months" clause was standard for implementation of all IAEA safeguards agreements until 1992, when the IAEA Board of Governors decided that facilities should be reported during the planning phase, even before construction began. Iran was the last country to accept that decision, and only did so on 26 February 2003, after the IAEA investigation began.
In May 2003, shortly after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, elements of the Iranian government of Mohammad Khatami made a confidential proposal for a "Grand Bargain" through Swiss diplomatic channels. It offered full transparency of Iran's nuclear program and withdrawal of support for Hamas and Hezbollah, in exchange for security assurances from the United States and a normalization of diplomatic relations. The Bush Administration did not respond to the proposal, as senior U.S. officials doubted its authenticity. The proposal reportedly was widely blessed by the Iranian government, including Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei.
France, Germany and the United Kingdom (the EU-3) undertook a diplomatic initiative with Iran to resolve questions about its nuclear program. On 21 October 2003, in Tehran, the Iranian government and EU-3 Foreign Ministers issued a statement known as the Tehran Declaration in which Iran agreed to co-operate with the IAEA, to sign and implement an Additional Protocol as a voluntary, confidence-building measure, and to suspend its enrichment and reprocessing activities during the course of the negotiations. The EU-3 in return explicitly agreed to recognize Iran's nuclear rights and to discuss ways Iran could provide "satisfactory assurances" regarding its nuclear power program, after which Iran would gain easier access to modern technology. Iran signed an Additional Protocol on 18 December 2003, and agreed to act as if the protocol were in force, making the required reports to the IAEA and allowing the required access by IAEA inspectors, pending Iran's ratification of the Additional Protocol.
The IAEA reported 10 November 2003, that "it is clear that Iran has failed in a number of instances over an extended period of time to meet its obligations under its Safeguards Agreement with respect to the reporting of nuclear material and its processing and use, as well as the declaration of facilities where such material has been processed and stored." Iran was obligated to inform the IAEA of its importation of uranium from China and subsequent use of that material in uranium conversion and enrichment activities. It was also obligated to report to the IAEA experiments with the separation of plutonium. However, the Islamic Republic reneged on its promise to permit the IAEA to carry out their inspections and suspended the Additional Protocol agreement outlined above in October 2005.
A comprehensive list of Iran's specific "breaches" of its IAEA safeguards agreement, which the IAEA described as part of a "pattern of concealment," can be found in a 15 November 2004 report of the IAEA on Iran's nuclear program. Iran attributes its failure to report certain acquisitions and activities on US obstructionism, which reportedly included pressuring the IAEA to cease providing technical assistance to Iran's uranium conversion program in 1983. On the question of whether Iran had a hidden nuclear weapons program, the IAEA's November 2003 report states that it found "no evidence" that the previously undeclared activities were related to a nuclear weapons program, but also that it was unable to conclude that Iran's nuclear program was exclusively peaceful.
Under the terms of the Paris Agreement, on 14 November 2004, Iran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment program (enrichment is not a violation of the NPT) and the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol, after pressure from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union (EU, known in this context as the EU-3). The measure was said at the time to be a voluntary, confidence-building measure, to continue for some reasonable period of time (six months being mentioned as a reference) as negotiations with the EU-3 continued. On 24 November, Iran sought to amend the terms of its agreement with the EU to exclude a handful of the equipment from this deal for research work. This request was dropped four days later. According to Seyyed Hossein Mousavian, one of the Iranian representatives to the Paris Agreement negotiations, the Iranians made it clear to their European counterparts that Iran would not consider a permanent end to uranium enrichment:
Before the Paris [Agreement] text was signed, Dr Rohani ... stressed that they should be committed neither to speak nor even think of a cessation any more. The ambassadors delivered his message to their foreign ministers prior to the signing of the Paris agreed text ... The Iranians made it clear to their European counterparts that if the latter sought a complete termination of Iran's nuclear fuel-cycle activities, there would be no negotiations. The Europeans answered that they were not seeking such a termination, only an assurance on the non-diversion of Iran's nuclear programme to military ends.
In February 2005, Iran pressed the EU-3 to speed up talks, which the EU-3 refused to do so. The talks made little progress because of the divergent positions of the two sides. Under pressure from US the European negotiators could not agree to allow enrichment on Iranian soil. Although Iranians presented an offer, which included voluntary restrictions on the enrichment volume and output, it was rejected. The EU-3 broke a commitment they had made to recognize Iran's right under NPT to the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
In early August 2005, after the June election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as Iran's President, Iran removed seals on its uranium enrichment equipment in Isfahan, which UK officials termed a "breach of the Paris Agreement" though a case can be made that the EU violated the terms of the Paris Agreement by demanding that Iran abandon nuclear enrichment. Several days later, the EU-3 offered Iran a package in return for permanent cessation of enrichment. Reportedly, it included benefits in the political, trade and nuclear fields, as well as long-term supplies of nuclear materials and assurances of non-aggression by the EU (but not the US). Mohammad Saeedi, the deputy head of Iran's atomic energy organization rejected the offer, terming it "very insulting and humiliating" and other independent analysts characterized the EU offer as an "empty box". Iran's announcement that it would resume enrichment preceded the election of Iranian President Ahmadinejad by several months. The delay in restarting the program was to allow the IAEA to re-install monitoring equipment. The actual resumption of the program coincided with the election of President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, and the appointment of Ali Larijani as the chief Iranian nuclear negotiator.
In August 2005, with the assistance of Pakistan a group of US government experts and international scientists concluded that traces of bomb-grade uranium found in Iran came from contaminated Pakistani equipment and were not evidence of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iran. In September 2005, IAEA Director General Mohammad ElBaradei reported that "most" highly enriched uranium traces found in Iran by agency inspectors came from imported centrifuge components, validating Iran's claim that the traces were due to contamination. Sources in Vienna and the State Department reportedly stated that, for all practical purposes, the HEU issue has been resolved.
In a speech to the United Nations on 17 September 2005, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad suggested that Iran's enrichment might be managed by an international consortium, with Iran sharing ownership with other countries. The offer was rejected out of hand by the EU and the United States.
The IAEA Board of Governors deferred a formal decision on Iran's nuclear case for two years after 2003, while Iran continued cooperation with the EU-3. On 24 September 2005, after Iran abandoned the Paris Agreement, the Board found that Iran had been in non-compliance with its safeguards agreement, based largely on facts that had been reported as early as November 2003.
On 4 February 2006, the 35 member Board of Governors of the IAEA voted 27–3 (with five abstentions: Algeria, Belarus, Indonesia, Libya and South Africa) to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The measure was sponsored by the United Kingdom, France and Germany, and it was backed by the United States. Two permanent council members, Russia and China, agreed to referral only on condition that the council take no action before March. The three members who voted against referral were Venezuela, Syria and Cuba. In response, on 6 February 2006, Iran suspended its voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol and all other voluntary and non-legally binding cooperation with the IAEA beyond what is required by its safeguards agreement.
In late February 2006, IAEA Director Mohammad El-Baradei raised the suggestion of a deal, whereby Iran would give up industrial-scale enrichment and instead limit its program to a small-scale pilot facility, and agree to import its nuclear fuel from Russia (see nuclear fuel bank). The Iranians indicated that while they would not be willing to give up their right to enrichment in principle, they were willing to consider the compromise solution. However, in March 2006, the Bush Administration made it clear that they would not accept any enrichment at all in Iran.
The IAEA Board of Governors deferred the formal report to the UN Security Council of Iran's non-compliance (such a report is required by Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute), until 27 February 2006. The Board usually makes decisions by consensus, but in a rare non-consensus decision it adopted this resolution by vote, with 12 abstentions.
On 11 April 2006, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad, where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." The uranium was enriched to 3.5% using over a hundred centrifuges.
On 13 April 2006, after US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said (on 12 April 2006) the Security Council must consider "strong steps" to induce Tehran to change course in its nuclear ambition; President Ahmadinejad vowed that Iran will not back away from uranium enrichment and that the world must treat Iran as a nuclear power, saying "Our answer to those who are angry about Iran achieving the full nuclear fuel cycle is just one phrase. We say: Be angry at us and die of this anger," because "We won't hold talks with anyone about the right of the Iranian nation to enrich uranium."
On 14 April 2006, The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) published a series of analyzed satellite images of Iran's nuclear facilities at Natanz and Esfahan. Featured in these images is a new tunnel entrance near the Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF) at Esfahan and continued construction at the Natanz uranium enrichment site. In addition, a series of images dating back to 2002 shows the underground enrichment buildings and its subsequent covering by soil, concrete, and other materials. Both facilities were already subject to IAEA inspections and safeguards.
Iran responded to the demand to stop enrichment of uranium 24 August 2006, offering to return to the negotiation table but refusing to end enrichment.
Qolam Ali Hadad-adel, speaker of Iran's parliament, said on 30 August 2006, that Iran had the right to "peaceful application of nuclear technology and all other officials agree with this decision," according to the semi-official Iranian Students News Agency. "Iran opened the door to negotiations for Europe and hopes that the answer which was given to the nuclear package would bring them to the table."
In UN Security Council Resolution 1737 of 26 December 2006, the Council imposed a series of sanctions on Iran for its non-compliance with the earlier Security Council resolution deciding that Iran suspend enrichment-related activities without delay. These sanctions were primarily targeted against the transfer of nuclear and ballistic missile technologies and, in response to concerns of China and Russia, were lighter than that sought by the United States. This resolution followed a report from the IAEA that Iran had permitted inspections under its safeguards agreement but had not suspended its enrichment-related activities.
UN Security CouncilEdit
- Resolution 1696 (31 July 2006) demanded that Iran suspend its uranium enrichment activities,
- Resolution 1737 (23 December 2006) imposed sanctions after Iran refused to suspend its enrichment activities, required Iran to cooperate with IAEA,
- Resolution 1747 (24 March 2007) expanded the list of sanctioned Iranian entities,
- Resolution 1803 (3 March 2008) extended those sanctions to additional persons and entities,
- Resolution 1835 (27 September 2008) reaffirmed the preceding four resolutions,
- Resolution 1929 (9 June 2010) imposed a complete arms embargo on Iran, banned Iran from any activities related to ballistic missiles, authorized the inspection and seizure of shipments violating these restrictions, and extended the asset freeze to the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL), established Panel of Experts (whose mandate was extended three times by Resolution 1984 (8 June 2011), Resolution 2049 (7 June 2012), and Resolution 2105 (5 June 2013)).
International Atomic Energy AgencyEdit
The IAEA has consistently stated it is unable to conclude that Iran's nuclear program is entirely peaceful. Such a conclusion would normally be drawn only for countries that have an Additional Protocol in force. Iran ceased its implementation of the Additional Protocol in 2006, and also ceased all other cooperation with the IAEA beyond what Iran acknowledges it is required to provide under its safeguards agreement, after the IAEA Board of Governors decided, in February 2006, to report Iran's safeguards non-compliance to the UN Security Council. The UN Security Council, invoking Chapter VII of the UN Charter, then passed Resolution 1737, which obligated Iran to implement the Additional Protocol. Iran responded that its nuclear activities were peaceful and that Security Council involvement was malicious and unlawful. In August 2007, Iran and the IAEA entered into an agreement on the modalities for resolving remaining outstanding issues, and made progress in outstanding issues except for the question of "alleged studies" of weaponization by Iran. Iran says it did not address the alleged studies in the IAEA work plan because they were not included in the plan. The IAEA has not detected the actual use of nuclear material in connection with the alleged studies and says it regrets it is unable to provide Iran with copies of the documentation concerning the alleged studies, but says the documentation is comprehensive and detailed so that it needs to be taken seriously. Iran says the allegations are based on "forged" documents and "fabricated" data, and that it has not received copies of the documentation to enable it to prove that they were forged and fabricated.
Since 2011, the IAEA has voiced growing concern over possible military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program, and has released a number of reports chastising Iran's nuclear program to that effect.
February 2007 ReportEdit
In February 2007, anonymous diplomats at the atomic energy agency reportedly complained that most U.S. intelligence shared with the IAEA had proved inaccurate, and none had led to significant discoveries inside Iran.
On 10 May 2007, Iran and the IAEA vehemently denied reports that Iran had blocked IAEA inspectors when they sought access to the Iran's enrichment facility. On 11 March 2007, Reuters quoted International Atomic Energy Agency spokesman Marc Vidricaire, "We have not been denied access at any time, including in the past few weeks. Normally we do not comment on such reports but this time we felt we had to clarify the matter ... If we had a problem like that we would have to report to the [35-nation IAEA governing] board ... That has not happened because this alleged event did not take place."
May 2007 ReportEdit
On 30 July 2007, inspectors from the IAEA spent five hours at the Arak complex, the first such visit since April. Visits to other plants in Iran were expected during the following days. It has been suggested that access may have been granted in an attempt to head off further sanctions.
August 2007 Report and Agreement between Iran and the IAEAEdit
An IAEA report to the Board of Governors on 30 August 2007, stated that Iran's Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz is operating "well below the expected quantity for a facility of this design," and that 12 of the intended 18 centrifuge cascades at the plant were operating. The report stated that the IAEA had "been able to verify the non-diversion of the declared nuclear materials at the enrichment facilities in Iran," and that longstanding issues regarding plutonium experiments and HEU contamination on spent fuel containers were considered "resolved." However, the report added that the Agency remained unable to verify certain aspects relevant to the scope and nature of Iran's nuclear program.
The report also outlined a work plan agreed by Iran and the IAEA on 21 August 2007. The work plan reflected agreement on "modalities for resolving the remaining safeguards implementation issues, including the long outstanding issues." According to the plan, these modalities covered all remaining issues regarding Iran's past nuclear program and activities. The IAEA report described the work plan as "a significant step forward," but added "the Agency considers it essential that Iran adheres to the time line defined therein and implements all the necessary safeguards and transparency measures, including the measures provided for in the Additional Protocol." Although the work plan did not include a commitment by Iran to implement the Additional Protocol, IAEA safeguards head Olli Heinonen observed that measures in the work plan "for resolving our outstanding issues go beyond the requirements of the Additional Protocol."
According to Reuters, the report was likely to blunt Washington's push for more severe sanctions against Iran. One senior UN official familiar said U.S. efforts to escalate sanctions against Iran would provoke a nationalistic backlash by Iran that would set back the IAEA investigation in Iran. In late October 2007, chief IAEA inspector Olli Heinonen described Iranian cooperation with the IAEA as "good," although much remained to be done.
In late October 2007, according to the International Herald Tribune, the head of the IAEA, Mohamed ElBaradei, stated that he had seen "no evidence" of Iran developing nuclear weapons. The IHT quoted ElBaradei as saying "We have information that there has been maybe some studies about possible weaponization. That's why we have said that we cannot give Iran a pass right now, because there is still a lot of question marks. ... But have we seen Iran having the nuclear material that can readily be used into a weapon? No. Have we seen an active weaponization program? No." The IHT report went on to say that "ElBaradei said he was worried about the growing rhetoric from the U.S., which he noted focused on Iran's alleged intentions to build a nuclear weapon rather than evidence the country was actively doing so. If there is actual evidence, ElBaradei said he would welcome seeing it."
November 2007 reportEdit
15 November 2007, IAEA report found that on nine outstanding issues listed in the August 2007 workplan, including experiments on the P-2 centrifuge and work with uranium metals, "Iran's statements are consistent with ... information available to the agency," but it warned that its knowledge of Tehran's present atomic work was shrinking due to Iran's refusal to continue voluntarily implementing the Additional Protocol, as it had done in the past under the October 2003 Tehran agreement and the November 2004 Paris agreement. The only remaining issues were traces of HEU found at one location, and allegations by US intelligence agencies based on a laptop computer allegedly stolen from Iran which reportedly contained nuclear weapons-related designs. The IAEA report also stated that Tehran continues to produce LEU. Iran has declared it has a right to peaceful nuclear technology under the NPT, despite Security Council demands that it cease its nuclear enrichment.
On 18 November 2007, President Ahmadinejad announced that he intended to consult with Arab nations on a plan, under the auspices of the Gulf Cooperation Council, to enrich uranium in a neutral third country, such as Switzerland.
Israel criticised IAEA reports on Iran as well as the former IAEA-director ElBaradei. Israel's Minister of Strategic Affairs Avigdor Lieberman dismissed reports by the IAEA as being "unacceptable" and accused IAEA head ElBaradei of being "pro-Iranian."
