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Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant that is run by the Miss Universe Organization.[1] Along with Miss World and Miss Earth, Miss Universe is one of the most important and publicized beauty pageants in the world;[2][3][4][5] together with Miss International, the group is known as Big Four international beauty pageants. [6][7][8][9][10] It is held in more than 190 countries worldwide and seen by more than half a billion people annually.[11]

Miss Universe
Miss Universe logo.svg
Motto "Confidently Beautiful"
Formation June 28, 1952; 65 years ago (1952-06-28)
Type Beauty pageant
Headquarters New York City, New York
Official language
Key people
Paula Shugart
Parent organization
Affiliations William Morris Endeavor
Miss Universe Sash

The Miss Universe Organization and the brand is currently owned, along with Miss USA and Miss Teen USA, by WME/IMG talent agency.

The current Miss Universe is Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters of South Africa who was crowned on 26 November 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.[12]



The title "Miss Universe" was first used by the International Pageant of Pulchritude in 1926. This contest was held annually until 1935, when the Great Depression and other events preceding World War II led to its demise.

The current Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by Pacific Knitting Mills, a California-based clothing company and manufacturer of Catalina Swimwear. The company was the sponsor of the Miss America pageant until 1951, when the winner, Yolande Betbeze, refused to pose for publicity pictures wearing one of their swimsuits. In 1952, Pacific Knitting Mills organized the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants, co-sponsoring them for decades to follow.

The first Miss Universe Pageant was held in Long Beach, California in 1952. It was won by Armi Kuusela from Finland, who gave up her title, though not officially, to get married, shortly before her year was completed.[13] Until 1958, the Miss Universe title, like that of Miss America, was dated by the year following the contest, so at the time Ms. Kuusela's title was Miss Universe 1953.

Since its founding by Pacific Mills, the pageant has been organized and conducted by the Miss Universe Organization. Eventually Pacific Mills and its subsidiaries were acquired by the Kayser-Roth Corporation, which was in turn acquired by Gulf and Western Industries.

The pageant was first televised in 1955. CBS began broadcasting the combined Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants in 1960, and as separate contests in 1965. John Charles Daly hosted the pageant from 1955 to 1966, Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987, Alan Thicke in 1988, John Forsythe in 1989, Dick Clark from 1990 to 1993, and Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996.

Donald Trump bought the operating company, Miss Universe, Inc., in 1996 from ITT Corp.[14] Trump struck a broadcasting arrangement with CBS for a few years. In 1998, Miss Universe, Inc. changed its name to Miss Universe Organization, and moved its headquarters from Los Angeles to New York City.[15][16] In 2002 Trump entered into a joint venture with NBC,[1][17] which in 2003 outbid the other networks for the TV rights.[18] From 2003 to 2014, the pageant was broadcast in the United States on NBC.

NBC and Univision dropped the pageant in September 2015, when NBC cancelled all business relationships with Trump and the Miss Universe Organization, in response to comments Trump made in his 2015 presidential campaign kickoff speech about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from Mexico.[19][20] As part of the legal settlement, in September 2015, Trump bought out NBC's 50% stake in the company making him the company's sole owner. Three days later he sold the whole company to WME/IMG.[21][22] Following the change of ownership, in October 2015, Fox and Azteca became the official broadcasters of the Miss Universe and Miss USA pageants.[23] The current president of the Miss Universe Organization is Paula Shugart.[24]

Competition formatsEdit

During the early years of the pageant, the delegates who made the first cut were announced after the preliminary competition. From 1965 to the present day, the semifinalists were not announced until the night of the main event. The semifinalists once again competed in evening gown and swimsuit and five finalists were announced. An interview portion was introduced in 1960 to decide the runners-up and the winner.

From 1959 to 1964 there were slight format changes. From 1959 through 1963 there was no cut to reach the five finalists. The runners-up and winner were called from the assembled 15 semifinalists. In 1965 the pageant returned to the original format of a cut to five finalists, and remained so until 1989. In 1969 a final question was posed to the last five contestants. The final question was an on-and-off feature of the pageant. In 1990 it had taken root, and with every pageant since the final contestants have had to answer a final question. In 1990 the pageant implemented major changes in the competition itself. Instead of five finalists, the field was reduced from ten semifinalists to six. Each contestant then randomly selected a judge and answered the question posed by the judge. After that, the field was narrowed down further to a final three. In 1998, the number of finalists was reduced to five, although there still was a cut to a final three. This continued until 2001, when the final five format was reinstated.

