Thailand ( TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.
Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other. European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–88), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century.
The Muay Thai
, RTGS: Muai Thai
, pronounced [mūa̯j tʰāj] ( listen)
) is a combat sport
that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching
This physical and mental discipline which includes combat on shins is known as "the art of eight limbs" because it is characterized by the combined use of fists, elbows, knees, shins, being associated with a good physical preparation that makes a full-contact fighter very efficient.
Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the twentieth century, when practitioners defeated notable practitioners of other martial arts. The professional league is governed by The Professional Boxing Association of Thailand (P.A.T) sanctioned by The Sport Authority of Thailand (S.A.T.), and World Muaythai Federation (WMF) overseas.
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List of birds of Thailand
Thailand is home to 982 species of birds that have been recorded in the wild, of which three are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and 45 are rare or accidental. Seven species listed are extirpated in Thailand and are not included in the species count. Forty-nine species are globally threatened.
In 1991, it was estimated that 159 resident and 23 migratory species were endangered or vulnerable, due to forest clearance, illegal logging, hunting, and habitat degradation, especially in the lowlands. Those species most affected are large water birds, whose wetland habitat is lost to agriculture, and forest species, where deforestation for agriculture and logging have removed or degraded the woodlands.
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||Ayutthaya Kingdom, Chakri dynasty, Constitution of Thailand, Early history of Thailand, Effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on Thailand, Hariphunchai, History of Thailand (1768–1932), History of Thailand (1932–1973), History of Thailand since 1973, Lan Na, Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom, Pattani Kingdom, Plaek Pibulsonggram, Pridi Phanomyong, Sarit Dhanarajata, Siamese coup d'état of 1932, South Thailand insurgency, Srivijaya
||1997 Constitution of Thailand, 2006 interim constitution of Thailand, Administrative divisions of Thailand, Cabinet of Thailand, Constitution of Thailand, Constitutional Court of Thailand, Foreign relations of Thailand, Government of Thailand, National Assembly of Thailand, People's Alliance for Democracy, Sonthi Boonyaratglin, South Thailand insurgency, Pridiyathorn Devakula, Prem Tinsulanonda, Surayud Chulanont, 2006 Thai coup d'état, Thai 2006 interim civilian government, Thai Rak Thai, Thaksin Shinawatra, Samak Sundaravej
||Agriculture in Thailand, Baht, Bank of Thailand, List of banks in Thailand Bureau of the Crown Property, Stock Exchange of Thailand, Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thai Airways, Thaksinomics, Tourism in Thailand, Transport in Thailand, US-Thailand Free Trade Agreement, Rail transport in Thailand, Thai motorway network
||Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Chao Phraya River, Demographics of Thailand, Doi Inthanon, Gulf of Thailand, Khao Lak, Khao Yai National Park, Khorat Plateau, Ko Chang, Ko Samet, Ko Samui, Kra Isthmus, Kwai river, Mekong, Patong Beach, Phi Phi Islands, Three Pagodas Pass
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||Thai art, Buddhism in Thailand, Buddhist temples in Thailand, Cinema of Thailand, Cuisine of Thailand, Dance in Thailand, Education in Thailand, Farang, Flag of Thailand, Kathoey, Lakorn, Literature in Thailand, Thai language, Loi Krathong, Media of Thailand, Muay Thai, Music of Thailand, List of television stations in Thailand, Thai names, National Museum, Thai New Year, Public holidays in Thailand, Ramakien, Royal Flags of Thailand, Royal Flora Ratchaphruek, Thai greeting, Thai-style dresses, Traditional Thai musical instruments
|| Pridi Banomyong, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Communications in Thailand, Elephant Nature Park, Environmental issues in Thailand, Grand Palace, Bangkok, Prostitution in Thailand, Queen Sirikit, Military of Thailand, Thai royal and noble titles, List of shopping malls in Thailand, Thai studies