February 2008 reportEdit
On 11 February 2008, news reports stated that the IAEA report on Iran's compliance with the August 2007 work plan would be delayed over internal disagreements over the report's expected conclusions that the major issues had been resolved. French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner stated that he would meet with IAEA Director Mohammed ElBaradei to convince him to "listen to the West" and remind him that the IAEA is merely in charge of the "technical side" rather than the "political side" of the issue. A senior IAEA official denied the reports of internal disagreements and accused Western powers of using the same "hype" tactics employed against Iraq before the 2003 U.S.-led invasion to justify imposing further sanctions on Iran over its nuclear program.
The IAEA issued its report on the implementation of safeguards in Iran on 22 February 2008. With respect to the report, IAEA Director Mohammad ElBaradei stated that "We have managed to clarify all the remaining outstanding issues, including the most important issue, which is the scope and nature of Iran´s enrichment programme" with the exception of a single issue, "and that is the alleged weaponization studies that supposedly Iran has conducted in the past."
According to the report, the IAEA shared intelligence with Iran recently provided by the US regarding "alleged studies" on a nuclear weaponization program. The information was allegedly obtained from a laptop computer smuggled out of Iran and provided to the US in mid-2004. The laptop was reportedly received from a "longtime contact" in Iran who obtained it from someone else now believed to be dead. A senior European diplomat warned "I can fabricate that data," and argued that the documents look "beautiful, but is open to doubt." The United States has relied on the laptop to prove that Iran intends to develop nuclear weapons. In November 2007, the United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) believed that Iran halted an alleged active nuclear weapons program in fall 2003. Iran has dismissed the laptop information as a fabrication, and other diplomats have dismissed the information as relatively insignificant and coming too late.
The February 2008 IAEA report states that the Agency has "not detected the use of nuclear material in connection with the alleged studies, nor does it have credible information in this regard."
May 2008 reportEdit
On 26 May 2008, the IAEA issued another regular report on the implementation of safeguards in Iran.
According to the report, the IAEA has been able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran, and Iran has provided the Agency with access to declared nuclear material and accountancy reports, as required by its safeguards agreement.
Iran had installed several new centrifuges, including more advanced models, and environmental samples showed the centrifuges "continued to operate as declared", making low-enriched uranium. The report also noted that other elements of Iran's nuclear program continued to be subject to IAEA monitoring and safeguards as well, including the construction of the heavy water facility in Arak, the construction and use of hot cells associated with the Tehran Research Reactor, the uranium conversion efforts, and the Russian nuclear fuel delivered for the Bushehr reactor.
The report stated that the IAEA had requested, as a voluntary "transparency measure", to be allowed access to centrifuge manufacturing sites, but that Iran had refused the request. The IAEA report stated that Iran had also submitted replies to questions regarding "possible military dimensions" to its nuclear program, which include "alleged studies" on a so-called Green Salt Project, high-explosive testing and missile re-entry vehicles. According to the report, Iran's answers were still under review by the IAEA at the time the report was published. However, as part of its earlier "overall assessment" of the allegations, Iran had responded that the documents making the allegations were forged, not authentic, or referred to conventional applications.
The report stated that Iran may have more information on the alleged studies, which "remain a matter of serious concern", but that the IAEA itself had not detected evidence of actual design or manufacture by Iran of nuclear weapons or components. The IAEA also stated that it was not itself in possession of certain documents containing the allegations against Iran, and so was not able to share the documents with Iran.
September 2008 reportEdit
According to the 15 September 2008 IAEA report on the implementation of safeguards in Iran, Iran continued to provide the IAEA with access to declared nuclear material and activities, which continued to be operated under safeguards and with no evidence of any diversion of nuclear material for non-peaceful uses. Nevertheless, the report reiterated that the IAEA would not be able to verify the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program unless Iran adopted "transparency measures" which exceeded its safeguards agreement with the IAEA, since the IAEA does not verify the absence of undeclared nuclear activities in any country unless the Additional Protocol is in force.
With respect to the report, IAEA Director Mohammad ElBaradei stated that, "We have managed to clarify all the remaining outstanding issues, including the most important issue, which is the scope and nature of Iran's enrichment programme" with the exception of a single issue, "and that is the alleged weaponization studies that supposedly Iran has conducted in the past."
According to the report, Iran had increased the number of operating centrifuges at its Fuel Enrichment Plant in Isfahan, and continued to enrich uranium. Contrary to some media reports which claimed that Iran had diverted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) for a renewed nuclear weapons program, the IAEA emphasized that all of the uranium hexafluoride was under IAEA safeguards. This was re-iterated by IAEA spokesman Melissa Fleming, who characterized the report of missing nuclear material in Iran as being "fictitious." Iran was also asked to clarify information about foreign assistance it may have received in connection with a high explosive charge suitable for an implosion type nuclear device. Iran stated that there had been no such activities in Iran.
The IAEA also reported that it had held a series of meetings with Iranian officials to resolve the outstanding issues including the "alleged studies" into nuclear weaponization which were listed in the May 2008 IAEA report. During the course of these meetings, the Iranians filed a series of written responses including a 117-page presentation which confirmed the partial veracity of some of the allegations, but which asserted that the allegations as a whole were based on "forged" documents and "fabricated" data, and that Iran had not actually received the documentation substantiating the allegations. According to the August 2007 "Modalities Agreement" between Iran and the IAEA, Iran had agreed to review and assess the "alleged studies" claims, as good faith gesture, "upon receiving all related documents."
Iran's ambassador to the IAEA, Ali Asghar Soltaniyeh, accused the United States of preventing the IAEA from delivering the documents about the alleged studies to Iran as required by the Modalities Agreement, and stated that Iran had done its best to respond to the allegations but would not accept "any request beyond our legal obligation and particularly beyond the Work Plan, which we have already implemented."
While once again expressing "regret" that the IAEA was not able to provide Iran with copies of the documentation concerning the alleged studies, the report also urged Iran to provide the IAEA with "substantive information to support its statements and provide access to relevant documentation and individuals" regarding the alleged studies, as a "matter of transparency". The IAEA submitted a number of proposals to Iran to help resolve the allegations and expressed a willingness to discuss modalities that could enable Iran to demonstrate credibly that the activities referred to in the documentation were not nuclear-related, as Iran asserted, while protecting sensitive information related to its conventional military activities. The report does not indicate whether Iran accepted or rejected these proposals.
The report also reiterated that IAEA inspectors had found "no evidence on the actual design or manufacture by Iran of nuclear material components of a nuclear weapon or of certain other key components, such as initiators, or on related nuclear physics studies ... Nor has the Agency detected the actual use of nuclear material in connection with the alleged studies" but insisted that the IAEA would not be able to formally verify the peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program unless Iran had agreed to adopt the requested "transparency measures."
February 2009 reportEdit
In a 19 February 2009, report to the Board of Governors, IAEA Director General ElBaradei reported that Iran continued to enrich uranium contrary to the decisions of the Security Council and had produced over a ton of low enriched uranium. Results of environmental samples taken by the Agency at the FEP and PFEP5 indicated that the plants have been operating at levels declared by Tehran, "within the measurement uncertainties normally associated with enrichment plants of a similar throughput." The Agency was also able to confirm there was no ongoing reprocessing related activities at Iran's Tehran Research Reactor and Xenon Radioisotope Production Facility.
According to the report, Iran also continued to refuse to provide design information or access to verify design information for its IR-40 heavy water research reactor. Iran and the IAEA in February 2003 agreed to modify a provision in the Subsidiary Arrangement to its safeguards agreement (Code 3.1) to require such access. Iran told the Agency in March 2007 that it "suspended" the implementation of the modified Code 3.1, which had been "accepted in 2003, but not yet ratified by the parliament", and that it would "revert" to the implementation of the 1976 version of Code 3.1. The subsidiary arrangement may only be modified by mutual agreement. Iran says that since the reactor is not in a position to receive nuclear material the IAEA's request for access was not justified, and requested that the IAEA not schedule an inspection to verify design information. The Agency says its right to verify design information provided to it is a "continuing right, which is not dependent on the stage of construction of, or the presence of nuclear material at, a facility."
Regarding the "alleged studies" into nuclear weaponization, the Agency said that "as a result of the continued lack of cooperation by Iran in connection with the remaining issues which give rise to concerns about possible military dimensions of Iran's nuclear programme, the Agency has not made any substantive progress on these issues." The Agency called on member states which had provided information about the alleged programs to allow the information to be shared with Iran. The Agency said Iran's continued refusal to implement the Additional Protocol was contrary to the request of the Board of Governors and the Security Council. The Agency was able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran. Iran says that for the six years the Agency has been considering its case, the IAEA has not found any evidence to prove that Tehran is seeking a nuclear weapon.
Regarding the IAEA report, several news reports suggested that Iran had failed to properly report the amount of low-enriched uranium it possessed because Iranian estimates did not match the IAEA inspector's findings, and that Iran now had enough uranium to make a nuclear bomb. The reporting was widely criticized as unjustifiably provocative and hyped. In response to the controversy, IAEA spokesman Melissa Fleming asserted that the IAEA had no reason at all to believe that the estimates of low-enriched uranium produced by Iran were an intentional error, and that no nuclear material could be removed from the facility for further enrichment to make nuclear weapons without the agency's knowledge since the facility is subject to video surveillance and the nuclear material is kept under seal.
Ali Asghar Soltaniyeh, Iran's Ambassador to the International Atomic Energy Agency, said the February report failed to "provide any new insight into Iran's nuclear program." He asserted the report was written in a way which clearly causes misunderstanding in public opinion. He suggested the reports should be written to have a section about whether Iran has fulfilled its NPT obligations and a separate section for whether "fulfillment of Additional Protocol or sub-arrangements 1 and 3 are beyond the commitment or not."
In a February 2009 press interview, IAEA Director Mohamed ElBaradei said Iran has low enriched uranium, but "that doesn't mean that they are going tomorrow to have nuclear weapons, because as long as they are under IAEA verification, as long as they are not weaponizing, you know." ElBaradei continued that there is a confidence deficit with Iran, but that the concern should not be hyped and that "many other countries are enriching uranium without the world making any fuss about it."
In February 2009 IAEA Director General reportedly said that he believed the possibility of a military attack on Iran's nuclear installations had been ruled out. "Force can only be used as a last option ... when all other political possibilities have been exhausted," he told Radio France International. Former Director General Hans Blix criticized Western governments for the years lost by their "ineffective approaches" to Iran's nuclear program. Blix suggested the West offer "guarantees against attacks from the outside and subversive activities inside" and also suggested U.S. involvement in regional diplomacy "would offer Iran a greater incentive to reach a nuclear agreement than the Bush team's statements that 'Iran must behave itself'."
August 2009 ReportEdit
In July 2009, Yukiya Amano, the in-coming head of the IAEA said: "I don't see any evidence in IAEA official documents" that Iran is trying to gain the ability to develop nuclear arms.
In September 2009, IAEA Director General Mohamed El Baradei that Iran had broken the law by not disclosing its second uranium enrichment site near Qom sooner. Nevertheless, he said, the United Nations did not have credible evidence that Iran had an operational nuclear program.
November 2009 ReportEdit
In November 2009, the IAEA's 35-nation Board of Governors overwhelmingly backed a demand of the U.S., Russia, China, and three other powers that Iran immediately stop building its newly revealed nuclear facility and freeze uranium enrichment. Iranian officials shrugged off approval of the resolution by 25 members of the Board, but the U.S. and its allies hinted at new UN sanctions if Iran remained defiant.
February 2010 ReportEdit
In February 2010, the IAEA issued a report scolding Iran for failing to explain purchases of sensitive technology as well as secret tests of high-precision detonators and modified designs of missile cones to accommodate larger payloads. Such experiments are closely associated with atomic warheads.
May 2010 ReportEdit
In May 2010, the IAEA issued a report that Iran had declared production of over 2.5 metric tons of low-enriched uranium, which would be enough if further enriched to make two nuclear weapons, and that Iran has refused to answer inspectors’ questions on a variety of activities, including what the agency called the "possible military dimensions" of Iran's nuclear program.
In July 2010, Iran barred two IAEA inspectors from entering the country. The IAEA rejected Iran's reasons for the ban and said it fully supported the inspectors, which Tehran has accused of reporting wrongly that some nuclear equipment was missing.
In August 2010, the IAEA said Iran has started using a second set of 164 centrifuges linked in a cascade, or string of machines, to enrich uranium to up to 20% at its Natanz pilot fuel enrichment plan.
November 2011 ReportEdit
In November 2011 the IAEA released a report stating inspectors had found credible evidence that Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at designing a nuclear bomb until 2003, and that research may have continued on a smaller scale after that time. IAEA Director Yukiya Amano said evidence gathered by the agency "indicates that Iran has carried out activities relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device." A number of Western nuclear experts stated there was very little new in the report, and that media reports had exaggerated its significance. Iran charged that the report was unprofessional and unbalanced, and had been prepared with undue political influence primarily by the United States.
In November 2011, IAEA officials identified a "large explosive containment vessel" inside Parchin. The IAEA later assessed that Iran has been conducting experiments to develop nuclear weapons capability.
The IAEA Board of Governors passed a resolution by a vote of 32–2 that expressed "deep and increasing concern" over the possible military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program and calling it "essential" that Iran provide additional information and access to the IAEA. The United States welcomed the resolution and said it would step up sanctions to press Iran to change course. In response to the IAEA resolution, Iran threatened to reduce its cooperation with the IAEA, though Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi played down talk of withdrawal from the NPT or the IAEA.
February 2012 reportEdit
On 24 February 2012, IAEA Director General Amano reported to the IAEA Board of Governors that high-level IAEA delegations had met twice with Iranian officials to intensify efforts to resolve outstanding issues, but that major differences remained and Iran did not grant IAEA requests for access to the Parchin site, where the IAEA believes high-explosives research pertinent to nuclear weapons may have taken place. Iran dismissed the IAEA's report on the possible military dimensions to its nuclear program as based on "unfounded allegations." Amano called on Iran to agree to a structure approach, based on IAEA verification practices, to resolve outstanding issues. In March 2012, Iran said it would allow another inspection at Parchin "when an agreement is made on a modality plan." Not long after, it was reported that Iran might not consent to unfettered access. An ISIS study of satellite imagery claimed to have identified an explosive site at Parchin.
The February IAEA report also described progress in Iran's enrichment and fuel fabrication efforts, including a tripling of the number of cascades enriching uranium to nearly 20% and testing of fuel elements for the Tehran Research Reactor and the still incomplete IR-40 heavy water research reactor. Though Iran was continuing to install thousands of additional centrifuges, these were based on an erratic and outdated design, both in its main enrichment plant at Natanz and in a smaller facility at Fordow buried deep underground. "It appears that they are still struggling with the advanced centrifuges," said Olli Heinonen, a former chief nuclear inspector for the Vienna-based U.N. agency, while nuclear expert Mark Fitzpatrick pointed out that Iran had been working on "second-generation models for over ten years now and still can't put them into large-scale operation". Peter Crail and Daryl G. Kimball of the Arms Control Organisation commented that the report "does not identify any breakthroughs" and "confirms initial impressions that Iran's announcements last week on a series of 'nuclear advances' were hyped."
May 2012 reportEdit
In May 2012, the IAEA reported that Iran had increased its rate of production of low-enriched uranium enriched to 3.5% and to expand its stockpile of uranium enriched to 19.75%, but was having difficulty with more advanced centrifuges. The IAEA also reported detecting particles of uranium enriched to 27% at the Fordu enrichment facility. However, a diplomat in Vienna cautioned that the spike in uranium purity found by inspectors could turn out to be accidental. This change drastically moved Iran's uranium toward bomb-grade material. Until now, the highest level of purity that had been found in Iran was 20 percent.
August 2012 reportEdit
In late August, the IAEA set up an Iran Task Force to deal with inspections and other issues related to Iran's nuclear program, in an attempt to focus and streamline the IAEA's handling of Iran's nuclear program by concentrating experts and other resources into one dedicated team.
On 30 August, the IAEA released a report showing a major expansion of Iranian enrichment activities. The report said that Iran has more than doubled the number of centrifuges at the underground facility at Fordow, from 1,064 centrifuges in May to 2,140 centrifuges in August, though the number of operating centrifuges had not increased. The report said that since 2010 Iran had produced about 190 kg of 20%-enriched uranium, up from 145 kg in May. The report also noted that Iran had converted some of the 20%-enriched uranium to an oxide form and fabricated into fuel for use in research reactors, and that once this conversion and fabrication have taken place, the fuel cannot be readily enriched to weapon-grade purity.