In the year 2000, the interview portion of the semifinal was dropped, and the contestants competed only in swimsuits and evening gowns, as in the early years of the pageant.[citation needed] In 2003, the number of semifinalists was increased to fifteen, with cuts made to ten, and then to five contestants. The final question varied, each coming from the final delegates themselves and the current Miss Universe.[citation needed] In 2006, twenty semifinalists were selected for the swimsuit competition, ten of whom went on to the evening gown competition. The five who passed that stage competed in an interview round, after which the runners-up and winner were announced. The 2007 contest followed a similar format, with fifteen contestants competing in the swimsuit stage.[citation needed] In 2011, for the first time, one of the sixteen semifinalists was selected exclusively by TV viewers via online voting.[citation needed] In the 2014 contest held in January 2015, a final question was chosen from thousands submitted by Facebook.[25]

In 2015, the contest followed a similar format from its previous years. In the final 5, a contestant answered the question which is related to national issue of their country. After that, the field was narrowed down further to a final three who will then go on to answer one common question, the final Q and A. Finally, there will be a final vote based on overall impression and performance in the last round. For the first time, the rest of the contestants played the role of a final judge and had the chance to choose the new Miss Universe.[citation needed]

The pageant skipped a year again in 2016, as Miss Universe 2016 was crowned on January 30, 2017.

In Miss Universe 2016, however, the usual Top 15/16 cut was now down to the Top 13 to compete in the swimsuit competition. This was cut again to the Top 9, to compete for the evening gown competition. This was narrowed down to the Top 6 for the question and answer then the Top 3 for the final look competition.

Contestant selectionEdit

Local organizations that wish to select the Miss Universe contestant for their countries must submit bids to the Miss Universe Organization for that right. Occasionally, the traditional license holder for a particular country may lose its bid, as has happened in Italy, Denmark, France, Sweden, Germany, Great Britain, Thailand, and more.

Usually a country's candidate selection involves pageants in major cities, whose winners compete in a national pageant, but there are exceptions. For example, from 2000 to 2004, Australian delegates were chosen by a modelling agency. Although such "castings" are generally discouraged by the Miss Universe Organization, Miss Australia Jennifer Hawkins was chosen to represent in Miss Universe in 2004 (where she would eventually win the crown). When Australia resumed its national pageant, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005.

Recent arrivals in the pageant include Slovenia (2001), China and Albania (2002), Vietnam, Georgia and Ethiopia (2004), Latvia (2005), Kazakhstan (2006), Tanzania (2007), Kosovo (2008), Gabon and Lithuania (2012), Azerbaijan (2013), Sierra Leone (2016), and Cambodia, Laos and Nepal (2017); there have also been efforts to revive strong national pageants in, South Africa, Canada, Spain, Japan, Southeast Asia and Latin America. The organization makes continual efforts to expand the pageant, but the participation of some countries such as Algeria has proven difficult due to cultural barriers to the swimsuit competition, while others such as Mozambique have balked at sending representatives due to the cost.

As of 2016, only three countries have been present at every Miss Universe since its inception in 1952: Canada, France and Germany (actually West Germany until 1990, when East and West reunified). Many European countries allow 17-year-old contestants to compete in their pageants, while Miss Universe's minimum age is 18, so national titleholders often have to be replaced by their runners-up. Beginning in 2012, transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they win their national pageants.[26] Since its inception, Miss Universe strictly prohibits age fabrication.

Some of the most successful national pageants in the last decade have been Venezuela, USA, France, Philippines, and Colombia which command consistently high interest and television ratings in their respective countries. The live broadcasts of the Miss Universe pageant (regardless of the hosting nation) proved highly popular particularly in the Americas and Asia in the recent years.[27]

Main pageantEdit

The main Miss Universe Pageant is held over a two-week period in December. In the 1970s through the 1990s, the pageant was a month long. This allowed time for rehearsals, appearances, and the preliminary competition, with the winner being crowned by the previous year's titleholder during the final competition.

