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Samut Prakan Province

Samut Prakan (Thai: สมุทรปราการ, pronounced [sāmùt prāːkāːn] (About this soundlisten)) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force 9 March 1946.

Samut Prakan Province

สมุทรปราการ
Wat Phra Samut Chedi.jpg
Wat Phra Samut Chedi
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Official seal of {{{official_name}}}
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Map of Thailand highlighting Samut Prakan Province
CountryThailand
CapitalMueang Samut Prakan
Area
 • Total1,004 km2 (388 sq mi)
Area rankRanked 71st
Population
 • Total1,326,608
 • RankRanked 13th
 • Density1,321.3/km2 (3,422/sq mi)
 • Density rankRanked 3rd
Human Achievement Index
 • HAI (2017)0.6231 "somewhat high"
Ranked 17th
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Postal code
10xxx
Calling code02
ISO 3166 codeTH-11
Websitewww.samutprakan.go.th

It is part of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Neighbouring provinces are Bangkok, to the north and west, and Chachoengsao to the east.

Suvarnabhumi Airport is in the Bang Phli District of Samut Prakan Province.

HistoryEdit

 
Sanphet Prasat Palace replica, Ancient Siam Museum Park

The province was created during the era of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, with its administrative centre at Prapadaeng. It was the sea port of Siam, and was secured with forts, town moats, and town walls. King Rama II started building the new centre at Samut Prakan in 1819, after his predecessor King Taksin had abandoned the town fortifications. Altogether six forts were built on both sides of the Chao Phraya River, and on an island in the river the pagoda, Phra Samut Chedi, was erected. These were involved in the Paknam incident of 13 July 1893, which ended the Franco-Siamese War with a French naval blockade of Bangkok. Of the original six forts only two still exist today, Phi Sua Samut and Phra Chulachomklao.

ToponymyEdit

In Thai the word samut is from Sanskrit, samudra, meaning 'ocean' or 'sea', and the word prakan is from Sanskrit, prākāra, meaning 'fortress', 'walls', or 'stronghold'.

GeographyEdit

Samut Prakan is at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River on the Gulf of Thailand. Thus the province is also sometimes called Pak Nam (ปากน้ำ), the Thai word for 'mouth of a river'. The part of the province on the west side of the river consists mostly of rice paddies and shrimp farms as well as mangrove forests, while the eastern part is the urban centre, including industrial factories. It is part of the Bangkok metropolis. The urbanization on both sides of the provincial boundary is identical. The province has a coastline of approximately 47.2 kilometres. Samut Prakan is the site of a skirmish between French and Siamese forces on 13 July 1893, subsequently referred to as the Paknam Incident. This battle resulted in a French victory and the signing of the Franco-Siamese Treaty of 3 October 1893 which ceded territory east of the Mekong River to France, territory that forms much of modern Laos.[citation needed]

SymbolsEdit

The provincial seal shows the temple Phra Samut Chedi, the most important site of Buddhist worship in the province.

The provincial tree is Thespesia populnea.

The provincial slogan is Marine Battle Fortresses, Chedi in the Water, Crocodile Farm, Exquisite Ancient City, Phra Pradaeng Songkran Festival, Tasty Dried Snakeskin Gourami, Rap Bua Festival, Industrial Estate

Administrative divisionsEdit

Provincial governmentEdit

 
Map of Samut Prakan with the six districts numbered

The province is divided into six districts (amphoes). The districts are further subdivided into 50 subdistricts (tambons) and 396 villages (mubans).

  1. Mueang Samut Prakan
  2. Bang Bo
  3. Bang Phli
  1. Phra Pradaeng
  2. Phra Samut Chedi
  3. Bang Sao Thong

Local governmentEdit

 
  City municipalities (thesaban nakhon)
  Town municipalities (thesaban mueang)
  Subdistrict municipalities (thesaban tambon)

As of 31 December 2018 there are: one Samut Prakan Provincial Administrative Organization - PAO (ongkan borihan suan changwat) and nineteen municipal (thesaban) areas in the province. The capital Samut Prakan has city (thesaban nakhon) status. Further five have town (thesaban mueang) status and thirteen subdistrict municipalities (thesaban tambon).[2]

# City municipality 1 Samut Prakan.[4]
# Town municipalities 3 Phra Pradaeng,[5]
1 Paknam Samut Prakan 4 Lat Luang.[6]
2 Bang Kaeo[7] 5 Puchao Samingphrai.[8][9]
# Subdistrict municipalities 7 Khlong Suan
1 Samrong Nuea 8 Khlong Dan
2 Bang Pu 9 Bang Phli Noi
3 Phraekkasa 10 Bang Phli
4 Dan Samrong 11 Phra Samut Chedi
5 Bang Mueang 12 Laem Fapha
6 Bang Bo 13 Bang Sao Thong

The non-municipal areas are administered by thirty-one Subdistrict Administrative Organizations - SAO (ongkan borihan suan tambon). For national elections the province is divided into three voting districts, one represented by three assemblymen and the other two each by two assemblymen.