The report also expressed concerns over Parchin, which the IAEA has sought to inspect for evidence of nuclear weapons development. Since the IAEA requested access, "significant ground scraping and landscaping have been undertaken over an extensive area at and around the location," five buildings had been demolished, while power lines, fences, and paved roads were removed, all of which would hamper the IAEA investigation if it were granted access.
In a briefing to the Board of Governors on this report in early September 2012, IAEA Deputy Director General Herman Nackaerts and Assistant Director General Rafael Grossi displayed satellite images for its member states which allegedly demonstrate Iranian efforts to remove incriminating evidence from its facility at Parchin, or a "nuclear clean-up." These images showed a building at Parchin covered in what appeared to be a pink tarpaulin, as well as demolition of building and removal of earth that the IAEA said would "significantly hamper" its investigation. A senior Western diplomat described the presentation as "pretty compelling." The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) said that the purpose of the pink tarpaulin could be to hide further "clean-up work" from satellites. However, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, Iran's envoy to the IAEA, denied the contents of the presentation, saying that "merely having a photo from up there, a satellite imagery ... this is not the way the agency should do its professional job."
According to the Associated Press, the IAEA received "new and significant intelligence" by September 2012, which four diplomats confirmed was the basis for a passage in the August 2012 IAEA report that "the agency has obtained more information which further corroborates" suspicions. The intelligence reportedly indicates that Iran had advanced work on computer modeling of the performance of a nuclear warhead, work David Albright of ISIS said was "critical to the development of a nuclear weapon." The intelligence would also boost fears by the IAEA that Iran has advanced its weapons research on multiple fronts, as computer modeling is usually accompanied by physical tests of the components which would enter a nuclear weapon.
In response to this report, the IAEA Board of Governors on 13 September passed a resolution that rebuked Iran for defying UN Security Council resolutions to suspend uranium enrichment and called on Iran to allow inspections of evidence that it is pursuing weapons technology. The resolution, which passed by a vote of 31–1 with 3 abstentions, also expressed "serious concerns" about Iran's nuclear program while desiring a peaceful resolution. Senior United States diplomat Robert Wood blamed Iran for "systematically demolishing" a facility at the Parchin military base, which IAEA inspectors have attempted to visit in the past, but were not granted access, saying "Iran has been taking measures that appear consistent with an effort to remove evidence of its past activities at Parchin." The resolution was introduced jointly by China, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
November 2012 reportEdit
On 16 November, the IAEA released a report showing continued expansion in Iranian uranium enrichment capabilities. At Fordow, all 2784 IR-1 centrifuges (16 cascades of 174 each) have been installed, though only 4 cascades are operating and another 4 are fully equipped, vacuum-tested, and ready to begin operating. Iran has produced approximately 233 kg of near-20% enriched uranium, an increase of 43 kg since the August 2012 IAEA report.
The IAEA August 2012 report stated that Iran had begun to use 96 kg of its near-20% enriched uranium to fabricate fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor, which makes it more difficult to further enrich that uranium to weapons grade, since it would first need to be converted back to uranium hexafluoride gas. Though more of this uranium has been fabricated into fuel, no additional uranium has been sent to the Fuel Plate Fabrication Plant at Esfahan.
The November report noted that Iran has continued to deny the IAEA access to the military site at Parchin. Citing evidence from satellite imagery that "Iran constructed a large explosives containment vessel in which to conduct hydrodynamic experiments" relevant to nuclear weapons development, the report expresses concern that changes taking place at the Parchin military site might eliminate evidence of past nuclear activities, noting that there had been virtually no activity at that location between February 2005 and the time the IAEA requested access. Those changes include:
- Frequent presence of equipment, trucks and personnel.
- Large amounts of liquid run-off.
- Removal of external pipework.
- Razing and removal of five other buildings or structures and the site perimeter fence.
- Reconfiguration of electrical and water supply.
- Shrouding of the containment vessel building.
- Scraping and removal of large quantities of earth and the depositing of new earth in its place.
Iran said that the IR-40 heavy water-moderated research reactor at Arak was expected begin to operate in the first quarter of 2014. During on-site inspections of the IR-40 design, IAEA inspectors observed that the installation of cooling and moderator circuit piping was continuing.
February 2013 reportEdit
On 21 February, the IAEA released a report showing continued expansion in Iranian uranium enrichment capabilities. As of 19 February, 12,699 IR-1 centrifuges have been installed at Natanz. This includes the installation of 2,255 centrifuges since the previous IAEA report in November.
Fordow, the nuclear facility near Qom, contains 16 cascades, equally divided between Unit 1 and Unit 2, with a total of 2,710 centrifuges. Iran is continuing to operate the four cascades of 174 IR-1 centrifuges each in two tandem sets to produce 19.75% LEU in a total of 696 enriching centrifuges, the same number of centrifuges enriching as was reported in November 2012.
Iran has produced approximately 280 kg of near-20% enriched uranium, an increase of 47 kg since the November 2012 IAEA report and the total 3.5% LEU production stands at 8,271 kg (compared to 7,611 kg reported during the last quarter).
The IAEA February 2013 report stated that Iran has resumed reconverting near-20% enriched uranium into Oxide form to fabricate fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor, which makes it more difficult to further enrich that uranium to weapons grade, since it would first need to be converted back to uranium hexafluoride gas.
The February report noted that Iran has continued to deny the IAEA access to the military site at Parchin. Citing evidence from satellite imagery that "Iran constructed a large explosives containment vessel in which to conduct hydrodynamic experiments". Such installation could be an indicator of nuclear weapons development. The report expresses concern that changes taking place at the Parchin military site might eliminate evidence of past nuclear activities, noting that there had been virtually no activity at that location between February 2005 and the time the IAEA requested access. Those changes include:
- Reinstatement of some of the chamber building's features, for example wall panels and exhaust piping.
- Alterations to the roofs of the chamber building and the other large building.
- Dismantlement and reconstruction of the annex to the other large building.
- Construction of one small building at the same place where a building of similar size had previously been demolished.
- Spreading, levelling and compacting of another layer of material over a large area.
- Installation of a fence that divides the location into two areas. Most of these activities have also been documented by ISIS in satellite imagery reports, dated 29 November 2012, 12 December 2012 and 25 January 2013.
Iran said that the IR-40 heavy water-moderated research reactor at Arak was expected begin to operate in the first quarter of 2014. During on-site inspections of the IR-40 design, IAEA inspectors observed that the previously reported installation of cooling and moderator circuit piping was almost complete. The IAEA reports that Iran will use the TRR to test fuel for the IR-40 reactor, a reactor that the UN Security Council has demanded that Iran stop building because it could be used to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. The IAEA report states that "on 26 November 2012, the Agency verified a prototype IR-40 natural uranium fuel assembly before its transfer to TRR for irradiation testing." Since its last visit on 17 August 2011, the Agency has not been provided with further access to the plant so is relying on satellite imagery to monitor the status of the plant.
March 2015 reportEdit
In March 2015, IAEA Director General Amano reported that Iran did not provide sufficient access or information to resolve a dozen issues related to the possible military dimensions of its nuclear program, giving only very limited information on only one of those issues.
December 2015 reportEdit
In December 2015, the IAEA issued a report concluding:
The Agency assesses that a range of activities relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device were conducted in Iran prior to the end of 2003 as a coordinated effort, and some activities took place after 2003. The Agency also assesses that these activities did not advance beyond feasibility and scientific studies, and the acquisition of certain relevant technical competences and capabilities. The Agency has no credible indications of activities in Iran relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device after 2009.
Following this report, the IAEA Board of Governors passed a resolution closing its consideration of the issues in the report and terminating previous resolutions about Iran.
Interviews and surveys show that the majority of Iranians in all groups favor their country's nuclear program. Polls in 2008 showed that the vast majority of Iranians want their country to develop nuclear energy, and 90% of Iranians believe it is important (including 81% very important) for Iran "to have a full fuel cycle nuclear program." Though Iranians are not Arab, Arab publics in six countries also believe that Iran has the right to its nuclear program and should not be pressured to stop that program. A poll in September 2010 by the International Peace Institute found that 71 percent of Iranians favored the development of nuclear weapons, a drastic hike over the previous polls by the same agency. However, in July 2012, a poll on an Iranian state-run media outlet found that 2/3 Iranians support suspending uranium enrichment in return for a gradual easing of sanctions. Meir Javedanfar, an Iranian-born commentator with the Middle East Economic and Political Analysis Company, stated that while Iranians may want nuclear energy, they don't want it at the price the government is willing to pay.
In explaining why it had left its enrichment program undeclared to the IAEA, Iran said that for the past twenty-four years it has "been subject to the most severe series of sanctions and export restrictions on material and technology for peaceful nuclear technology," so that some elements of its program had to be done discreetly. Iran said the U.S. intention "is nothing but to make this deprivation" of Iran's inalienable right to enrichment technology "final and eternal," and that the United States is completely silent on Israel's nuclear enrichment and weapons program. Iran began its nuclear research as early as 1975, when France cooperated with Iran to set up the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center (ENTC) to provide training for personnel to develop certain nuclear fuel cycle capabilities. Iran did not hide other elements of its nuclear program. For example, its efforts at mining and converting uranium were announced on national radio, and Iran also says that in consultation with the Agency and member states throughout the 1990s it underlined its plans to acquire, for exclusively peaceful purposes, fuel enrichment technology. Iran's contracts with other nations to obtain nuclear reactors were also known to the IAEA – but support for the contracts was withdrawn after "a U.S. special national intelligence estimate declared that while 'Iran's much publicized nuclear power intentions are entirely in the planning stage,' the ambitions of the shah could lead Iran to pursue nuclear weapons, especially in the shadow of India's successful nuclear test in May 1974". In 2003, the IAEA reported that Iran had failed to meet its obligations to report some of its enrichment activities, which Iran says began in 1985, to the IAEA as required by its safeguards agreement. The IAEA further reported that Iran had undertaken to submit the required information for agency verification and "to implement a policy of co-operation and full transparency" as corrective actions.
The Iranian government has repeatedly made compromise offers to place strict limits on its nuclear program beyond what the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Additional Protocol legally require of Iran, in order to ensure that the program cannot be secretly diverted to the manufacture of weapons. These offers include operating Iran's nuclear program as an international consortium, with the full participation of foreign governments. This offer by the Iranians matched a proposed solution put forth by an IAEA expert committee that was investigating the risk that civilian nuclear technologies could be used to make bombs. Iran has also offered to renounce plutonium extraction technology, thus ensuring that its heavy water reactor at Arak cannot be used to make bombs either. More recently, the Iranians have reportedly also offered to operate uranium centrifuges that automatically self-destruct if they are used to enrich uranium beyond what is required for civilian purposes. However, despite offers of nuclear cooperation by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany, Iran has refused to suspend its enrichment program as the Council has demanded. Iran's representative asserted that dealing with the issue in the Security Council was unwarranted and void of any legal basis or practical utility because its peaceful nuclear program posed no threat to international peace and security, and, that it ran counter to the views of the majority of United Nations Member States, which the Council was obliged to represent.
"They should know that the Iranian nation will not yield to pressure and will not let its rights be trampled on," Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told a crowd 31 August 2006, in a televised speech in the northwestern Iranian city of Orumiyeh. In front of his strongest supporters in one of his provincial power bases, the Iranian leader attacked what he called "intimidation" by the United Nations, which he said was led by the United States. Ahmadinejad criticised a White House rebuff of his offer for a televised debate with President Bush. "They say they support dialog and the free flow of information," he said. "But when debate was proposed, they avoided and opposed it." Ahmadinejad said that sanctions "cannot dissuade Iranians from their decision to make progress," according to Iran's state-run IRNA news agency. "On the contrary, many of our successes, including access to the nuclear fuel cycle and producing of heavy water, have been achieved under sanctions."
Iran insists enrichment activities are intended for peaceful purposes, but much of the West, including the United States, allege that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons, or a nuclear weapons "capability". 31 August 2006, deadline called for Iran to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 1696 and suspend its enrichment-related activities or face the possibility of economic sanctions. The United States believes the council will agree to implement sanctions when high-level ministers reconvene in mid-September, U.S. Undersecretary of State Nicholas Burns said. "We're sure going to work toward that [sanctions] with a great deal of energy and determination because this cannot go unanswered," Burns said. "The Iranians are obviously proceeding with their nuclear research; they are doing things that the International Atomic Energy Agency does not want them to do, the Security Council doesn't want them to do. There has to be an international answer, and we believe there will be one."
Iran asserts that there is no legal basis for Iran's referral to the United Nations Security Council since the IAEA has not proven that previously undeclared activities had a relationship to a weapons program, and that all nuclear material in Iran (including material that may not have been declared) had been accounted for and had not been diverted to military purposes. Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute requires a report to the UN Security Council for any safeguards noncompliance. The IAEA Board of Governors, in a rare non-consensus decision with 12 abstentions, decided that "Iran's many failures and breaches of its obligations to comply with its NPT Safeguards Agreement" as reported by the IAEA in November 2003 constituted "non-compliance" under the terms of Article XII.C of IAEA Statute.
Iran also minimizes the significance of the IAEA's inability to verify the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program, arguing the IAEA has only drawn such conclusions in a subset of states that have ratified and implemented the Additional Protocol. The IAEA has been able to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran, but not the absence of undeclared activities. According to the IAEA's Safeguards Statement for 2007, of the 82 states where both NPT safeguards and an Additional Protocol are implemented, the IAEA had found no indication of undeclared nuclear activity in 47 states, while evaluations of possible undeclared nuclear activity remained ongoing in 35 states. Iran ceased implementation of the Additional Protocol and all other cooperation with the IAEA beyond that required under its safeguards agreement after the IAEA Board of Governors decided to report its safeguards non-compliance to the UN Security Council in February 2006. Iran insisted that such cooperation had been "voluntary," but on 26 December 2006, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1737, invoking Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which among other things required Iran to cooperate fully with the IAEA, "beyond the formal requirements of the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol." The IAEA reported on 19 November 2008, that, while it is "able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran," it "has not been able to make substantive progress" on "key remaining issues of serious concern" because of a "lack of cooperation by Iran." Iran has maintained that the Security Council's engagement in "the issue of the peaceful nuclear activities of the Islamic Republic of Iran" are unlawful and malicious. Iran also argues that the UN Security Council resolutions demanding a suspension of enrichment constitute a violation of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty which recognizes the inalienable right of signatory nations to nuclear technology "for peaceful purposes."
Iran agreed to implement the Additional Protocol under the terms of the October 2003 Tehran agreement and its successor, the November 2004 Paris agreement, and did so for two years before withdrawing from the Paris agreement in early 2006 following the breakdown of negotiations with the EU-3. Since then, Iran has offered not only to ratify the Additional Protocol, but to implement transparency measures on its nuclear program that exceed the Additional Protocol, as long as its right to operate an enrichment program is recognized. The UN Security Council, however, insists that Iran must suspend all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, and the United States explicitly ruled out the possibility that it would allow Iran to produce its own nuclear fuel, even under intense international inspection.
On 9 April 2007, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3 000 centrifuges, presumably at Natanz enrichment site. "With great honor, I declare that as of today our dear country has joined the nuclear club of nations and can produce nuclear fuel on an industrial scale", said Ahmadinejad.
On 22 April 2007, Iranians foreign ministry spokesman Mohammad Ali Hosseini announced that his country rules out enrichment suspension ahead of talks with EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana on 25 April 2007.
In March 2009 Iran announced plans to open the Bushehr nuclear power plant to tourism as a way to highlight their peaceful nuclear intentions.
Reacting to the November 2009 IAEA Board of Governors resolution demanding that Iran immediately stop building its newly revealed nuclear facility and freeze uranium enrichment, Foreign Ministry spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast described the resolution as a "show ... aimed at putting pressure on Iran, which will be useless." The Iranian government subsequently authorized the country's Atomic Energy Organization to begin building ten more uranium-enrichment plants for enhancing the country's electricity production.
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on 1 December brushed aside the threat of UN sanctions over his country's failure to accept a UN-proposed deal on its nuclear program, stating that such a move by western nations would not hinder Iran's nuclear program. Ahmadinejad told state television that he believed further negotiations with world powers over his country's nuclear program were not needed, describing warnings by Western powers that Iran would be isolated if it fails to accept the UN-proposed deal as "ridiculous."