According to the organizers, the Miss Universe contest is more than a beauty pageant: women aspiring to become Miss Universe must be intelligent, well-mannered, and cultured[need quotation to verify]. Often a candidate has lost because she did not have a good answer during the question responses rounds; although this section of competition has held less importance during recent pageants than it did in the twentieth century. Delegates also participate in swimsuit and evening gown competitions.

Currently, the final placement of the finalists is determined by a ranked vote, where each judge ranks each of the final three/five candidates, with the contestant posting the lowest cumulative score (thus often, but not necessarily always, the contestant with the most number one votes) becoming the winner. If there is a tie, the higher semifinal scores become decisive.

The winner is assigned a one-year contract with the Miss Universe Organization, going overseas to spread messages about the control of diseases, peace, and public awareness of AIDS. Aside from the job, the winner also receives a cash allowance for her entire reign, a New York Film Academy scholarship, a modelling portfolio, beauty products, clothes, shoes, as well as styling, healthcare, and fitness services by different sponsors of the pageant. She also gains exclusive access to events such as fashion shows and opening galas, as well as access to casting calls and modelling opportunities throughout New York City. When Donald Trump owned the pageant, the winner was given the use of a Trump Place apartment in New York City during her reign, which she shared with the Miss USA and Miss Teen USA titleholders.[28] If the winner, for any reason, cannot fulfill her duties as Miss Universe, the 1st runner-up takes over.

Aside from the main winner and her runners-up, special awards are also given to the winners of the best National Costume, Miss Photogenic, and Miss Congeniality. The Miss Congeniality award is chosen by the delegates themselves. In recent years, Miss Photogenic has been chosen by popular internet vote (the winner used to be chosen by media personnel covering the event).

Final judgmentEdit

The competition for the Miss Universe title has seen many changes, although there have been several constants throughout its history. All the contestants compete in a preliminary round of judging (nowadays called the "Preliminary Competition") where the field is narrowed to a select number of semifinalists. This number has fluctuated over the years. The first Miss Universe pageant had ten semifinalists. For the next two years, the number of semifinalists grew to 16. In 1955, the number dropped to a stable 15, which remained through 1970. In 1971, the number was reduced to 12. That number was further reduced to 10 in 1984. This lasted until 2003, when the number of 15 was reinstated. In 2006, there were 20 semifinalists, the highest number ever. In 2007, the organization announced the Top 15 system would be back, which was also used in 2008 until 2010. In 2011, the results of a fan vote was shown on the screen during the swimsuit and evening gown competitions, but this did not affect the final outcome of the competition. From 2011 to 2013, there were 16 semifinalists, 15 chosen by judges and one chosen through Internet votes. The 16th semifinalist by fan vote has been dropped as of 2015, and the number has been reverted to 15 semifinalists. And in 2016 edition there were 13 semifinalists, 12 chosen by judges panel from the quarantine to the preliminary night and one chosen by Twitter and Vodi app. In the 2017 edition, the semifinalists were reverted back to 16 delegates divided into 4 different groups each hailing from a different region in the world, Africa & Asia-Pacific, Europe, The Americas & the Wildcard (anywhere).

In the early years, the contestants were judged in swimsuit and evening gown only. In later years, the contestants also competed in a preliminary interview round in a one-on-one meeting with each individual judge.

Crowns of Miss UniverseEdit

The crown of Miss Universe has changed 9 times over the course of its 65-year history.[29] The first crown, the Romanov Imperial nuptial crown, was previously owned by the now-defunct Russian monarchy. It was used when Armi Kuusela of Finland became the first Miss Universe in 1952.[29]

