สถานีย่อยประเทศไทย / Welcome to the Thailand Portal
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese Peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area and the 22nd-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. It is a unitary state. Although nominally the country is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup, in 2014, established a de facto military dictatorship under a junta.
Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdoms, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which rivaled each other. Documented European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, now one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–1688), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the 1767 Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin (r. 1767–1782) quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (r. 1782–1809), the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century.
Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory; nevertheless, it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States, and played a key anti-communist role in the region as a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In 2013, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by a military junta.
(or Phad Thai
, [pad tʰai]
style frying") is a dish of stir-fried rice noodles
, fish sauce
juice, red chilli pepper
, plus any combination of bean sprouts
, or tofu
, garnished with
crushed peanuts and coriander. It is normally served with a piece of lime, the juice of which can be added along with the usual Thai condiments. In Thailand, it is also served with a piece of banana flower.
There have evolved two different styles of Pad Thai: the version most often found in the streets of Thailand, which is relatively dry and light; and the version that seems dominant in many restaurants in the West, which may be covered in a red oil and can be heavy tasting.
List of Provinces of Thailand
Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (Thai: จังหวัด, changwat, singular and plural), which are grouped into 5 groups of provinces - sometimes the East and Central are grouped together. The capital Bangkok, though not a province but a special administrative area, is usually also included as a 76th province as it is at the same administrative level as the other provinces. The name of the province is the same as that of the capital city, which is sometimes preceded with a Mueang to avoid confusion with the province.
- Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่)
- Chiang Rai (เชียงราย)
- Kamphaeng Phet (กำแพงเพชร)
- Lampang (ลำปาง)
- Lamphun (ลำพูน)</onlyinclude>
- Mae Hong Son (แม่ฮ่องสอน)
- Nakhon Sawan (นครสวรรค์)
- Nan (น่าน)
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||Ayutthaya Kingdom, Chakri dynasty, Constitution of Thailand, Early history of Thailand, Effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on Thailand, Hariphunchai, History of Thailand (1768–1932), History of Thailand (1932–1973), History of Thailand (1973-2001), History of Thailand since 2001, Lan Na, Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom, Pattani Kingdom, Plaek Pibulsonggram, Pridi Phanomyong, Sarit Dhanarajata, Siamese coup d'état of 1932, South Thailand insurgency, Srivijaya
||1997 Constitution of Thailand, 2006 interim constitution of Thailand, Administrative divisions of Thailand, Cabinet of Thailand, Constitution of Thailand, Constitutional Court of Thailand, Foreign relations of Thailand, Government of Thailand, National Assembly of Thailand, People's Alliance for Democracy, Sonthi Boonyaratglin, South Thailand insurgency, Pridiyathorn Devakula, Prem Tinsulanonda, Surayud Chulanont, 2006 Thai coup d'état, Thai 2006 interim civilian government, Thai Rak Thai, Thaksin Shinawatra, Samak Sundaravej
||Agriculture in Thailand, Baht, Bank of Thailand, List of banks in Thailand Bureau of the Crown Property, Stock Exchange of Thailand, Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thai Airways, Thaksinomics, Tourism in Thailand, Transport in Thailand, US-Thailand Free Trade Agreement, Rail transport in Thailand, Thai motorway network
||Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Chao Phraya River, Demographics of Thailand, Doi Inthanon, Gulf of Thailand, Khao Lak, Khao Yai National Park, Khorat Plateau, Ko Chang, Ko Samet, Ko Samui, Kra Isthmus, Kwai river, Mekong, Patong Beach, Phi Phi Islands, Three Pagodas Pass
||Bangkok, Chiang Mai Province, Chiang Rai Province, Chonburi Province, Kanchanaburi Province, Khon Kaen Province, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Narathiwat Province, Pattani Province, Phuket Province, Songkhla Province, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Udon Thani Province, Yala Province
||Thai art, Buddhism in Thailand, Buddhist temples in Thailand, Cinema of Thailand, Cuisine of Thailand, Dance in Thailand, Education in Thailand, Farang, Flag of Thailand, Kathoey, Lakorn, Literature in Thailand, Thai language, Loi Krathong, Media of Thailand, Muay Thai, Music of Thailand, List of television stations in Thailand, Thai names, National Museum, Thai New Year, Public holidays in Thailand, Ramakien, Royal Flags of Thailand, Royal Flora Ratchaphruek, Thai greeting, Thai-style dresses, Traditional Thai musical instruments
|| Pridi Banomyong, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Communications in Thailand, Elephant Nature Park, Environmental issues in Thailand, Grand Palace, Bangkok, Prostitution in Thailand, Queen Sirikit, Military of Thailand, Thai royal and noble titles, List of shopping malls in Thailand, Thai studies