Watched by senior officials from Iran and Russia, Iran began fueling Bushehr I on 21 August 2010 the nation's state media reported, in an effort to help create nuclear-generated electricity. While state media reported it will take about two months for the reactor to begin generating electricity, Russia's nuclear agency says it will take longer. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran's supreme leader, recently asserted Iran's right to establish nuclear plants.
On 17 September 2012, speaking at the IAEA General Conference, Iranian nuclear chief Fereydoun Abbasi attacked the IAEA, saying that "terrorists and saboteurs" had possibly infiltrated the IAEA in order to derail Iran's nuclear program. Abbasi said that on 17 August 2012, an underground enrichment plant was sabotaged, and IAEA inspectors arrived in Iran to inspect it soon after. The Associated Press noted that his comments reflected a determination in Iran to continue defying international pressure regarding its nuclear program. Mark Fitzpatrick of the International Institute for Strategic Studies said that Iran's accusations regarding the IAEA "are a new low. Increasingly cornered, they are lashing out wildly." Abassi's allegations were viewed by some Western experts as providing a potential pretext for Iran to officially downgrade its level of cooperation with the IAEA. Abbasi also met separately with IAEA Director General Amano, after which the IAEA pressed Iran to address concerns in its nuclear program, and said that the IAEA was ready for negotiations soon. The IAEA did not comment on Abbasi's statements regarding "terrorists and saboteurs," but did say that it was vital that Iran cooperate with IAEA inspectors in order to clarify suspicions regarding its nuclear program. In an interview on the sidelines of the IAEA General Conference. Abbasi was quoted as saying that Iran had intentionally provided false information about its nuclear program to mislead western intelligence. Abbasi, who had been an assassination target in 2010, said Iran sometimes exaggerated and sometimes understated its progress.
In September 2013, in an interview with the Washington Post, the newly elected President of Iran Hassan Rouhani said that he wanted a resolution to the nuclear issue within "months, not years." Rouhani said he saw the nuclear issue as a "beginning point" for U.S.-Iran relations.
President George W. Bush insisted on 31 August 2006, that "there must be consequences" for Iran's defiance of demands that it stop enriching uranium. He asserted "the world now faces a grave threat from the radical regime in Iran. The Iranian regime arms, funds, and advises Hezbollah." The IAEA issued a report saying Iran had not suspended its uranium enrichment activities, a United Nations official said. This report opened the way for UN Security Council sanctions against Iran. Facing a Security Council deadline to stop its uranium enrichment activities, Iran has left little doubt it will defy the West and continue its nuclear program.
A congressional report released on 23 August 2006, summarized the documentary history of Iran's nuclear program, but also made allegations against the IAEA. The IAEA responded with a strongly worded letter to then U.S. House Intelligence Committee Chairman Peter Hoekstra, which labeled as "outrageous and dishonest" the report's allegation that an IAEA inspector was dismissed for violating a supposed IAEA policy against "telling the whole truth" about Iran and pointed out other factual errors, such as a claim that Iran had enriched "weapons-grade" uranium.
John Bolton, then U.S. ambassador to the United Nations on 31 August 2006, said that he expected action to impose sanctions to begin immediately after the deadline passes, with meetings of high-level officials in the coming days, followed by negotiations on the language of the sanctions resolution. Bolton said that when the deadline passes "a little flag will go up." "In terms of what happens afterward, at that point, if they have not suspended all uranium enrichment activities, they will not be in compliance with the resolution," he said. "And at that point, the steps that the foreign ministers have agreed upon previously ... we would begin to talk about how to implement those steps." The five permanent members of the Security Council, plus Germany, previously offered Iran a package of incentives aimed at getting the country to restart negotiations, but Iran refused to halt its nuclear activities first. Incentives included offers to improve Iran's access to the international economy through participation in groups such as the World Trade Organization and to modernize its telecommunications industry. The incentives also mentioned the possibility of lifting restrictions on U.S. and European manufacturers wanting to export civil aircraft to Iran. And a proposed long-term agreement accompanying the incentives offered a "fresh start in negotiations."
IAEA officials complained in 2007 that most U.S. intelligence shared with it to date about Iran's nuclear program proved to be inaccurate, and that none had led to significant discoveries inside Iran through that time.
Through 2008, the United States repeatedly refused to rule out using nuclear weapons in an attack on Iran. The U.S. Nuclear Posture Review made public in 2002 specifically envisioned the use of nuclear weapons on a first strike basis, even against non-nuclear armed states. Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh reported that, according to military officials, the Bush administration had plans for the use of nuclear weapons against "underground Iranian nuclear facilities". When specifically questioned about the potential use of nuclear weapons against Iran, President Bush claimed that "All options were on the table". According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Bush "directly threatened Iran with a preemptive nuclear strike. It is hard to read his reply in any other way." The Iranian authorities consistently replied that they were not seeking nuclear weapons as a deterrent to the United States, and instead emphasize the creation of a nuclear-arms free zone in the Middle East. The policy of using nuclear weapons on a first-strike basis against non-nuclear opponents is a violation of the US Negative Security Assurance pledge not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear members of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) such as Iran. Threats of the use of nuclear weapons against another country constitute a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 984 and the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons.
In December 2008, President-Elect Barack Obama gave an interview on Sunday's "Meet the Press" with host Tom Brokaw during which he said the United States needs to "ratchet up tough but direct diplomacy with Iran". He said in his view the United States needs to make it clear to the Iranians that their alleged development of nuclear weapons and funding of organizations "like Hamas and Hezbollah," and threats against Israel are "unacceptable." Obama supports diplomacy with Iran without preconditions "to pressure Iran to stop their illicit nuclear program". Mohamed ElBaradei has welcomed the new stance to talk to Iran as "long overdue". Iran said Obama should apologize for the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II and his administration should stop talking to the world and "listen to what others are saying." In his first press interview as President, Obama told Al Arabiya that "if countries like Iran are willing to unclench their fist, they will find an extended hand from us."
In March 2009 U.S. National Intelligence Director Dennis C. Blair and Defense Intelligence Agency Director Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples told a United States Senate Committee on Armed Services hearing that Iran has only low-enriched uranium, which there were no indications it was refining. Their comments countered ones made earlier by an Israeli general and Maples said the United States was arriving at different conclusions from the same facts.
On 7 April 2009, a Manhattan district attorney charged a financier with the suspected misuse of Manhattan banks employed to transfer money between China and Iran by way of Europe and the United States. The materials in question can be used for weapons as well as civilian purposes, but some of the material can potentially be used in making engine nozzles that can withstand fiery temperatures and centrifuges that can enrich uranium into atomic fuel. The charges would carry a maximum of up to a year in jail for fifth-degree conspiracy and a maximum of four years for falsifying business records. David Albright, a nuclear weapons expert who assisted in the prosecution, said that it is impossible to say how Iran used or could use the raw materials it acquired.
A document released by the U.S. State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research in August 2009 assessed that Iran was unlikely to have the technical capability to produce HEU (highly enriched uranium) before 2013, and the U.S. intelligence community had no evidence that Iran had yet made the decision to produce highly enriched uranium. In 2009, U.S. intelligence assessed that Iranian intentions were unknown.
On 26 July 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton explicitly ruled out the possibility that the Obama administration would allow Iran to produce its own nuclear fuel, even under intense international inspection.
Following the November 2009 IAEA Board of Governors resolution demanding Iran immediately stop building its newly revealed nuclear facility and freeze uranium enrichment, White House spokesman Robert Gibbs avoided mentioning sanctions but indicated harsher measures were possible unless Iran compromised: "If Iran refuses to meet its obligations, then it will be responsible for its own growing isolation and the consequences." Glyn Davies, the chief U.S. delegate to the IAEA, told reporters: "Six nations ... for the first time came together ...[and] have put together this resolution we all agreed on. That's a significant development."
A 2009 U.S. congressional research paper said that U.S. intelligence believed Iran ended "nuclear weapon design and weaponization work" in 2003. Some advisors within the Obama administration reaffirmed the intelligence conclusions, while other "top advisers" in the Obama administration "say they no longer believe" the key finding of the 2007 National Intelligence Estimate. Thomas Fingar, former Chairman of the National Intelligence Council until December 2008, said that the original 2007 National Intelligence Estimate on Iran "became contentious, in part, because the White House instructed the Intelligence Community to release an unclassified version of the report's key judgments but declined to take responsibility for ordering its release." A National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) is the most authoritative written judgment concerning a national security issue prepared by the Director of Central Intelligence.
The impending opening of the Bushehr I plant in late 2010 prompted the White House to question why Iran is continuing to enrich uranium within its borders. "Russia is providing the fuel, and taking the fuel back out," White House spokesman Robert Gibbs said in August. "It, quite clearly, I think, underscores that Iran does not need its own enrichment capability if its intentions, as it states, are for a peaceful nuclear program," he said.
On 8 January 2012, U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta said on Face the Nation that Iran was not trying to develop a nuclear weapon, but was trying to develop a nuclear capability. He also urged Israel to work together rather than make a unilateral strike on Iran's nuclear installations. On 1 August 2012, U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta while in Israel said that the United States had "options," including military options, to prevent Iran from attaining a nuclear weapon, should diplomacy fail. In 2012, sixteen U.S. intelligence agencies, including the CIA, reported that Iran was pursuing research that could enable it to produce nuclear weapons, but was not attempting to do so. The senior officers of all of the major American intelligence agencies stated that there was no conclusive evidence that Iran has made any attempt to produce nuclear weapons since 2003.
On 14 January 2013, the Institute for Science and International Security (a U.S. think tank) published a 154-page report by five U.S. experts titled "U.S. Nonproliferation Strategy for the Changing Middle East," which stated that Iran could produce enough weapon-grade uranium for one or more nuclear bombs by the middle of 2014. Therefore, the report recommended that the United States should increase sanctions on Iran in order to curb its ability to develop weapon-grade uranium. In addition the report states: "The president should explicitly declare that he will use military force to destroy Iran's nuclear program if Iran takes additional decisive steps toward producing a bomb."
On 2 February 2013, speaking at the Munich Security Conference, U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden said that the Obama Administration "would be prepared to meet bilaterally with the Iranian leadership. We would not make it a secret that we were doing that. We would let our partners know if that occasion presented itself. That offer stands, but it must be real and tangible, and there has to be an agenda that they’re prepared to speak to. We are not just prepared to do it for the exercise." A few days later Iranian supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei rejected the offer and added ambiguously: "The U.S. policies in the Middle East have failed and the Americans are in need of a winning hand. That is bringing Iran to the negotiating table." On 4 February the Italian news-wire "Agenzia Nova", citing "sources in Teheran," reported that "from the beginning of the year Ali Larijani, Speaker of the (Iranian) Parliament, secretly traveled twice to the United States" to launch direct negotiations with the Obama Administration. The Italian Agency explained that U.S. diplomacy was waiting for the Presidential election in Iran, that most probably will see a dramatic change in Iranian approach. It was reported on 17 June Iran's newly elected president Hassan Rohani had expressed readiness for bilateral talks with Washington, with conditions.
On 2 April 2015, hailing the agreement between the P5+1 and Iran on parameters for a comprehensive agreement, President Obama said "Today, the United States, together with our allies and partners, has reached an historic understanding with Iran, which if fully implemented, will prevent it from obtaining a nuclear weapon."
In April 2018, Mike Pompeo, U.S. Secretary of State nominee at the time, said that he believed that Iran had not been "racing" to develop a nuclear weapon before the finalization of the Iran deal and that it would not do so if the deal were to unraveled, although he favored a "fix" of the deal.
Negotiations between Iran and the P5+1Edit
Iran has held a series of meetings with a group of six countries: China, France, Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, United States. These six are known as the P5+1 (the permanent five members of the UN Security Council plus Germany) or alternatively as the E3+3. These meetings are intended to resolve concerns about Iran's nuclear program.
October 2009 Geneva negotiationsEdit
January 2011 Istanbul meetingEdit
Negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 were resumed on 21 January 2011 in Istanbul after about a 14-month break. The two-day meetings were led by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton and Iran's chief nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili. The talks deadlocked after Iran imposed two preconditions: recognition of Iran's right to enrich uranium and dropping the United Nations economic sanctions on Tehran.
April 2012 Istanbul meetingEdit
The first session of fresh negotiations in April went well, with delegates praising the constructive dialogue and Iran's positive attitude. Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu said, however, that Iran had been given a "freebie", a charge that was sharply rebutted by Barack Obama. In the lead up to the second round of negotiations in May, and in what may foreshadow a significant concession, an unnamed senior U.S. official hinted the United States might accept Iran enriching uranium to 5% so long as the Iranians agreed to tough international oversight of the process. The U.S. shift was reportedly made for the pragmatic reason that unconditional demands for zero enrichment would make it impossible to reach a negotiated deal. Netanyahu had insisted a few days before that he would tolerate no enrichment, not even to the 3% required for nuclear power. In a shift on the Iranian side, April saw members of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps urging Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to maintain a policy of keeping uranium enrichment at or below 20%. The EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs Catherine Ashton felt compelled to make a special visit to Netanyahu, partly to keep him from again voicing his negativity and opposition to the negotiations. At the meeting, which included Avigdor Lieberman, Ehud Barak and Shaul Mofaz, the Israelis demanded a guaranteed timetable for cessation of all uranium enrichment by Iran, the removal of all enriched uranium, and the dismantlement of the underground facility at Fordo. Otherwise, they said, Iran would use the talks to buy time.
May 2012 Baghdad negotiationsEdit
February and April 2013 Almaty negotiationsEdit
September 2013 Ministerial meetingEdit
Foreign Ministers of the P5+1 met in September 2013 on the margins of the United Nations General Assembly, and were joined by Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif.
October–November 2013 negotiationsEdit
Lead negotiators for the P5+1 and Iran met in Geneva 15–16 October to discuss elements of a possible framework for resolving questions about Iran's nuclear program. Experts from the P5+1 and Iran met in Vienna 30–31 October to exchange detailed information on those elements. Lead negotiators met again 7–8 November to negotiate that framework, joined at the end by Foreign Ministers from the P5+1, but despite extending the talks past midnight 9 November were unable to agree on that framework and agreed instead to meet again 20 November.
On 24 November, the foreign ministers of Iran and the P5+1 agreed to a six-month interim deal that involves the freezing of key parts of the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for a decrease in sanctions, to provide time to negotiate a permanent agreement. Iran will stop enriching uranium beyond 5%, and will stop development of their Arak plant. The UN will be granted greater access for inspections. In exchange, Iran will receive relief from sanctions of approximately US$7 billion (£4.3 billion) and no additional sanctions will be imposed. President Obama called the agreement an "important first step." Following further negotiation of implementation details, a summary of which was released by the White House on 16 January 2014, implementation began 20 January 2014.
The P5+1 and Iran held meetings at the senior levels 18–20 February and agreed on a framework for future negotiations. Following expert talks, a next round of senior-level talks was scheduled to be held in Vienna starting 17 March 2014. On 20 February 2014 the IAEA reported that Iran was implementing its commitments to the P5+1 and its commitments to the IAEA under the Joint Statement of 11 November 2013.
February–July 2014 negotiationsEdit
During February to July 2014 the P5+1 and Iran have held high-level negotiations on a comprehensive agreement on Iran's nuclear program in Vienna, Austria. After six rounds of talks the parties missed the deadline for reaching a deal and agreed to extend the negotiations through 24 November. Additionally, it was agreed that the U.S. will unblock $2.8 billion in frozen Iranian funds, in exchange for Iran continuing to convert its stocks of 20% enriched uranium into fuel.
July 2015 negotiationsEdit
Second enrichment plantEdit
On 21 September 2009, Iran informed the IAEA that it was constructing a second enrichment facility. The following day (22 September) IAEA Director General ElBaradei informed the United States, and two days later (24 September) the United States, United Kingdom and France briefed the IAEA on an enrichment facility under construction at an underground location at Fordu, 42 kilometres (26 mi) north of Qom. On 25 September, at the G-20 Summit, the three countries criticized Iran for once again concealing a nuclear facility from the IAEA. The United States said that the facility, which was still months from completion, was too small to be useful for a civil program but could produce enough high-enriched uranium for one bomb per year. Iran said the plant was for peaceful purposes and would take between a year and a half to two years to complete, and that the notice Iran had given had exceeded the 180 days before insertion of nuclear materials the IAEA safeguards agreement that Iran was following required. Iran agreed to allow IAEA inspections. Iran's nuclear chief, Ali Akbar Salehi, said the site was built for maximum protection from aerial attack: carved into a mountain and near a military compound of the powerful Revolutionary Guard.