  • Romanov crown / Metal Bronze crown — When Christiane Martel of France became Miss Universe 1953, the nuptial crown was replaced by a metallic bronze crown. She was the only Miss Universe titleholder to wear this crown.[29] From 1954 to 1960, "The Star of the Universe" was used. It was named as such due to the star shape at the top of the crown. It is made up of approximately 1,000 Oriental cultured and black pearls set in solid gold and platinum and only weighed 1.25 pounds. It was insured for $500,000.[29]
  • The Rhinestone crown / Coventry crown — (purely made from rhinestones) was debuted in 1961, as part of the 10th anniversary of the pageant. Only Marlene Schmidt (Miss Universe 1961) and her successor Norma Nolan (Miss Universe 1962) wore this crown.[29] In 1963, renowned jewellery maker Sarah Coventry was the one responsible for making the new rhinestone Miss Universe crown which featured a female figure (holding a scepter) as its centerpiece. It is also known as The Lady or The Queen crown. The cheap rhinestone design made it possible to create exact replicas of the crown to be given to outgoing titleholders. The design was slightly modified in 1973 for the wearer's ease. This crown was used until 2001, when it was replaced due to a sponsorship deal, thus ending the tradition.[29]
  • The Mikimoto Crown — used from 2002–2007 for the 50th commemorative anniversary of the Miss Universe organization was designed by Tomohiro Yamaji for the Mikimoto Company, the official jewel sponsor of the Miss Universe Organization. The crown depicted the phoenix rising, signifying status, power and beauty, as stipulated in their sponsorship deal. The crown has 500 natural colorless diamonds of almost 30 carats (6.0 g), 120 South Sea and Akoya pearls, ranging in size from 3 to 18 mm diameter and is valued at $250,000.[29] The Crown was designed for the pageant on Mikimoto Pearl Island in Japan with the Mikimoto crown and tiara being first used for Miss Universe 2002.[30] Among pageant connoisseurs, the Mikimoto crown is reputedly the most sought among beauty title holders. The crown was again used when Iris Mittenaere of France crowned Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters of South Africa as Miss Universe 2017.
  • CAO crown — In 2008, Dayana Mendoza of Venezuela was crowned with a tiara designed by Rosalina Lydster of Jewelry by Rosalina and Ms. Dang Thi Kim Lien of CAO Fine Jewelry. The crown, valued at $120,000, is made of 18-carat white and yellow gold. It is composed of over 1,000 precious stones; including 555 white diamonds (30 carats), 375 cognac diamonds (14 carats), 10 smoky quartz crystals (20 carats) and 19 morganite gemstones (60 carats). The yellow lustre of the gold represents the prosperous thriving economy in Vietnam. White, light pink, and cognac are the main hues in the crown which represent inspiration and feeling. Each piece of the crown was designed to represent an important attribute of the Miss Universe Pageant. The curves of inlaid precious stones represent the strong development and potential of each country. The image of the crane (Lac Bird) symbolizes Vietnamese spirit and culture. The image of the heart represents unified breath, rhythm, and vision, which are powerful internal forces that stress faith, hope, and unity. However, Mendoza declined to use this crown and thus insisted on the Mikimoto crown when she crowned her own Venezuelan compatriot Stefania Fernandez as successor.
  • The Nexus crown — From 2009–2013, Diamond Nexus Labs made the Miss Universe crown. The crown is set with 1,371 gemstones, weighing a total of 416.09 carats (83.218 g). It contains 544.31 grams of 14k and 18k white gold as well as platinum.[citation needed] The crown features synthetic rubies to represent Miss Universe's HIV/AIDS education and awareness platform. Diamond Nexus Labs is the first ever eco-friendly Official Jeweler of Miss Universe and was selected as part of NBC Universal's "Green is Universal" initiative.[31][32]
  • The DIC crown — From 2014–2016, Paulina Vega, Pia Wurtzbach, and Iris Mittenaere were decorated with a crown estimated to be worth US$300,000, produced in the workshop of Czech company DIC - Diamonds International Corporation.[33][34] The whole production process, from the first sketches to the production itself, took approximately four months. The shape of the crown is reminiscent of Manhattan skyline. Its production required the work of 10 people and the crown is made up of 311 pcs of diamonds, 5 pieces of blue topaz, 198 pieces of blue sapphire, 33 pieces of crystal and 220 grams of gold. Total weight of the crown is 411 g.