Suvarnabhumi AirportEdit

 
Suvarnabhumi Airport

Suvarnabhumi Airport (RTGSSuwannaphum; Thai pronunciation: [sù.wān.ná.pʰūːm][10]) (IATA: BKK, ICAO: VTBS), also known as (New) Bangkok International Airport, is one of two international airports serving Bangkok. The other one is Don Mueang International Airport.[11][12] Suvarnabhumi covers an area of 3,240 hectares (8,000 acres).

The airport is on what had formerly been known as Nong Nguhao (Cobra Swamp) in Racha Thewa in Bang Phli, Samut Prakan Province, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of downtown Bangkok. The terminal building was designed by Helmut Jahn of Murphy / Jahn Architects. It was constructed primarily by ITO JV. The airport has the world's tallest free-standing control tower (132.2 metres or 434 feet), and the world's fourth largest single-building airport terminal, (563,000 square metres or 6,060,000 square feet).

Suvarnabhumi is the twentieth busiest airport in the world, sixth busiest airport in Asia, and the busiest in the country, handling 53 million passengers in 2012,[13] and is also a major air cargo hub, with a total of 95 airlines. On social networks, Suvarnabhumi was the world's most popular site for taking Instagram photographs in 2012.[14]

The airport inherited the airport code, BKK, from Don Mueang after the older airport ceased international commercial flights. Motorway 7 connects the airport, Bangkok, and the heavily industrial eastern seaboard of Thailand, where most export manufacturing takes place.

Bhumibol BridgeEdit

 
Bang Krachao

The Bhumibol Bridge (Thai: สะพานภูมิพล), also known as the Industrial Ring Road Bridge (Thai: สะพานวงแหวนอุตสาหกรรม) is part of the 13 km long Industrial Ring Road connecting southern Bangkok with Samut Prakan Province. The bridge crosses the Chao Phraya River twice, with two cable-stayed spans of lengths of 702 m and 582 m supported by two diamond-shaped pylons 173 m and 164 m high. Where the two spans meet, another road rises to join them at a free-flowing interchange suspended 50 metres above the ground.

The bridge opened for traffic on 20 September 2006, before the official opening date of 5 December 2006. It is part of the Bangkok Industrial Ring Road, a royal scheme initiated by King Bhumibol Adulyadej that aims to solve traffic problems within Bangkok and surrounding areas, especially the industrial area around Khlong Toei Port, Southern Bangkok, and Samut Prakan Province.

According to tradition, all the bridges over the Chao Phraya in Bangkok are named after a member of the royal family.[citation needed] In October 2009, it was announced that both bridges would be named after King Bhumibol Adulyadej,[15] with the northern bridge officially named "Bhumibol 1 Bridge" and the southern bridge "Bhumibol 2 Bridge".[16] The unofficial name "Mega Bridge" is also widely used.[17]

The structure of the Bhumibol Bridge consists of two parts:

  • Bhumibol Bridge 1 crosses the northern part of Chao Praya River connecting Yan Nawa District, Bangkok and Song Khanong District, Samut Prakan. It is a cable-stayed bridge with seven lanes together with two high pillars. The structure is reinforced concrete 50 m above the river to enable the passage of ships.
  • Bhumibol Bridge 2 is the one across the southern part of Chao Praya River connecting Song Khanong District and Bang Ya Phraek District. The structure is similar to Bhumibol Bridge 1, with seven lanes and two pillars built using reinforced concrete 50 m high.
 
Bhumibol Bridge

EconomyEdit

Nissan and Honda have automobile factories in the province.