Also in October, the United States, France and Russia proposed a UN-drafted deal to Iran regarding its nuclear program, in an effort to find a compromise between Iran's stated need for a nuclear reactor and international concerns that Iran harbors a secret intent on developing a nuclear weapon. After some delay in responding, on 29 October, Ahmadinejad voiced an openness towards cooperation with other world powers. "We welcome fuel exchange, nuclear co-operation, building of power plants and reactors and we are ready to co-operate," he said in a live broadcast on state television. However, he added that Iran would not retreat "one iota" on its right to a sovereign nuclear program.
In November 2009, the IAEA Board of Governors passed a resolution that criticized Iran for defying a UN Security Council ban on uranium enrichment, censured Iran for secretly building a uranium enrichment facility and demanded that it immediately suspend further construction. It noted the IAEA chief Mohammed El-Baradei cannot confirm that Iran's nuclear program is exclusively geared toward peaceful uses, and expressed "serious concern" that Iran's stonewalling of an IAEA probe means "the possibility of military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program" cannot be excluded.
Cooperation with VenezuelaEdit
In October 2009 Hugo Chávez announced that Iran was helping Venezuela in uranium exploration. He said that "We're working with several countries, with Iran, with Russia. We're responsible for what we're doing, we're in control". A number of reports suggested that Venezuela was helping Iran to obtain uranium and evade international sanctions.
On 9 February 2010 the Iranian government announced that it would produce uranium enriched to up to 20% to produce fuel for a research reactor used to produce medical radioisotopes, processing its existing stocks of 3.5% enriched uranium. Two days later during the celebrations in Tehran for the 31st anniversary of the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution, the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran was now a "nuclear state." IAEA officials confirmed it has enriched uranium "up to 19.8%". Responding to criticism, President Ahmadinejad said, "Why do they think that 20 per cent is such a big deal? Right now in Natanz we have the capability to enrich at over 20 per cent and at over 80 per cent, but because we don't need it, we won't do it." He added "If we wanted to manufacture a bomb, we would announce it." On the same day as the President's announcement, Ali Akbar Salehi, head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, told Reuters that their 20% enrichment production, was going "very well," adding "There is no limit on enrichment. We can enrich up to 100% ... But we never had the intention and we do not have the intention to do so, unless we need (to)." He maintained that the 20% production was for a Tehran medical reactor, and as such would be limited to around 1.5 kg per month.
Tehran Nuclear DeclarationEdit
U.S. President Obama reportedly sent a letter dated 20 April 2010 to President Lula of Brazil, in which he outlined a proposal of fuel swap. While expressing skepticism that the Iranians would now be willing to accept such a deal, having provided "no credible explanation" for the previous deal's rejection, President Obama wrote "For us, Iran’s agreement to transfer 1,200 kg of Iran’s low enriched uranium (LEU) out of the country would build confidence and reduce regional tensions by substantially reducing Iran’s LEU stockpile." Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan received a similar letter. A senior U.S. official told the Washington Post that the letter was a response to Iran's desire to ship out its uranium piecemeal, rather than in a single batch, and that during "multiple conversations" U.S. officials made clear that Iran should also cease 20% enrichment; however, the official stated "there was no president-to-president letter laying out those broader concerns".
On 17 May 2010 Iran, Brazil, and Turkey issued a joint declaration "in which Iran agreed to send low-enriched uranium to Turkey in return for enriched fuel for a research reactor." Iran reported the joint declaration to the IAEA on 24 May 2010, asking it to inform the "Vienna Group" (the United States, Russia, France, and the IAEA), in order to conclude a written agreement and make contingent arrangements between Iran and the Vienna Group. The proposal was welcomed by Arab leaders and China. France's Prime Minister called the agreement a "positive step" toward resolving the Iran nuclear program dispute, if Iran were to cease uranium enrichment altogether. EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton played down the agreement, saying it was a step in the right direction but did not go far enough and left questions unanswered. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the proposal had "a number of deficiencies," including Iran's intention to continue enriching uranium to high levels.
Meanwhile, the United States was also pursuing other action to address the situation in Iran, in the case that the more diplomatic method not produce a satisfactory deal, and on 18 May 2010, announced a "draft accord" among UN permanent Security Council members for additional sanctions on Iran, designed to pressure it to end its nuclear enrichment program. Turkey and Brazil criticized the sanctions proposal. Davutoglu said that the swap agreement showed Iran's "clear political will" toward engagement on the nuclear issue. Brazil's Foreign Minister also expressed frustration with the U.S. stance, saying of Brazil's vote against the sanctions resolution: "We could not have voted in any different way except against."
Early analysis from the BBC stated the swap deal could have been an "effort by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to deflect pressure for fresh sanctions" and that "Iran watchers are already criticising Washington for moving the goal posts". Iran's atomic energy chief said the agreement left world powers no reason to continue to pressure Iran regarding its nuclear program. Iran also described the agreement as a major boost to trilateral relations with Brazil and Turkey, and Supreme Leader of Iran Ayatollah Ali Khamenei criticized the continuing call for sanctions, stating that the "domineering powers headed by America are unhappy with cooperation between independent countries."
Mohamed ElBaradei, former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, wrote that "the only way to resolve the Iranian issue is to build trust. Moving 1200, half, or at least more than half of the Iranian nuclear material out of Iran is a confidence-building measure would defuse the crisis and enable the US and the West [to gain] the space to negotiate. I hope that it would be perceived as a win-win situation. If we see what I have been observing in the last couple of days that it is an "empty dressing", I think it is a wrong approach...we lost six years of failed policy frankly vis-à-vis Iran. And it's about time now to understand that the Iranian issue is not going to be resolved except, until and unless we sit with the Iranians and try to find a fair and equitable solution." "If this deal is followed up with a broader engagement of the IAEA and the international community, it can be a positive step to a negotiated settlement," UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon said.
Possible espionage and assassinationsEdit
Several Iranian nuclears scientists died in alleged assassination attacks between 2010 and 2012. According to Iran, and privately confirmed by unnamed U.S. government officials, the attacks on the nuclear scientists and facilities are being carried out by an Iranian dissident group called the People's Mujahedin of Iran. According to U.S. officials, the group is financed, trained, and armed by Mossad.
According to former Iranian chief of staff Hassan Firouzabadi, the West used tourists and environmentalists to spy on Iran: "In their possessions were a variety of reptile desert species like lizards, chameleons… We found out that their skin attracts atomic waves and that they were nuclear spies who wanted to find out where inside the Islamic Republic of Iran we have uranium mines and where we are engaged in atomic activities.", however these plots were foiled by Iran.
Research and development in nuclear weaponsEdit
The continuing controversy over Iran's nuclear program revolves in part around allegations of nuclear studies by Iran with possible military applications until 2003, when, according to the 2007 National Intelligence Estimate, the program was ended. The allegations, which include claims that Iran had engaged in high-explosives testing, sought to manufacture "green salt" (UF
4) and to design a nuclear-capable missile warhead, were based on information obtained from a laptop computer which was allegedly retrieved from Iran in 2004. The US presented some of the alleged contents of the laptop in 2005 to an audience of international diplomats, though the laptop and the full documents contained in it have yet to be given to the IAEA for independent verification. According to the New York Times:
Nonetheless, doubts about the intelligence persist among some foreign analysts. In part, that is because American officials, citing the need to protect their source, have largely refused to provide details of the origins of the laptop computer beyond saying that they obtained it in mid-2004 from a longtime contact in Iran. Moreover, this chapter in the confrontation with Iran is infused with the memory of the faulty intelligence on Iraq's unconventional arms. In this atmosphere, though few countries are willing to believe Iran's denials about nuclear arms, few are willing to accept the United States' weapons intelligence without question. "I can fabricate that data," a senior European diplomat said of the documents. "It looks beautiful, but is open to doubt.
On 21 August 2007, Iran and the IAEA finalized an agreement, titled "Understandings of The Islamic Republic of Iran and the IAEA on the Modalities of Resolution of the Outstanding Issues," that listed outstanding issues regarding Iran's nuclear program and set out a timetable to resolve each issue in order. These unresolved issues included the status of Iran's uranium mine at Gchine, allegations of experiments with plutonium and uranium metal, and the use of Polonium 210. Specifically regarding the "Alleged Studies", the Modalities agreement asserted that while Iran considers the documents to be fabricated, Iran would nevertheless address the allegations "upon receiving all related documents" as a goodwill gesture. The Modalities Agreement specifically said that aside from the issues identified in the document, there were "no other remaining issues and ambiguities regarding Iran's past nuclear program and activities."
The United States was opposed to the Modalities Agreement between Iran and the IAEA, and vehemently objected to it, accusing Iran of "manipulating" IAEA. Olli Heinonen, the IAEA Deputy Director General for safeguards underlined the importance of the Iran-IAEA agreement as a working arrangement on how to resolve the outstanding issues that triggered Security Council resolutions:
All these measures which you see there for resolving our outstanding issues go beyond the requirements of the Additional Protocol ... If the answers are not satisfactory, we are making new questions until we are satisfied with the answers and we can conclude technically that the matter is resolved—it is for us to judge when we think we have enough information. Once the matter is resolved, then the file is closed.
Following the implementation of the Modalities Agreement, the IAEA issued another report on the status of Iran's nuclear program on 22 February 2008. According to this report, the IAEA had no evidence of a current, undeclared nuclear program in Iran, and all of the remaining issues listed in the Modalities Agreement regarding past undeclared nuclear activities had been resolved, with the exception of the "Alleged Studies" issue. Regarding this report, IAEA director ElBaradei specifically stated:
[W]e have made quite good progress in clarifying the outstanding issues that had to do with Iran's past nuclear activities, with the exception of one issue, and that is the alleged weaponization studies that supposedly Iran has conducted in the past. We have managed to clarify all the remaining outstanding issues, including the most important issue, which is the scope and nature of Iran's enrichment programme.
The US had made some of the "Alleged Studies" documentation available to the IAEA just a week prior to the issuance of the IAEA's February 2008 report on Iran's nuclear program. According to the IAEA report itself, the IAEA had "not detected the use of nuclear material in connection with the alleged studies, nor does it have credible information in this regard." Some diplomats reportedly dismissed the new allegations as being "of doubtful value ... relatively insignificant and coming too late."
It was reported on 3 March 2008, that Olli Heinonen, the IAEA Deputy Director general of safeguards, had briefed diplomats about the contents of the "Alleged Studies" documents a week earlier. Reportedly, Heinonen added that the IAEA had obtained corroborating information from the intelligence agencies of several countries, that pointed to sophisticated research into some key technologies needed to build and deliver a nuclear bomb.
In April 2008, Iran reportedly agreed to address the sole outstanding issue of the "Alleged Studies" However, according to the subsequent May 2008 IAEA report, the IAEA was not able to actually provide these same "Alleged Studies" documents to Iran, because the IAEA did not have the documents itself or was not allowed to share them with Iran. For example, in paragraph 21, the IAEA report states: "Although the Agency had been shown the documents that led it to these conclusions, it was not in possession of the documents and was therefore unfortunately unable to make them available to Iran." Also, in paragraph 16, the IAEA report states: "The Agency received much of this information only in electronic form and was not authorised to provide copies to Iran." The IAEA has requested that it be allowed to share the documents with Iran. Nevertheless, according to the report, Iran may have more information on the alleged studies which "remain a matter of serious concern" but the IAEA itself had not detected evidence of actual design or manufacture by Iran of nuclear weapons or components.
Iran's refusal to respond to the IAEA's questions unless it is given access to the original documents has caused a standoff. In February 2008, the New York Times reported that the U.S. refusal to provide access to those documents was a source of friction between the Bush Administration and then Director General ElBaradei. ElBaradei later noted that these documents could not be shared because of the need to protect sources and methods, but noted that this allowed Iran to question their authenticity. According to Iran's envoy to the IAEA, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, "The government of the United States has not handed over original documents to the agency since it does not in fact have any authenticated document and all it has are forged documents."
The IAEA has requested that third parties[vague] allow it to share the documents on the alleged studies with Iran. The IAEA has further stated that though it has not provided full documents containing the alleged studies, information from other countries has corroborated some of the allegations, which appear to the IAEA to be consistent and credible, and that Iran should therefore address the alleged studies even without obtaining the full documents. However, questions about the authenticity of the documents persist, with claims that the documents were obtained either from Israel or the MEK, an Iranian dissident group officially considered to be a terrorist organization by the United States, and that investigations into the alleged studies are intended to reveal intelligence about Iran's conventional weapons programs. Some IAEA officials have requested a clear statement be made by the agency that it could not affirm the documents' authenticity. They cite that as a key document in the study had since been proven to have been fraudulently altered, it put in doubt the entire collection.
On 30 April 2018, Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu revealed thousands of files he said were copied from a "highly secret location" in Teheran which show an Iranian effort to develop nuclear weapons between 1999 and 2003. Many analysts said there was little new information in Netanyahu's presentation, which they speculated was designed to influence President Trump's decision on the Iran deal. The IAEA reiterated its 2015 report, saying it had found no credible evidence of nuclear weapons activity in Iran after 2009. According to David Albright, of the Institute for Science and International Security, the archive revealed that Iran's weapon program was more advanced than believed previously in the West and that should Iran pull out of the JCPOA it would be able to produce weapons swiftly, possibly within a few months.
Nuclear power as a political issueEdit
Iran's nuclear program and the NPTEdit
Iran says that its program is solely for peaceful purposes and consistent with the NPT. The IAEA Board of Governors has found Iran in non-compliance with its NPT safeguards agreement, concluding in a rare non-consensus decision with 12 abstentions, that Iran's past safeguards "breaches" and "failures" constituted "non-compliance" with its Safeguards Agreement In the decision, the IAEA Board of Governors also concluded that the concerns raised fell within the competence of the UN Security Council.
Most experts recognize that non-compliance with an NPT safeguards agreement is not equivalent to a violation of the NPT or does not automatically constitute a violation of the NPT itself. The IAEA does not make determinations regarding compliance with the NPT, and the UN Security Council does not have a responsibility to adjudicate treaty violations. Dr. James Acton, an associate in the Nonproliferation Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, has said the 2010 NPT Review Conference could recognize that non-compliance with safeguards agreements would violate article III of the NPT. Director of the Australian Nonproliferation and Safeguards Organization and then Chairman of IAEA Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation John Carlson wrote in considering the case of Iran that "formally IAEA Board of Governors (BOG) decisions concern compliance with safeguards agreements, rather than the NPT as such, but in practical terms non-compliance with a safeguards agreement constitutes non-compliance with the NPT."
A September 2009 Congressional Research Service paper said "whether Iran has violated the NPT is unclear." A 2005 U.S. State Department report on compliance with arms control and nonproliferation agreements concluded, based on its analysis of the facts and the relevant international laws, that Iran's extensive failures to make required reports to the IAEA made "clear that Iran has violated Article III of the NPT and its IAEA safeguards agreement." Testimony presented to the Foreign Select Committee of the British Parliament drew the opposite conclusion:
The enforcement of Article III of the NPT obligations is carried out through the IAEA's monitoring and verification that is designed to ensure that declared nuclear facilities are operated according to safeguard agreement with Iran, which Iran signed with the IAEA in 1974. In the past four years that Iran's nuclear programme has been under close investigation by the IAEA, the Director General of the IAEA, as early as November 2003 reported to the IAEA Board of Governors that "to date, there is no evidence that the previously undeclared nuclear material and activities ... were related to a nuclear weapons programme." ... Although Iran has been found in non-compliance with some aspects of its IAEA safeguards obligations, Iran has not been in breach of its obligations under the terms of the NPT.
The 2005 U.S. State Department compliance report also concluded that "Iran is pursuing an effort to manufacture nuclear weapons, and has sought and received assistance in this effort in violation of Article II of the NPT". The November 2007 United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) asserted that Tehran halted a nuclear weapons program in fall 2003, but that Iran "at a minimum is keeping open the option to develop nuclear weapon". Russian analyst Alexei Arbatov, said "no hard facts on violation of the NPT per se have been discovered" and also wrote that "all this is not enough to accuse Iran of a formal breach of the letter of the NPT" and "giving Iran the benefit of the doubt, there is no hard evidence of its full-steam development of a military nuclear program."