Recent titleholdersEdit

Gallery of winnersEdit

Miss Universe OrganizationEdit

The Miss Universe Organization is the organization that currently owns and runs the Miss Universe, Miss USA[35] and Miss Teen USA beauty contests. Based in New York, the organization is owned by WME/IMG. The current president is Paula Shugart. The organization sells television rights to the pageants in other countries.

Miss Universe Organization titleholdersEdit

Crystle Stewart, Miss USA 2008 and Stevi Perry, Miss Teen USA 2008
Hilary Cruz, Miss Teen USA 2007 and Crystle Stewart, Miss USA 2008
Hilary Cruz, Miss Teen USA 2007 and Riyo Mori, Miss Universe 2007 attend the "Fashion Rocks the Universe" event prior to the Miss USA 2008 pageant
Rachel Smith, Miss USA 2007 and Hilary Cruz, Miss Teen USA 2007 signing autographs during a USO tour of Japanese military bases
Chelsea Cooley, Miss USA 2005 and Shelley Hennig, Miss Teen USA 2004 at Guantanamo Bay

The following is a list of all Miss Universe Organization titleholders over the years.

Edition Miss Universe Country Miss USA State Miss Teen USA State
2017 Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters   South Africa Kára McCullough   District of Columbia Sophia Dominguez-Heithoff   Missouri
2016 Iris Mittenaere   France Deshauna Barber   District of Columbia Karlie Hay   Texas
2015 Pia Wurtzbach   Philippines Olivia Jordan   Oklahoma Katherine Haik   Louisiana
2014 Paulina Vega   Colombia Nia Sanchez   Nevada K. Lee Graham   South Carolina
2013 Gabriela Isler   Venezuela Erin Brady   Connecticut Cassidy Wolf   California
2012 Olivia Culpo   United States Nana Meriwether   Maryland Logan West   Connecticut
2011 Leila Lopes   Angola Alyssa Campanella   California Danielle Doty   Texas
2010 Ximena Navarrete   Mexico Rima Fakih   Michigan Kamie Crawford   Maryland
2009 Stefanía Fernández   Venezuela Kristen Dalton   North Carolina Stormi Henley   Tennessee
2008 Dayana Mendoza   Venezuela Crystle Stewart   Texas Stevi Perry   Arkansas
2007 Riyo Mori   Japan Rachel Smith   Tennessee Hilary Cruz   Colorado
2006 Zuleyka Rivera   Puerto Rico Tara Conner   Kentucky Katie Blair   Montana
2005 Natalie Glebova   Canada Chelsea Cooley   North Carolina Allie LaForce   Ohio
2004 Jennifer Hawkins   Australia Shandi Finnessey   Missouri Shelley Hennig   Louisiana
2003 Amelia Vega   Dominican Republic Susie Castillo   Massachusetts Tami Farrell   Oregon
2002 Justine Pasek   Panama Shauntay Hinton   District of Columbia Vanessa Semrow   Wisconsin
Oxana Fedorova[a]   Russia
2001 Denise Quiñones   Puerto Rico Kandace Krueger   Texas Marissa Whitley   Missouri
2000 Lara Dutta   India Lynnette Cole   Tennessee Jillian Parry   Pennsylvania
1999 Mpule Kwelagobe   Botswana Kimberly Pressler   New York Ashley Coleman   Delaware
1998 Wendy Fitzwilliam   Trinidad and Tobago Shawnae Jebbia   Massachusetts Vanessa Minnillo   South Carolina
1997 Brook Lee   United States Brandi Sherwood   Idaho Shelly Moore   Tennessee
1996 Alicia Machado   Venezuela Ali Landry   Louisiana Christie Lee Woods   Texas
1995 Chelsi Smith   United States Shanna Moakler   New York Keylee Sue Sanders   Kansas