Nissan has two factories in the district, together employing 4,000 workers, 30% of them contract workers. Nissan-Thailand has an annual production capacity of 295,000 vehicles, making the Navara, Teana, Terra, Note, Almera, March, Sylphy and X-Trail models. Nissan plans to make 190,000 vehicles by the end of its fiscal year 2019, ending next March 2020. Roughly 120,000-130,000 units are pickup trucks, the remainder passenger cars.[18] Nissan produces hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) based on its e-Power technology and batteries for electric vehicles at a plant in Bang Sao Thong District. It has a production capacity of 370,000 vehicles a year.[19]

Thai Theparos Public Co., Ltd., a leading Thai condiment manufacturer, has its headquarters in Thai Ban Subdistrict, Mueang Samut Prakan District.[20]

Human achievement index 2017Edit

Index for the province Samut Prakan[3]
HAI indices Map Index Rank list
Health 2 0.6310 20th
Education 3 0.5736 15th
Employment 4 0.5678 49th
Income 5 0.7660 5th
Housing and environment 6 0.6938 69th
Family and community life 7 0.8422 1st
Transport and communication 8 0.7600 7th
Participation 9 0.1504 77th
HAI 2017 1 0.6231 17th


Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index (HAI), a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken over this task since 2017.[3]
Province Samut Prakan, with an HAI 2017 value of 0.6231, takes the 17th place in the rankings. This is "somewhat high" between the values of 0.5949 and 0.6246.

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

Reports (data) from Thai government are "not copyrightable" (Public Domain), Copyright Act 2537 (1994), section 7.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Advancing Human Development through the ASEAN Community, Thailand Human Development Report 2014, table 0:Basic Data (PDF) (Report). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Thailand. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-974-680-368-7. Retrieved 17 January 2016, Data has been supplied by Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, at Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b "ร่ยงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ศ.2561" [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2018]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  3. ^ a b c ดัชนีความก้าวหน้าของคน ปี2560 [Human Achievement Index - HAI year 2017] (PDF). social.nesdb.go.th (Report) (in Thai). National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). 2017. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-974-9769-33-1. Retrieved 14 September 2019, Maps 1-9
  4. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลนครสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ พ.ศ.๒๕๔๒" [Royal Decree Establish of Thesaban Nakhon Samut Prakan, Samut Prakan Province B.E.2542] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 116 (19 Kor): 1–4. 23 March 1999. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  5. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลเบืองพระประแดง จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ พุทธศักราช ๒๔๘0" [Royal Decree Establishing Thesaban Mueang Phra Pradaeng, Changwat Samut Prakan Buddhist Era 2480] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 54: 1878–1881. 14 March 1937. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  6. ^ "พระราชฤฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลเมืองลัดหลวง พ.ศ.๒๕๔๕" [Royal Decree Establishing Thesaban Mueang Lat Luang B.E.2002] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 119 (93 Kor): 4–6. 10 September 2002. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  7. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งองค์การบริหารส่วนตำบลบางแก้ว อำเภอบางพลี จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทสบาลเมืองบางแก้ว" [Royal decree Re: Bang Kaeo Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Bang Phli District, Samut Prakan Province Is Bang Kaeo Mueang Municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 136 (Special 251 Ngor): 18. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  8. ^ "ประกรศกระทรวมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะเทศบาลตำบลสำโรงใต้ อำเภอพระประแดง จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทศบาลเมืองสำโรงใต้" [Royal Decree Change Status of Thesaban Tambon Samrong Tai, Amphoe Phra Pradaeng, Changwat Samut Prakan Is Thesaban Mueang Samrong Tai] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 125 (Special 145 Ngor): 21. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  9. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนชื่อเทศบาลเมืองสำโรงใต้ อำเภอพระประแดง จังหวัดสมทรปราการ เป็น เทศบาลเมืองปู่เจ้าสมิงพราย" [Royal Decree Re: Change Name Thesaban Mueang Samrong Tai, Amphoe Phra Pradaeng, Changwat Samut Prakan Is Thesaban Mueang Puchao Samingphrai]. Royal Thai Government Gazette. 127 (Special 128 Ngor): 27. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  10. ^ "How to pronounce Suvarnabhumi Airport". Forvo. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Don Mueang to be city budget air hub". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  12. ^ "AirAsia to shift to Don Mueang". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  13. ^ 2011 Statistics Archived 27 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Suvarnabhumi, Paragon top Instagram places list". Bangkok Post, 29 December 2012.
  15. ^ "Bridges Named After His Majesty". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  16. ^ "Bhumibol Bridge in Samut Prakan สะพานภูมิพล - Samut Prakan (Paknam) จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เมืองปากน้ำ". Paknam. 2009-10-21. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  17. ^ "Bangkok's Mega-Bridge" Archived November 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine on 2bangkok.com, with many photos of the construction process. The author tentatively claims to have originated the name 'Mega-Bridge'.
  18. ^ Maikaew, Piyachart (26 July 2019). "Nissan's unions unfazed by jobs cut". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  19. ^ Theparat, Chatrudee; Maikaew, Piyachart (26 July 2018). "BoI gives blessing to B30bn in plans". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  20. ^ "Contact Us". Thai Theparos Public Co., Ltd. Retrieved 29 April 2019.

External linksEdit