NPT Article IV recognizes the right of states to research, develop and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, but only in conformity with their nuclear nonproliferation obligations under Articles I and II of the NPT.
The UN Security Council has demanded that Iran suspend its nuclear enrichment activities in multiple resolutions. The United States has said the "central bargain of the NPT is that if non-nuclear-weapon states renounce the pursuit of nuclear weapons, and comply fully with this commitment, they may gain assistance under Article IV of the Treaty to develop peaceful nuclear programs". The U.S. has written that Paragraph 1 of Article IV makes clear that access to peaceful nuclear cooperation must be "in conformity with Articles I and II of this Treaty" and also by extension Article III of the NPT. Rahman Bonad, Director of Arms Control Studies at the Center for Strategic Research at Tehran, has argued that demands to cease enrichment run counter to "all negotiations and discussions that led to the adoption of the NPT in the 1960s and the fundamental logic of striking a balance between the rights and obligations stipulated in the NPT." In February 2006 Iran's foreign minister insisted that "Iran rejects all forms of scientific and nuclear apartheid by any world power," and asserted that this "scientific and nuclear apartheid" was "an immoral and discriminatory treatment of signatories to the Non-Proliferation Treaty," and that Iran has "the right to a peaceful use of nuclear energy and we cannot accept nuclear apartheid."
Russia has said it believes Iran has a right to enrich uranium on its soil. Former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice suggested that there could be work toward an international nuclear fuel bank instead of indigenous Iranian enrichment, while Richard Haass, President of the Council on Foreign Relations, has said "the United States should be willing to discuss what Iran describes as its 'right to enrich' ... provided that Iran accepts both limits on its enrichment program (no HEU) and enhanced safeguards". Officials of the Iranian government and members of the Iranian public believe Iran should be developing its peaceful nuclear industry. A March 2008 poll of 30 nations found moderate support for allowing Iran to produce nuclear fuel for electricity alongside a full program of UN inspections.
Iranian statements on nuclear deterrenceEdit
The Iranian authorities deny seeking a nuclear weapons capacity for deterrence or retaliation since Iran's level of technological progress cannot match that of existing nuclear weapons states, and the acquisition of nuclear weapons would only spark an arms race in the Middle East. According to Ambassador Javad Zarif:
It is true that Iran has neighbors with abundant nuclear weapons, but this does not mean that Iran must follow suit. In fact, the predominant view among Iranian decision-makers is that development, acquisition or possession of nuclear weapons would only undermine Iranian security. Viable security for Iran can be attained only through inclusion and regional and global engagement.
Iran's President Ahmadinejad, during an interview with NBC anchor Brian Willians in July 2008, also dismissed the utility of nuclear weapons as a source of security and stated:
Again, did nuclear arms help the Soviet Union from falling and disintegrating? For that matter, did a nuclear bomb help the U.S. to prevail inside Iraq or Afghanistan, for that matter? Nuclear bombs belong to the 20th century. We are living in a new century ... Nuclear energy must not be equaled to a nuclear bomb. This is a disservice to the society of man.
And according to Ali Akbar Salehi, the head of Iran's Atomic Energy Organization:
In matters of national security we are not timid. We will assert our intentions. If nuclear weapons would have brought security, we would have announced to the world that we would go after them ... We do not think a nuclear Iran would be stronger ... If we have weapons of mass destruction we are not going to use them – we cannot. We did not use chemical weapons against Iraq. Secondly, we do not feel any real threat from our neighbours. Pakistan and the Persian Gulf, we have no particular problems with them, nor with Afghanistan. The only powerful country is Russia in the north, and no matter how many nuclear weapons we had we could not match Russia. Israel, our next neighbour, we do not consider an entity by itself but as part of the US. Facing Israel means facing the US. We cannot match the US. We do not have strategic differences with our neighbours, including Turkey.
Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in the Middle EastEdit
Historically, until its own nuclear program began development, Iran had consistently supported the creation of a nuclear-weapons free zone in the Middle East. In 1974, as concerns in the region grew over Israel's nuclear weapon program, Iran formally proposed the concept of a nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East in a joint resolution in the UN General Assembly.
Views on Iran's nuclear power programEdit
- Diplomatic tensions between Iran and the United States
- Economy of Iran
- Energy in Iran
- Fereydoon Abbasi, current head of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran
- International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation
- Gas centrifuge
- International Rankings of Iran in Science and Technology
- Iran and weapons of mass destruction
- Iran–Pakistan relations
- Iran–United States relations
- Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel
- Mansour Haj Azim
- Iran–Israel proxy conflict
- Oghab 2
- Akbar Etemad
- Opposition to military action against Iran
- Flame (malware)
- Tehran International Conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, 2010
- Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran
- List of Iranian nuclear negotiators
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231
- Manufactured Crisis: The Untold Story of the Iran Nuclear Scare
- Kerr, Paul (26 September 2012). "Iran's Nuclear Program: Status" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Signatories and Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". Retrieved 17 April 2006.
- Roe, Sam (28 January 2007). "An atomic threat made in America". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- "Iran Affairs: Blasts from the Past: Western Support for Iran's Nuclear program". 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "ArmsControlWonk: Exiles and Iran Intel". Armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- "Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). iaea.org. GOV/2003/40. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities (National Intelligence Estimate)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "IAEA Report for military dimensions, see pages 4–12" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "U.N. nuclear watchdog board rebukes defiant Iran". Reuters. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "IAEA: 'No Credible Indications' of Iran Nuclear Weapons Activity After 2009". VOA. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Iran nuclear row: Tehran says Israel's Netanyahu lied". BBC News. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Statement on Iran by the IAEA Spokesperson". IAEA. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Iran launches Bushehr nuclear power plant". RIA Novosti. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "Bushehr NPP to be brought to full capacity by year-end". The Voice of Russia. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Iran sees Bushehr plant at full capacity in one year". AFP. 18 December 2007. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Vaez, Ali; Sadjadpour, Karim (2 April 2013), "Iran's Nuclear Odyssey: Costs and Risks", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- "Iran's nuclear program may have cost the country $500 billion or more". SFGate.
- "Iran's Nuclear Program – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Contract between the International Atomic Energy Agency, Iran and the United States of America for the transfer of Enriched Uranium and Plutonium for a Research Reactor in Iran" (PDF). IAEA. United Nations. 7 June 1967. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
- "Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance". U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration. Archived from the original on 24 September 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2006.
- Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments: "The Shah's plan to build 23 nuclear power reactors by the 1990s was regarded as grandiose, but not necessarily viewed as a "back door" to a nuclear weapons program, possibly because Iran did not then seek the technologies to enrich or reprocess its own fuel"
- "Iran Profile – Nuclear Chronology 1957–1985". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2006.
- . Farhang Jahanpour (6 November 2006). "Chronology of Iran's Nuclear Program (1957–present)". Oxford Research GroupDr. Archived from the original on 28 July 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- Dafna Linzer (27 March 2005). "Past Arguments Don't Square With Current Iran Policy". Washington Post.
- "Prospects for Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons" (PDF). Special National Intelligence Estimate. CIA. 23 August 1974. SNIE 4-1-74. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- Gordon Prather (27 December 2005). "ElBaradei Isn't Perfect". Antiwar.com.
- Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Goals, Strategies, and Challenges (2009). Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, National Academies Press.
- Russia: Nuclear Exports to Iran: Reactors Nuclear Threat Initiative
- "Agence Global: Making a U.S.-Iranian Nuclear Deal". Agenceglobal.com. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Goals, Strategies, and Challenges. Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, National Academies Press. 2009.
Iran argues that this experience indicates that joint ownership of foreign facilities does not solve the problem of assuring fuel supply ... The recent experience in which Russian fuel supply to Bushehr was delayed for an extended period as disputes over Iran's nuclear program continued also contributed to Iran's perception that foreign fuel supply is unreliable.
- Mark Hibbs, "US in 1983 stopped IAEA from helping Iran make UF6", Nuclear Fuel, 4 August 2003
- Mark Hibbs (August 2003). "US in 1983 stopped IAEA from helping Iran make UF6". Platt's Nuclear Fuel. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009.
- Anthony H. Cordesman, "Iran and Nuclear Weapons: A Working Draft," Center for Strategic and International Studies, 7 February 2000; "Iran Atomic Energy Agency Head Goes to Bushehr," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 24 June 1989.
- "Senator says Iran, Iraq seek N-Bomb". (27 June 1984). The Age, p. 7.
- "Correspondence between the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the Director General" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. September 1984. INFCIRC/318. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "TelEx Messages to the Director General from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 27 November 1987. INFCIRC/346/Add.2. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Iran considered nuclear weapons during 1980s Iraq war, ex-president says, Reuters, Sam Wilkin, 29 Oct 2015
- "Amendment to Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of Iran for assistance by the Agency to Iran in establishing a Research Reactor Project" (PDF). IAEA. United Nations. 9 December 1988. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
- "Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs". Asia Times Online. 15 November 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Argentina's Iranian nuke connection, Gareth Porter, 15 November 2006
- Norton, Augustus Richard, Hezbollah: A Short History, Princeton University Press, 2007, p.79
- "Foreign Suppliers to Iran's Nuclear Development". James Martin Center For Nonproliferation Studies. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
- Stanislav Lunev. Through the Eyes of the Enemy: The Autobiography of Stanislav Lunev, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1998. ISBN 0-89526-390-4, pp. 19–22.
- "A Review of: "John W. Parker. Persian Dreams: Moscow and Tehran Since the Fall of the Shah."". Terrorism and Political Violence. 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Dominique Lorentz (11 November 2001). "La république atomique". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 9 May 2007.
- "Iskandar Safa and the French Hostage Scandal". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. February 2002. Archived from the original on 14 February 2006.
- "Atomic Team Reports on Iran Probe; No Weapons Research Found by Inspectors". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Jon Wolfsthal, "Iran Hosts IAEA Mission; Syria Signs Safeguard Pact", Arms Control Today, vol. 22 (March 1992), p. 28.
- "U.S. Halted Nuclear Bid By Iran; China, Argentina Agreed to Cancel Technology Transfers". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Iran's Nuclear Program. Part I: Its History". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Mark Hibbs, "Iran Told IAEA It Will Build Chinese UF6 Plant at Isfahan," Nuclear Fuel, 16 December 1996
- "HEU as weapons material – a technical background" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Facts About Peaceful Nuclear Program (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2007
- "Council on Foreign Relations: Iran's Nuclear Program". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Cyrus Safdari (November 2005). "Iran needs nuclear energy, not weapons". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Resolution 1696 (2006)". United Nations. S/RES/1696. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Ahmadinejad: Iran's nuclear issue is 'closed'". MSNBC. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iran: Where We Are Today – A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, May 4, 2009". Fas.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Security council demands iran suspend uranium enrichment by August 31, or face possible economic, diplomatic sanctions". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Maloney, Suzanne (5 March 2012). "How To Contain a Nuclear Iran". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- "Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information Systems (iNFCIS)". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Lining up to enrich uranium by Charles D. Ferguson and William C. Potter, International Herald Tribune, 12 September 2006
- John Pike (16 September 2006). "IRNA: NAM issues statement in support of Iran nuclear case". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Tackling the Iran-U.S. Crisis: The Need for a Paradigm Shift" (PDF). Journal of International Affairs. Columbia University School of International Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
Any nuclear activity may entail proliferation concerns. But there are internationally-agreed mechanisms to address such concerns, ... Iran has been the only country, with comparable technology, that has been prepared to implement these proposals.
- "We Do Not Have a Nuclear Weapons Program", Javad Zarif, New York Times 6 April 2006
- "Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Which Way Forward For Multilateral Approaches? An International Expert Group Examines Options". March 2005. pp. 38–40. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Iran Crisis". Mit.edu. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- "A Solution for the US–Iran Nuclear Standoff". 55 (4 · 2). The New York Review of Books. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- "UN Security Council Resolution 687". United Nations. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- ElBaradei, Mohamed (20 February 2004). "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. GOV/2004/12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2005.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – Resolution adopted by the Board on 10 March 2004" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. GOV/2004/18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2013.
- "Statement by the President of the Security Council". 22 April 2004. S/PRST/2004/10. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Agreed Framework Between The United States of America And the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Geneva, 21 October 1994.
- Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks, Beijing, 19 September 2005.
- Sokolski, Henry (Spring 2007). "Nonproliferation, By the Numbers". Journal of International Security Affairs (12). Archived from the original on 14 August 2009.
The agency's Director General and Board of Governors recognized Iran had breached its NPT safeguards obligations, but argued that it actually had a right under the treaty to make nuclear fuel ... U.S. officials and the IAEA board of governors chose in 2004 and 2005 to use this same line of reasoning to decide not to forward reports of safeguards infractions by South Korea and Egypt to the UN Security Council.
- Goldschmidt, Pierre (February 2009). "Exposing Nuclear Non-compliance". Survival. 51 (1): 143–164. doi:10.1080/00396330902749764.
Since 2003, the IAEA Secretariat has reported specific cases of non-compliance with safeguards agreements by Iran, Libya, South Korea and Egypt to the board (Step 2). The actions taken by the board in each case were inconsistent and, if they go uncorrected, will create unfortunate precedents.
- Kang, Jungmin; Hayes, Peter; Bin, Li; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanter, Richard (1 January 2005). "South Korea's nuclear surprise: as more and more countries adopt the IAEA's Additional Protocol, all kinds of nuclear secrets will come spilling out. Currently under microscope: South Korea". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
South Korea publicly disclosed its past secret nuclear research activities, revealing that it had conducted chemical uranium enrichment from 1979 to 1981, separated small quantities of plutonium in 1982, experimented with uranium enrichment in 2000, and manufactured depleted uranium munitions from 1983 to 1987. The South Korean government had violated its international agreements by not declaring any of these activities to the IAEA in Vienna.
- Barbara Demick of the Los Angeles Times (3 September 2004). "South Korea experimented with highly enriched uranium". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Exposing Nuclear Non-Compliance. Pierre Goldschmidt. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 51, no. 1, February–March 2009, pp. 143–164
- Barzashka, Ivanka (21 January 2011). "Using Enrichment Capacity to Estimate Iran's Breakout Potential" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Katzman, Kenneth (23 March 2012). "Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- Hymans, Jacques E.C. (17 January 2012). "Crying Wolf About An Iranian Nuclear Bomb". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Flynt Leveritt & Hillary Mann Leveritt (7 February 2013). "Time To Face Te Truth About Iran". The Nation. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Cohen, Roger (21 May 2013). "Ruthless Iran:Can A Deal Be Made?". New York Review of Books.
- Risen, James (17 March 2012). "U.S. Faces a Tricky Task in Assessment of Data on Iran". New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "alJazeera Magazine". 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Information Circulars" (PDF). iaea.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2006.
- Steve Coll, 'Will Iran Get That Bomb?', review of Parsi in New York Review of Books, 24 May 2012, pp.34–36, p.35
- "The "Grand Bargain" Fax: A Missed Opportunity?". PBS Frontline. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Valez, Ali (29 February 2012). "Why Iran Sanctions Won't Work". CNN.com. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "News Center: In Focus: IAEA and Iran". 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). IAEA. 10 November 2003. GOV/2003/75. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Safa Haeri, "Iran confirms stopping Additional Protocol of the NPT", "Iran Press Service", 9 October 2005
- "GOV/2004/83 – Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- Mark Hibbs (August 2003). "US in 1983 stopped IAEA from helping Iran make UF6". Platt's Nuclear Fuel. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009.
-  Archived 22 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Iran and the West: The Path to Nuclear Deadlock". Seyyed Hossein Mousavian. Global Dialogue, Winter/Spring 2006. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website (.pdf file)
- "EU rejects Iran call to speed up nuclear talks". Web.archive.org. Reuters. 1 February 2005. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- EU3-Iranian Negotiations: A New Approach Archived 29 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, by Anna Langenbach, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, July 2005
- "Iran: how the West missed a chance to make peace with Tehran". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Ian Traynor (4 August 2005). "EU warns Iran: no talks if nuclear freeze ends". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- Rosalind Ryan and agencies (8 August 2005). "Iran resumes uranium enrichment". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- Morrison, David (21 January 2006). "The EU misleads on Iran's nuclear activities" (PDF). Labour & Trade Union Review. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- "Notes". Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Middle East | Iran restarts nuclear programme". BBC News. 8 August 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Douglas Frantz (26 May 2005). "Pakistan Is Aiding in Iran Inquiry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Linzer, Dafna (23 August 2005). "No Proof Found of Iran Arms Program; Uranium Traced to Pakistani Equipment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Fact Sheets & Briefs - Arms Control Association". armscontrol.org.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). IAEA. 24 September 2005. GOV/2005/77. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "Iran reported to Security Council". BBC News. 4 February 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2006.