1994 Sushmita Sen   India Lu Parker   South Carolina Shauna Gambill   California
1993 Dayanara Torres   Puerto Rico Kenya Moore   Michigan Charlotte Lopez   Vermont
1992 Michelle McLean   Namibia Shannon Marketic   California Jamie Solinger   Iowa
1991 Lupita Jones   Mexico Kelli McCarty   Kansas Janelle Bishop   New Hampshire
1990 Mona Grudt   Norway Carole Gist   Michigan Bridgette Wilson   Oregon
1989 Angela Visser   Netherlands Gretchen Polhemus   Texas Brandi Sherwood   Idaho
1988 Porntip Nakhirunkanok   Thailand Courtney Gibbs   Texas Mindy Duncan   Oregon
1987 Cecilia Bolocco   Chile Michelle Royer   Texas Kristi Addis   Mississippi
1986 Bárbara Palacios   Venezuela Christy Fichtner   Texas Allison Brown   Oklahoma
1985 Deborah Carthy-Deu   Puerto Rico Laura Martinez-Herring   Texas Kelly Hu   Hawaii
1984 Yvonne Ryding   Sweden Mai Shanley   New Mexico Cherise Haugen   Illinois
1983 Lorraine Downes   New Zealand Julie Hayek   California Ruth Zakarian   New York
1982 Karen Baldwin   Canada Terri Utley   Arkansas ↑ No Pageant Held
(established in 1983)
1981 Irene Sáez   Venezuela Kim Seelbrede   Ohio
1980 Shawn Weatherly   United States Jineane Ford   Arizona
1979 Maritza Sayalero   Venezuela Mary Therese Friel   New York
1978 Margaret Gardiner   South Africa Judi Andersen   Hawaii
1977 Janelle Commissiong   Trinidad and Tobago Kimberly Tomes   Texas
1976 Rina Messinger   Israel Barbara Peterson   Minnesota
1975 Anne Marie Pohtamo   Finland Summer Bartholomew   California
1974 Amparo Muñoz   Spain Karen Morrison   Illinois
1973 Margarita Moran   Philippines Amanda Jones   Illinois
1972 Kerry Anne Wells   Australia Tanya Wilson   Hawaii
1971 Georgina Rizk   Lebanon Michele McDonald   Pennsylvania
1970 Marisol Malaret   Puerto Rico Deborah Shelton   Virginia
1969 Gloria Diaz   Philippines Wendy Dascomb   Virginia
1968 Martha Vasconcellos   Brazil Dorothy Anstett   Washington
1967 Sylvia Hitchcock   United States Sylvia Hitchcock   Alabama
1966 Margareta Arvidsson   Sweden Maria Remenyi   California
1965 Apasra Hongsakula   Thailand Sue Downey   Ohio
1964 Corinna Tsopei   Greece Bobbi Johnson   District of Columbia
1963 Iêda Maria Vargas   Brazil Marite Ozers   Illinois
1962 Norma Nolan   Argentina Macel Leilani Wilson   Hawaii
1961 Marlene Schmidt   Germany Sharon Brown   Louisiana
1960 Linda Bement   United States Linda Bement   Utah
1959 Akiko Kojima   Japan Terry Huntingdon   California
1958 Luz Marina Zuluaga   Colombia Arlene Howell   Louisiana
1957 Gladys Zender   Peru Charlotte Sheffield   Utah
Mary Leona Gage[b]   Maryland
1956 Carol Morris   United States Carol Morris   Iowa
1955 Hillevi Rombin   Sweden Carlene Johnson   Vermont
1954 Miriam Stevenson   United States Miriam Stevenson   South Carolina
1953 Christiane Martel   France Myrna Hansen   Illinois
1952 Armi Kuusela   Finland Jackie Loughery   New York

a In 2002, Fedorova was dethroned by the Miss Universe Organization and replaced by Pasek, the first runner-up.
b In 1957, Gage was stripped of her Miss USA title when it was revealed that she was married and the mother of two children. Sheffield, the first runner-up, replaced her.