- "Resolution GOV/2006/14 of the Board of Governors: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF) (Press release). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2 April 2006.
- GOV/2006/15 Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 27 February 2006
- "Xinhua – English". News.xinhuanet.com. 18 February 2006. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "No Uranium Enrichment Permissible For Iran Says Bolton". Spacewar.com. AFP. 6 March 2006. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "About IAEA: IAEA Statute". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "IAEA Publications" (PDF). iaea.org.
- "ASIL Insight – Iran's Resumption of its Nuclear Program: Addendum". Asil.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "IAEA Board of Governors reports Iran's nuclear dossier to UNSC without consensus". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Iran President: We Won't Retreat 'One Iota'". Fox News. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Brannan, Paul (2006). "ISIS Imagery Brief: New Activities at the Esfahan and Natanz Nuclear Sites in Iran" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS). Retrieved 1 May 2006.
- "Business & Financial News, Breaking US & International News - Reuters.com". reuters.com.[permanent dead link]
- "CNN.com - U.N.: Sanctions loom, Iran keeps enriching - Aug 31, 2006". cnn.com.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696. S/RES/1696(2006) page 2. (2006) Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737. S/RES/1737(2006) 23 December 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- United Nations Security Council Document 815. S/2006/815 13 October 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- "UN passes Iran nuclear sanctions". BBC News. 13 December 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2006.
- "GOV/2007/8 – Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolution 1737 (2006) in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "INFCIRC/724 – Communication dated March 26, 2008, received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- INFCIRC/711 Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Understandings of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the IAEA on the Modalities of Resolution of the Outstanding Issues, 27 August 2009
- ElBaradei, Mohamed (19 November 2008). "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). GOV/2008/59. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Information Circulars" (PDF). iaea.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009.
- Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007) and 1803 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, (15 September 2008)
- "An Assessment of So-called "Alleged Studies", Islamic Republic of Iran – September 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "UN nuclear watchdog sets up 'Iran Task Force'". Reuters. The Jerusalem Post. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Bob Drogin, Kim Murphy, Los Angeles Times (25 February 2007). "Most U.S. tips fingering Iran false – envoys No intelligence given UN since '02 led to big discoveries Bob Drogin, Kim Murphy, Los Angeles Times". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 20 September 2009.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "IAEA denies Iran blocked nuclear site visit". 2008. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- UN inspectors revisit Iran's Arak heavy-water site, Reuters, published 30 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007
- "GOV/2007/48 – Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Quote from Olli Heinonen, Head of IAEA Safeguards". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Iran Says IAEA Atom Report Shows US Charges Wrong – CommonDreams.org". 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Reuters Canada Mon 29 October 2007, "IAEA sees 'good' Iran cooperation ahead of talks"[permanent dead link] Retrieved 29 October 2007
- "UN nuclear watchdog chief expresses concern about anti-Iran rhetoric from US". International Herald Tribune. 28 October 2007. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- "Microsoft Word – gov2007-58.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "President Ahmadinejad: Iran to consult about uranium enrichment in neutral third country". International Herald Tribune. 18 November 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
- Katz, Yaakov (16 November 2007). "Israel: IAEA's report 'unacceptable' Jerusalem Post, Nov 16, 2007". Jerusalem Post. Israel. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Good progress on Iran, but 'not sufficient': IAEA – Yahoo! News UK". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.[dead link]
- "French Minister to IAEA Chief: Listen to the West". The New York Sun. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "IAEA denies internal row over Iran, condemns hype | Reuters". 12 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Microsoft Word – gov2008-4.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Latest Iran Safeguards Report Circulated to IAEA Board". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Bloomberg.com: Germany". 22 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Broad, William J.; Sanger, David E. (13 November 2005). "Relying on Computer, U.S. Seeks to Prove Iran's Nuclear Aims". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Company News Story". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "IAEA Publications". iaea.org.
- ISIS: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007) and 1803 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran 15 September 2008
- "Latest Iran Safeguards Report Circulated to IAEA Board, Staff Report, February 22, 2008". Iaea.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iran renews nuclear weapons development". The Telegraph. 12 September 2008. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- PressTV: "IAEA: No nuclear material missing in Iran" Archived 16 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Sun, 14 September 2008
- Understandings of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the IAEA on the Modalities of Resolution of the Outstanding Issues Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine INFCIRC/711, 27 August 2007
- PressTV Interview: "Ten more years of IAEA reports will say the same about Iran" Archived 18 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Tue, 16 September 2008
- "Microsoft Word – gov2009-8.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). iaea.org. paragraph 6. GOV/2003/40. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- GOV/2007/22 Archived 26 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 27 May 2007, paragraphs 12–14.
- INFCIRC/214 Archived 4 January 2006 at the Library of Congress Web Archives, Iran's NPT safeguards agreement, see paragraph 39
- "gov2009-8" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Military strikes against Iran no longer an option: IAEA chief". Tehran Times. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- ""Iran Has More Enriched Uranium Than Thought" By William J. Broad and David E. Sanger, New York Times 20 February 2009". Nytimes.com. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Iran holds enough uranium for bomb, By Daniel Dombey in Washington, Financial Times, February 19, 2009". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Today, Physics (20 February 2009). ""IAEA report leads to press confusion over Iranian nuclear program" Physics Today, February 20, 2009". Blogs.physicstoday.org. Archived from the original on 14 July 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Federation of American Scientists: Iran's Uranium: Don't Panic Yet. February 23, 2009". Fas.org. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iran Panic Induced By Lousy Reporting, Friday February 20, 2009". Arms Control Wonk. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- ""Iran cooperates after understating atom stocks-IAEA" by Mark Heinrich, Reuters Sun February 22, 2009". In.reuters.com. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iran calls IAEA reports repetitive, misleading". Haber27.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- John Pike. "IRNA: IAEA's repetitious reports should be stopped: Iranian envoy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Fareed Zakaria GPS Transcript". CNN. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "'Military strikes against Iran no longer an option: IAEA". Times of India. 21 February 2009. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Logged in as click here to log out (24 August 2009). "Nuclear Options". Guardian. UK. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "No sign Iran seeks nuclear arms: new IAEA head,". Reuters. Reuters. 3 July 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "IAEA: Iran broke law by failing to disclose nuclear facility". Ynet News. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- George Jahn (28 November 2009). "Nuclear agency comes down on Iran". Associated Press via The Raleigh News & Observer.
- Joby Warrick & Scott Wilson (19 February 2010). "Iran might be seeking to develop nuclear weapons capability, inspectors say". Washington Post.
- Sanger, David E.; Broad, William J. (31 May 2010). "UN Says Iran Has Fuel for 2 Nuclear Weapons". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). 31 May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Iran bars two UN inspectors in nuclear dispute". Reuters. 21 June 2010.
- "IAEA: Iran Activates Enrichment Equipment". AP. 9 August 2010.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). GOV/2011/65. IAEA. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- David Albright; Paul Brannan; Andrea Stricker & Christina Walrond (8 November 2011). "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report: Part 1" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Julian Borger, diplomatic editor (9 November 2011). "European states call for stiffer sanctions against Iran following IAEA report". London: Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2012.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Iran and the I.A.E.A. Seymour Hersh The New Yorker, 18 November 2011
- Greg Thielmann; Benjamin Loehrke (23 November 2011). "Chain reaction: How the media has misread the IAEA's report on Iran". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- Warrick, Joby (17 November 2011). "IAEA resolution to sharply criticize Iran for nuclear efforts". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "New claims emerge involving scientist in Iran nuke report". Usatoday.com. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Dahl, Fredrik (17 November 2011). "Powers pressure Iran, IAEA chief "alerts world"". Reuters.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of United Nations Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). GOV/2011/69. IAEA. 18 November 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "IAEA Board Adopts Resolution on Iran". IAEA. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Bull, Alister (18 November 2011). "U.S. to keep pressure on Iran after nuclear report". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Iran parliament to review ties with U.N. nuclear body". Reuters. 20 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- Hafezi, Parisa (6 March 2012). "Iran to allow IAEA visit Parchin military site: ISNA". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Iran Ready to Allow IAEA Access to Parchin Military Facility in Future". Fars. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Rick Gladstone (13 March 2012). "Iran May Not Open a Site to Inspectors". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- "U.S. nuclear expert uses satellite image to identify Iran explosive site at Parchin". Haaretz. Reuters. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- Fredrik Dahl (28 February 2012). "Iran may be "struggling" with new nuclear machines". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Peter Crail; Daryl G. Kimball (24 February 2012). "February 2012 IAEA Report on Iran: An Initial Review". Arms Control Now. Arms Control.
- David Albright; Andrea Stricker; Christina Walrond (25 May 2012). "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Higher enrichment at Iranian site". CBS News. Associated Press. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- William J. Broad (25 May 2012). "U.N. Finds Uranium in Iran Enriched to Higher Level". New York Times. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Jahn, George (29 August 2012). "IAEA establishes Iran Task Force". AP. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Joby Warrick (30 August 2012). "U.N.: Iran speeding up uranium enrichment at underground plant". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Keinon, Herb (30 August 2012). "IAEA: Iran doubles nuclear capacity in 'major expansion'". Reuters. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Dahl, Frederick (5 September 2012). "IAEA shows diplomats images of suspected Iran nuclear clean-up". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Jahn, George (11 September 2012). "IAEA Iran Nuclear Weapon Capabilities Closer: Report". Associated Press. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of United Nations Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Resolution adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 September 2012" (PDF). IAEA. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "United Nations nuclear agency board rebukes Iran". Reuters. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Russia, China join West in Iran rebuke at U.N. nuclear meet". Reuters. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Besant, Alexander (16 November 2012). "Iran expected to sharply increase uranium capacity, IAEA report". globalpost. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Iran ready to double uranium enrichment at Fordo – IAEA". BBC News. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). GOV/2012/55. IAEA. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran", 16 November 2012, IAEA Board of Governors
- "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- Mufson, Steven (24 March 2015). "Iran isn't providing needed access or information, nuclear watchdog says". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Final Assessment on Past and Present Outstanding Issues regarding Iran's Nuclear Programme" (PDF). IAEA. 2 December 2015.
- "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action implementation and verification and monitoring in the Islamic Republic of Iran in light of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 (2015)" (PDF). IAEA. 15 December 2015.
- Karl Vick (23 January 2006). "In Iran, Power Written in Stone". Washington Post.
- "Iranians Oppose Producing Nuclear Weapons, Saying It Is Contrary to Islam". World Public Opinion. 28 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "BBC Poll: 94% of Iranians: We have right to develop nuclear plan". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iranian Public Opinion on Governance, Nuclear Weapons and Relations with the United States, August 27, 2008". Worldpublicopinion.org. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- 2008 Annual Arab Public Opinion Poll – see "Key Findings"
- "Iran, Lebanon, Israelis and Palestinians: New IPI Opinion Polls, 5 January 2011". Ipacademy.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Iran TV halts 2 polls on nuke activities, Hormuz closure after voting came against Ahmadinejad". Al Arabiya. 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Rosenthal, Max (6 July 2012). "Iran Nuclear Program Should Be Abandoned, State TV Viewers Say". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Iranians want end to sanctions, short-lived poll finds". The Los Angeles Times. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Rick Gladstone; Thomas Erdbrink (4 July 2012). "Iran Nuclear Talks Are to Continue as Their Tone Heats Up". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Tait, Robert (5 July 2012). "Iran state TV poll reveals Iranians want nuclear programme stopped". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "IAEA INFCIRC657: Communication dated 12 September 2005, from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
In official consultations with the Agency and member-states throughout the 1990s, Iran underlined its plan to acquire, for exclusively peaceful purposes, various aspects of nuclear technology, including fuel enrichment.
- "Energy Citations Database (ECD) – Document No. 7095626". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Esfahan / Isfahan – Iran Special Weapons Facilities". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "BBC Summary of World Broadcasts 11 April 1979". The British Broadcasting Corporation. 1979.
Fereydun Sahabi, the Deputy Minister of Energy and Supervisor of the Atomic Energy Organization, in an interview with our correspondent said today ... he said that the Atomic Energy Organization's activities regarding prospecting and extraction of uranium would continue.
- "BBC Summary of World Broadcasts 30 March 1982". The British Broadcasting Corporation. 1982.
Iran was taking concrete measures for importing nuclear technology, while at the same time utilizing Iranian expertise in the field. He said the decision was made in the wake of discovery of uranium resources in the country and after Iran's capability for developing the industry had been established
- "Iran's Nuclear Program: Second Thoughts on a Nuclear Iran". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008.
This concern led Western governments to withdraw support for Iran's nuclear program. Pressure on France, which in 1973 signed a deal to build two reactors at Darkhovin, and Germany, whose Kraftwerk Union began building a pair of reactors at Bushehr in 1975, led to the cancellation of both projects.
- "Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets: Iranian, P5+1 Proposals to Resolve Iranian Nuclear Issue". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "We in Iran don't need this quarrel – International Herald Tribune". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Penketh, Anne (25 July 2007). "Iran's message is softly spoken, yet clear: It will enrich uranium – Middle East, World – Independent.co.uk". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "UN press release". 2006.
- "About IAEA: IAEA Statute". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "See section 2.2 (pp. 13–14) of the IAEA Safeguards Glossary" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "IAEA Chief Concludes Visit to Iran". Iaea.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Safeguards Statement for 2007 and Background to the Safeguards Statement". Iaea.org. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "UN Security Council Resolution 1737 (2006)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- IAEA INFCIRC/724 Archived 11 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine: Communication dated 26 March 2008, received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency
- "Govt Holds Its Line On Iran And Uranium". Your Nuclear News.
In 2006, it embarked on a uranium enrichment programme, defining it as part of its civilian nuclear energy programme, which is permitted under Article IV of the NPT.
- "Communication dated 12 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
In accordance with Article IV of the NPT, States Parties undertook to facilitate the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Indeed, the inalienable right of all States Parties to nuclear technology for peaceful purposes without discrimination constitutes the very foundation of the Treaty.
- David Sanger (26 July 2009). "Clinton Says Nuclear Aim of Iran Is Fruitless". New York Times.
- Linzer, Dafna (10 April 2007). "Iran Asserts Expansion of Nuclear Operation – washingtonpost.com". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Iran rules out enrichment suspension ahead of EU talks – Forbes.com". 22 April 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Iran nuclear plant to open for tourists Archived 15 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine 8 March 2009
- "Ahmadinejad: Sanctions Will Not Affect Iran's Nuclear Program". RTTNews. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- "Iran's first nuclear plant begins fueling". CNN. 21 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Statement of Fereydoun Abbasi at the IAEA 56th General Conference" (PDF). IAEA. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Iran Nuclear Chief Accuses IAEA". Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Leon, Eli (19 September 2012). "IAEA renews pressure on Iran after 'terrorists' charge". Israel Hayom. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Joby Warrick (7 October 2012). "With "sabotage" charge, Iran takes hostile tone with U.N. watchdog". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "IAEA Statement on Meeting with Dr. Fereydoun Abbasi". IAEA. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "IAEA ignores Iranian claim it has been infiltrated by terrorists, presses Islamic Republic on alleged bomb research". Reuters. The National Post. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Rick Gladstone & Christine Hauser (20 September 2012). "Iran's Top Atomic Official Says Nation Issued False Nuclear Data to Fool Spies". New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Winer, Stuart (20 September 2012). "Iran admits it deceived the West over nuclear program". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- John Pike. "Abbasi: Iran to display its nuclear export capacities in ATOMEXPO 2013". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Ignatius, David (25 September 2013). "Edited transcript: An interview with Hassan Rouhani". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "President Bush's speech of 8/31/2006". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "US Iran report branded dishonest". BBC News. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities Archived 22 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, National Intelligence Estimate, November 2007.