The Miss Universe brand has been licensed for use in various products, including Farouk Systems' line of hair care products named Miss Universe Style Illuminate by CHI.[36]

Electronic Arts was reportedly developing a video game based on the pageant, but development status is currently uncertain due to the closure of EA Black Box, the studio allegedly developing the game.[37] A slot machine mobile game, Miss Universe: Crowning Moment, was released by High 5 Casino for iOS and Android devices in 2013.[38]

An official mobile companion app of the Miss Universe Organization was released in May 2016.[39]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Natalie Tadena (July 2, 2015).Donald Trump’s Miss USA Pageant Lands on Reelz Cable Channel. Wall Street Journal.
  2. ^ D’Souza, Eugene (24 August 2009). "Miss Immo Cowan is Miss Universe 2009". Daijiworld Media Network. Daijiworld. Retrieved 17 May 2015. 
  3. ^ Sylvia Toh Paik Choo (24 June 2008). "MISS Singapore Universe". Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Miss Universe on August 23". Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  5. ^ "". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Jun, Kwanwoo (2003-12-03). "Lost in Storm's Debris: A Beauty Pageant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  7. ^ Kenya, News (2011-07-15). "Beauty with scandals". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  8. ^ Vietnam, News (2008-10-08). "Những scandal của Miss World". Vietnam Express. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  9. ^ Ibrahim, Lynda (2013-09-13). "The misses and missuses of the world". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  10. ^ Lowe, Aya (2016-01-25). "Philippines' Miss Universe returns home, ignites dreams". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2016-01-25. 
  11. ^ "WME/IMG Acquires The Miss Universe Organization". Archived from the original on 2015-12-20. 
  12. ^ "Miss Universe 2017". Amar Ujala. Retrieved 27 November 2017. 
  13. ^ FUNFARE by Ricky Lo (June 28, 2006). "A misty-eyed look at Armi Kuusela, the 1st Miss Universe". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  14. ^ Prestigious Beauty Pageant (November 18, 2013). "Four Big Ships Dominate International Beauty Pageants". Prestigious Beauty Pageants. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Miss USA Olivia Culpo is Miss Universe 2012!". India Today. December 19, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  16. ^ Foreman, Jonathan (January 18, 1999). "Mistress of the Universe". New York Post. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  17. ^ WME/IMG Acquires Miss Universe Organization From Donald Trump
  18. ^ Jim Rutenberg (June 22, 2002). "Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  19. ^ Stanhope, Kate (2015-06-29). "NBC Cuts Ties With Donald Trump Over "Derogatory Statements," Pulls Miss USA and Miss Universe Pageants". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
  20. ^ "NBCUniversal cuts ties with Donald Trump". CNN Money. June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  22. ^ Jethro Nededog (14 September 2015). "Donald Trump sells the Miss Universe Organization - Business Insider". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  23. ^ "Miss Universe and Miss USA Pageants to Air on Fox". TV Insider. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  24. ^ "PAULA M. SHUGART". Miss Universe. Miss Universe Organization. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  25. ^ Yahr, Emily (26 January 2015). "Miss Universe Pageant makes always-awkward Q&A segment worse with viewer questions". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  26. ^ Dillon, Nancy (10 April 2012). "Transgender contestants can compete in Miss Universe". Daily News. New York. 
  27. ^ "Miss Venezuela Parades Online". PR Newswire. September 18, 2002. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2010. The Miss Venezuela broadcast, which on average captures a whopping 74% of the Venezuelan television market share for Venevision, will also be available to users on demand. 
  28. ^ Felicia R. Lee (October 10, 2007). "Three Crowns Sharing One Apartment". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "IN PHOTOS: Miss Universe crowns through the years". Rappler. Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  30. ^ "Mikimoto History Timeline". Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Connection to MISS UNIVERSE®". 
  32. ^ "Diamond Nexus Labs Announced as The Official Jewelry of The Miss Universe Organization". redOrbit. February 3, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  33. ^ Pia Wurzbach with the Czech Crown
  34. ^ 4every1 s.r.o. "New Miss Universe to be decorated by crown made by Czech company DIC, for the first time in the pageant's history". Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  35. ^ Don Chareunsy. "Philippines crowned Miss Universe after Harvey wrongly names Colombia winner". Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  36. ^ "MISS UNIVERSE® Style Illuminate by CHI - Hairstyling Line". MISS UNIVERSE® Style Illuminate by CHI. Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  37. ^ "10 Awful-Sounding Video Games That (Fortunately) Got Cancelled". 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  38. ^ "MISS UNIVERSE® Crowning Moment Headlines H5G November Releases | High 5 Games". Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  39. ^ Posts | Missuniverse

External linksEdit