- Drogin, Bob; Murphy, Kim (25 February 2007). "Most U.S. tips fingering Iran false – envoys / No intelligence given UN since '02 led to big discoveries". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Raghavan&, Sudarsan (2008). "washingtonpost.com: U.S. Nuclear Arms Stance Modified by Policy Study". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Hersh: U.S. mulls nuclear option for Iran". CNN. 10 April 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, (September – October 2006). "U.S. Nuclear Threats: Then and Now". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010.
- "We Do Not Have a Nuclear Weapons Program – UN Security Council – Global Policy Forum". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Obama: Iranian threats against Israel 'unacceptable', Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 7 December 2008.
- "The White House: Foreign Policy". Whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Lederer, Edith M. (29 January 2009). "The Associated Press: UN nuclear chief supports US-Iran talks". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Dubai (AlArabiya.net) (27 January 2009). "President gives first interview since taking office to Arab TV". Alarabiya.net. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Hess, Pamela (10 March 2009). "Officials: Iran does not have key nuclear material". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009.
- Chinese company, exec indicted in Iran missile case Reuters
- Indictment Says Banned Materials Sold to Iran New York Times
- Lynch, Colum (8 April 2009). "Chinese Firm Indicted in Sales to Iran". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Iran bomb-grade uranium not expected before 2013: State Dept – Agence France-Press". Google. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Federation of American Scientists: Iran's Nuclear Program: Status" (PDF). Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- Dennis Blair: Annual Threat Assessment of the Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (2009) Archived 12 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
We judge in fall 2003 Tehran halted its nuclear weapons design and weaponization activities and that the halt lasted at least several years... Although we do not know whether Iran currently intends to develop nuclear weapons, we assess Tehran at a minimum is keeping open the option to develop them... develop nuclear weapons, we assess Tehran at a minimum is keeping open the option to develop them.
- "Federation of American Scientists: Iran's Nuclear Program: Status" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Dawn: A major shift". Dawn.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
- U.S. Sees an Opportunity to Press Iran on Nuclear Fuel By David E. Sanger and William J. Broad, 3 January 2010
- "Thomas Fingar: "Reducing Uncertainty: Intelligence and National Security Using Intelligence to Anticipate Opportunities and Shape the Future"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Central Intelligence Agency: Declassified National Intelligence Estimates on the Soviet Union and International Communism". Foia.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Iran Trumpets Nuclear Ability at a Second Location, New York Times, 8 January 2012.
- "Panetta: Iran cannot develop nukes, block strait". CBS News, 8 January 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (1 August 2012). "In Israel, Panetta Warns Iran on Nuclear Program". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- U.S. does not believe Iran is trying to build nuclear bomb, Los Angeles Times, 23 February 2012.
- Iran and the Bomb, Seymour Hersh, The New Yorker, 30 June 2011.
- Zakaria, Tabassum (14 January 2013). "Iran could reach key point for nuclear bomb by mid-2014: U.S. experts". Reuters. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "White House, Remarks by Vice President Joe Biden to the Munich Security Conference. Hotel Bayerischer Hof Munich, Germany". Whitehouse.gov. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Agence France Presse (7 February 2013). "Afp: Iran walks away from nuclear talks". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Agenzia Nova - Pagina non trovata". agenzianova.com.
- "Joe, Serghei, Bashar, gli Emiri sunniti e la Bomba degli Ayatollah". Ugotramballi.blog.ilsole24ore.com. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Rohani firm on nuclear rights, pledges openness". "The Gulf Times. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Iran, world powers reach initial deal on reining in Tehran's nuclear program". Reuters.
- Zengerle, Patricia. "Trump nominee Pompeo pledges to be tough on Russia, 'fix' Iran deal". U.S. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Julia Damianova (23 January 2011). "Nuclear negotiations with Iran end in failure". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Michael Adler (23 January 2011). "Why the Istanbul talks failed". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Julian Borger; Chris McGreal (14 April 2012). "Iran raises hopes of nuclear trade-off to halt oil sanctions". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Keinon, Herb (15 April 2012). "Netanyahu: Istanbul talks gave Iran a 'freebie'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Obama responds to Netanyahu barb: No 'freebies' for Iran". The Times of Israel. Associated Press. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Paul Richter (27 April 2012). "U.S. signals major shift on Iran nuclear program". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Israel says Iran must stop all enrichment, denies having access to Azerbaijan air bases". Al Arabiya. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
'They have to stop all enrichment,' Netanyahu told CNN in an interview in Jerusalem, adding that he would not accept Iran enriching uranium to even three percent, which is near the level required for peaceful atomic energy.
- Ilan Ben Zion (28 April 2012). "US changes tune on Iranian nukes". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Ravid, Barak (3 May 2012). "EU's Ashton plans Israel visit to update Netanyahu on Iran nuclear talks". Diplomania. Haaretz.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Ravid, Barak (9 May 2012). "Netanyahu: Iran must commit to halt all enrichment in upcoming nuclear talks". Diplomania. Haaretz.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- "EU's Ashton briefs Israeli prime minister on Iran talks". Al Arabiya News. AFP. 9 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- Stay informed today & every day (10 November 2013). "America and Iran: Bazaar rhetoric". The Economist. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Iran agrees to curb nuclear activity at Geneva talks". BBC News Middle East. BBC News Middle East. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Iran nuclear deal: Key points". BBC News Middle East. BBC News Middle East. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Anne Gearan & Joby Warrick (24 November 2013). "Iran, world powers reach historic nuclear deal with Iran". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Obama declares Iran deal 'important first step'". Boston Herald. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Summary of Technical Understandings Related to the Implementation of the Joint Plan of Action on the Islamic Republic of Iran's Nuclear Program". The White House Office of the Press Secretary. The White House Office. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Barak Ravid (20 February 2014). "Framework for nuke talks agreed upon, Iranian official says". Haaretz. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Next Round of Iran Nuclear Talks to be held in Vienna from March 17". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- David Albright; Christina Walrond; Andrea Stricker (20 February 2014). "ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report" (PDF). ISIS. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Iran nuclear talks deadline extended until November". BBC Online. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- AP. "Ruling dissolves asset freeze for Tehran's Sharif University of Technology due to lack of evidence".
- GOV/2009/74 Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Albright, David and Brannan, Paul (30 November 2009) "Technicalities and the Fordow Enrichment Plant" Archived 4 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine ISIS, The Institute for Science and International Security
- Thomas Erdbrink (26 September 2009). "Angry Reaction "Shocked" Head of Iran's Nuclear Program". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
- "Iran: Nuclear plant is sited to thwart attack". MSNBC via Associated Press. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Middle East – Iran 'ready for nuclear agreement'". Al Jazeera English. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Reza Derakhshi (29 October 2009). "Iran proposes big changes to draft atom deal: report". Reuters. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Venezuela's Chavez Says Iran Aiding Uranium Exploration". RFERL. 18 October 2009.
- Stephens, Bret (15 December 2009). "The Tehran-Caracas Nuclear Axis Ahmadinejad and Chávez: new evidence of a radioactive relationship". Wall Street Journal.
- Noriega, Roger F. Chávez's Secret Nuclear Program Foreign Policy Magazine, 5 October 2010
- "Exclusive: Iran says nuclear fuel production goes "very well"". Reuters (Tehran). 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- Philp, Catherine (11 February 2010). "Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declares Iran a 'nuclear state' after producing enriched uranium". London: The Times. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- International Atomic Energy Agency: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran Archived 3 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 18 February 2010.
- Slackman, Michael (12 February 2010). "Iran Boasts of Capacity to Make Bomb Fuel". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Rozen, Laura (28 May 2010). "Obama admin. dismisses leak of Obama letter on Iran fuel deal". Politico. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Política Externa Brasileira (20 April 2010). "Politica Externa: Obama's Letter to Lula Regarding Brazil-Iran-Turkey Nuclear Negotiations". Politicaexterna.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Kessler, Glenn (28 May 2010). "Washington Post: U.S., Brazilian officials at odds over letter on Iranian uranium". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Nuclear fuel declaration by Iran, Turkey and Brazil". BBC. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- "Xinhua English News: Iran to sign nuclear swap deal with Turkey, Brazil". News.xinhuanet.com. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Iran's letter to the IAEA". PressTV. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- "GCC backs efforts to solve Iran N-issue". Arab News. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Politics – Hariri heads to Washington after visits to Egypt, Turkey". The Daily Star. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Rebhi, Abdullah (27 May 2010). "AFP: Merkel urges Iran to 'carefully consider' nuclear deal". Google. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "China calls for peaceful solution to Iranian nuclear issue". Xinhua. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "Gov't rejects Iran deal as a ruse". Jerusalem Post. Israel. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Sarkozy Calls Iran Nuclear Offer 'Positive,' Seeks More Steps". BusinessWeek. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Middle East – West 'still concerned' about Iran". Al Jazeera English. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Clinton: Iran Fuel Swap Deal Has 'Deficiencies'". VOA. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- "Clinton Says Russia, China, U.S. Back Iran Sanctions (Update4)". BusinessWeek. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "/ Iran – 'South-south' diplomacy put to the test". Financial Times. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Brazil vents frustration with West over Iran deal". Todayszaman.com. 22 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Iran hit by fresh UN nuclear sanctions threat". BBC News. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Iran throws ball into West's court". Presstv.ir. 17 May 2010. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Iran hails talks with Brazil, Turkey". Presstv.ir. 17 May 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Al-ManarTV:: Sayyed Khamenei to Lula: US Upset with Cooperation of Independent Countries 16/05/2010". Almanar.com.lb. Retrieved 2 August 2010.[dead link]
- Yoshie Furuhashi (18 May 2010). "ElBaradei: Brazil-Iran-Turkey Nuclear Deal "Quite a Good Agreement"". Mrzine.monthlyreview.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Fox News: Ban: Iran must make clear nuclear program for peaceful purposes, praises Brazil-Turkey deal". Foxnews.com. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Bullet-riddled cars and lush gardens: Iran's memorial to its 'nuclear martyrs', Guardian, Ian Black, 2 July 2015
- Engel, Richard; Windrem, Robert (9 February 2012). "Israel teams with terror group to kill Iran's nuclear scientists, U.S. officials tell NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- Iran accuses West of using lizards for nuclear spying, Times of Israel, 13 Feb 2018
- West used lizards to spy on Iran's nuclear program: ex-military chief, Tehran Times, 14 Feb 2018
- IRAN SAYS ENEMIES USED LIZARDS TO SPY ON NUCLEAR PROGRAM, Newsweek, 13 Feb 2018
- Nasrella, Shadia (16 January 2016). "Iran Says International Sanctions To Be Lifted Saturday". The Huffington Post. Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- Chuck, Elizabeth (16 January 2016). "Iran Sanctions Lifted After Watchdog Verifies Nuclear Compliance". NBC News. Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- Melvin, Dan. "UN regulator to certify Iran compliance with nuke pact - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- Linzer, Dafna (8 February 2006). "Strong Leads and Dead Ends in Nuclear Case Against Iran". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Broad, William J.; Sanger, David E. (13 November 2005). "The Laptop: Relying on Computer, U.S. Seeks to Prove Iran's Nuclear Aims". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "INFCIRC/711 Date: 27 August 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Austria. "Head of IAEA Safeguards Welcomes Iran Workplan, IAEA Staff Report, 30 August 2007". Iaea.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Austria (22 February 2008). "Latest Iran Safeguards Report Circulated to IAEA Board, IAEA Staff Report, 22 February 2008". Iaea.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Diplomats say US again shares information on Iran's nuclear program, Associated Press, Thursday, 21 February 2008". .wsvn.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Warrick, Joby; Lynch, Colum (2 March 2008). "UN Says Iran May Not Have Come Clean on Nuclear Past". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Iran to Discuss Alleged Studies of Atomic Arms". Reuters. 24 April 2008.
- "U.S. to Produce Data on Iran's Nuclear Program", New York Times, By David E. Sanger and Elaine Sciolino, 15 February 2008.
- Christopher Dickey (22 May 2009). "Mohamed ElBaradei: 'They are not Fanatics' – Newsweek, 1 June 2009". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Middle East Online". Middle East Online. 6 September 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Iran and IAEA re-enter missile row By Gareth Porter, Asia Times, 22 September 2009". Atimes.com. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "POLITICS: Iran Nuke Laptop Data Came from Terror Group, By Gareth Porter, IPS News, 29 February 2008". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Julian Borger in Vienna (22 February 2007). "US Iran intelligence 'is incorrect', by Julian Borger, The Guardian, Thursday 22 February 2007". London: Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Iran, the IAEA, and the Laptop: Where is the digital chain of custody? by Muhammad Sahimi, Antiwar.com, 7 October 2008". Antiwar.com. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Leaked Iran paper exposes IAEA rift Asia times 8 October 2009
- "Israel says it holds a trove of documents from Iran's secret nuclear weapons archive". Washington Post. 30 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Netanyahu’s Iran Revelations Were Aimed at an Audience of One, Nick Wadhams, Bloomberg News, 1 May, 2018.
- and Iran’s Atomic Archive: What’s New and What’s Not[permanent dead link], Joshua Pollack, DefenseOne, 1 May, 2018.
- Iran Was Closer to a Nuclear Bomb Than Intelligence Agencies Thought, Michael Hirsh, Foreign Policy, 13 November 2018
- "AFP:Six powers to meet soon over Iran's nuclear program". Afp.google.com. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "ASIL Insights:Iran's Resumption of its Nuclear Program: Addendum". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Safeguards Agreement between Iran and the IAEA (INFCIRC/214) 12-13-74" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Joyner, Daniel (28 April 2008). "North Korean Links to Building of a Nuclear Reactor in Syria: Implications for International Law". American Society of International Law. 12 (8). Archived from the original on 9 April 2010.
[A] breach of an IAEA safeguards agreement does not per se equate to a violation of the NPT.
- Howlett, Darryl; Simpson, John (April 2005). "Nuclear Non-proliferation – how to ensure an effective compliance mechanism". In Burkard Schmitt (ed.). Effective Non-Proliferation: The European Union and the 2005 NPT Review Conference (PDF). Paris: Institute for Security Studies. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2010.
[A] finding by the IAEA of non-compliance with the terms of a sagefuards agreement thus does not automatically amount to non-compliance with the NPT.
- "Adherence to and Compliance With Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments". 2008. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Congressional Research Service: Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Deterring Safeguards Violations" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "SAGSI: Its Role and Contribution to Safeguards Development" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Safeguards in a Broader Policy Perspective: Verifying Treaty Compliance" (PDF). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Congressional Research Service: Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Uncorrected Evidence m10". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- Alexei G. Arbatov, "The Inexorable Momentum of Escalation," in Double Trouble: Iran and North Korea as Challenges to International Security, Patrick M. Cronin, ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007), pp. 64–65.
- "Security Council Demands Iran Suspend Uranium Enrichment by 31 August, or Face Possible Economic, Diplomatic Sanctions". Un.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "US State Department: Third Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2005 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". State.gov. 29 April 2004. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- American approach towards the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine – the case study – Islamic Republic of Iran nuclear activities / Bonab, Rahman G.: (The Iranian journal of international affairs) 19(4) 2007 Fall: p. –77.
- "FM lashes out at big powers' nuclear apartheid". 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Iran's Mottaki quoted: will not suspend research". Iran Press News. 27 February 2006. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006.
- "Embassy of the United States in Russia: Briefing by Secretary Condoleezza Rice En Route to London, England". Archived from the original on 27 May 2010.
- "Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Statement of Richard N. Haass (March 3, 2009)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Nukes a matter of pride in Iran". Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "IRAN: Nuclear Negotiations – Council on Foreign Relations". 2008. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "BBC World Service Poll: Declining Support for Tough Measures against Iran's Nuclear Program: Global Poll" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- An Unnecessary Crisis: Setting the Record Straight about Iran's Nuclear Program Archived 24 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Amb. Zarif, Published in New York Times (18 November 2005)
- "Transcript: 'Response ... will be a positive one' – Nightly News with Brian Williams – MSNBC.com". Msnbc.msn.com. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- "Iran's nuclear program is peaceful-Financial Times, 9 September 2004, by Gareth Smyth". Iranaffairs.com. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 86, Autumn 2007, Rethinking Security Interests for a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East, Rebecca Johnson". Acronym.org.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nuclear power in Iran.|
- The first-ever English-language website about Iran's nuclear energy program
- Iran's Atomic Energy Organization
- In Focus: IAEA and Iran, IAEA
- Iran's Nuclear Program collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Iran Nuclear Resources, parstimes.com
- Annotated bibliography for the Iranian nuclear weapons program from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues