Ko Samui (or Koh Samui, also often locally shortened to Samui; Thai: เกาะสมุย, pronounced [kɔ̀ʔ sā.mǔj]) is an island off the east coast of Thailand. Geographically in the Chumphon Archipelago, it is part of Surat Thani Province, though as of 2012, Ko Samui was granted municipal status and thus is now locally self-governing. Ko Samui, with an area of 228.7 square kilometres (88.3 sq mi), is Thailand's second largest island after Phuket.[2] In 2018, it was visited by 2.7 million tourists.[3]

Ko Samui
City of Koh Samui
Lipa Noi Beach
Lipa Noi Beach
Official seal of Ko Samui
Ko Samui is located in Thailand
Ko Samui
Ko Samui
Coordinates: 9°30′N 100°00′E / 9.500°N 100.000°E / 9.500; 100.000
Country Thailand
ProvinceSurat Thani
 • MayorRamnet Jaikwang
 • Vice MayorMuensilp Poolsawat
 • Total228.7 km2 (88.3 sq mi)
Highest elevation
635 m (2,083 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • Total70,059[1]
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Area code(+66) 77
Bo Phut Beach

History edit

The island was probably first inhabited about 15 centuries ago, settled by fishermen from the Malay Peninsula[4] and southern China. It appears on Chinese maps dating back to 1687, under the name Pulo Cornam.[5]

The origin of the name samui is unknown. It may come from the Sanskrit-Tamil word สมวย, meaning 'sea weather'. Or it may derive from the name of a tree known locally in southern Thailand as ต้นหมุย (full name ต้นสมุย). A third possibility is that it originated from early Hainanese traders to Samui. In Hainanese Chinese, เซ่าบ่วย means 'first island', 'barrier', or 'gate', or literally 'beautiful beach'.[5] As it was their first port of call in Thailand, it became its name and evolved over time to สมุย. Some people believe that the word "samui" derives from the Malay word saboey, or 'safe haven'. There is no firm corroboration of any of these theories.[6] Ko is the Thai word for "island".

Until the late-20th century, Ko Samui was an isolated self-sufficient community, having little connection with the mainland of Thailand. The island was without roads until the early 1970s, and the 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) journey from one side of the island to the other could involve a whole-day trek through the mountainous central jungles.

Ko Samui's economy now is based primarily on a successful tourist industry, as well as exports of coconut and rubber.

Economic growth has brought not only prosperity, but also major changes to the island's environment and culture.[7]

Governance edit

The first local government on Samui island was established in 1956 with the sanitary district Ko Samui, which however only covered the area around the settlement.[8] In 1963 it was enlarged to cover the entirety of Samui and Pha-Nga islands, which at that time were still in the same district.[9] In 1973, the area of the Ko Pha-Ngan District became a separate sanitary district.[10] Since 1981, the sanitary district covers the area of the whole district.[11]

Like all sanitary districts, Ko Samui became a subdistrict municipality (thesaban tambon) in 1999.[12] In 2008, the subdistrict municipality was upgraded to a town municipality (thesaban mueang),[13] and in 2012, the town was upgraded to a city municipality.[14]

The conversion of the municipality into a special administrative area with greater powers of self-governance similar to Pattaya has been discussed since 2008, but as of 2018 no action has been taken.

Geography edit

Sunrise, Ko Samui

Ko Samui is in the Gulf of Thailand, about 35 km (22 mi) northeast of Surat Thani town (9°N, 100°E). It is the most significant island in the Chumphon Archipelago. The island measures some 25 kilometres (16 mi) at its widest point. To the north are the populated resort islands of Ko Pha-ngan, Ko Tao, and Ko Nang Yuan. Close to Bangrak in northeast Samui is the small uninhabited island of Ko Som, and to the northeast of Chaweng is the tiny Ko Matlang. To the south are Ko Taen and Ko Matsum, each of which have small tourist facilities. To the far west are 44 other islands which together compose Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park which is accessible by a day-trip boat tour from Ko Samui.

The central part of Ko Samui is mostly tropical jungle with tree coverage and many beautiful creatures. It also includes its largest mountain, Khao Pom, peaking at 635 m (2,083 ft). The various lowland and coastal areas are connected by one route, which is a 51 km (32 mi)-long road, encircling the island. Many other concrete roads branch off from this route to service other areas.

On the west coast of the island is the original capital, Nathon, which still houses many government offices, as well as two of the island's five major piers. Nathon is the major port for fisheries and for vehicular and goods transportation from the mainland. As the site of the main port and the closest city to the mainland has made Nathon the commercial centre for Samui locals. More recently, the transition from dependence on the local coconut industry along with the continued growth and development of the tourist industry, as well as the northeastern location of the airport, has led to the increase of commercial activity in Chaweng and Bophut.

Climate edit

Ko Samui has a tropical monsoon climate according to the Köppen climate classification, bordering on a tropical rainforest climate. The island has a dry season month, with the average monthly precipitation in February falling below 60 mm (2 in), the threshold for a tropical dry season month. The temperature is well above the threshold of 18 °C (64 °F) year round, indeed closer to an average temperature of 28 °C (82 °F). The climate is warm and humid for most of the year. In comparison to Phuket and most of the rest of southern Thailand, Samui's weather is relatively drier (Samui receives about 1,960 mm (77.2 in) rain per year, and Phuket gets 2,220 mm (87 in)). Phuket's wet season is spread over six to eight months. Ko Samui has only two months with more than 212 mm (8 in) of rain. The heaviest precipitation typically falls in the months of October and November.[15] For the rest of the year, given the tropical climate, rain showers are brief; 20–60 minutes duration is typical.

Climate data for Ko Samui (1991–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.4
Average high °C (°F) 29.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
Average low °C (°F) 24.2
Record low °C (°F) 18.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 126.8
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 4.3 4.7 6.1 11.0 10.3 10.7 10.5 10.6 15.8 16.5 11.6 120.6
Average relative humidity (%) 82.7 81.2 81.0 80.7 79.7 78.1 78.3 78.0 80.0 84.7 85.5 82.6 81.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 214.7 238.7 201.0 192.2 150.0 155.0 151.9 144.0 145.7 174.0 176.7 2,142.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.4 7.6 7.7 6.7 6.2 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 5.8 5.7 5.9
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[16]
Source 2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun 1981–2010)[17](extremes)[18]

Administration edit

Ko Samui is an amphoe (district) of Surat Thani Province, divided into seven sub-districts (tambons) and 39 administrative villages (mubans). The entire island is one city municipality (thesaban nakhon). The district covers the island, as well as the Ang Thong archipelago and some other small islands nearby.

Map of Tambon
No. Name Thai Villages Pop.[19]
01. Ang Thong อ่างทอง 06 13,043
02. Lipa Noi ลิปะน้อย 05 05,432
03. Taling Ngam ตลิ่งงาม 05 06,138
04. Na Mueang หน้าเมือง 05 05,339
05. Maret มะเร็ต 06 09,051
06. Bo Phut บ่อผุด 06 19,014
07. Mae Nam แม่น้ำ 06 09,248

Originally, the district included all of the islands of Surat Thani Province. The islands Ko Pha-ngan and Ko Tao were split off as the minor district (king amphoe) Ko Pha-ngan effective 1 October 1970.[20] In 1980, administrative village number seven of Ang Thong Sub-district covering the islands Ko Chueak, Ko Nok Phao, and Ko Rikan was reassigned to Don Sak District,[21] where it now forms village number 11.

Transport edit

Old Samui International Airport

Samui Airport is a private airport built and owned by Bangkok Airways, which is the only airline with services to Ko Samui from mainland Thailand since the airport's construction in 1989. Due to its use of locally produced palm leaves and a natural, open-air cooling system, the terminal complex received an Environment Impact Assessment Award under the guidance of Prasert Prasarttong-Osoth. Ko Samui airport is built in an open style, drawing connections between it and traditional Thai architecture. In 2009, the airport handled 1.3 million passengers and 17,707 aircraft operations.[22][unreliable source?]

Flights from Samui to Phuket and other Thai destinations are available, and in 2012, the Thai government announced the possibility of a second Ko Samui airport due to complaints of high airport fees.[23]

Several ferries connect the island with the mainland, including two car/passenger ferries, and connect Don Sak to piers in the west of the island, in Lipa Noi and in Nathon. Public buses to all parts of the mainland operate from a new bus station north of Nathon. Privately operated songthaews circle the ring road like a bus service with fixed fees mostly only in the daytime, and private taxis which charged a fixed, flat fee depending on the destination.[citation needed]

Tourism edit

Tourists on Bo Phut beach

The expansion of tourism in Ko Samui has resulted in growth of building resorts, bungalows, and luxury private villas on the island. The island's total of 17,479 hotel rooms in 2013 was increased by an additional 459 new rooms in 2015. A gradual shift in demand is seeing more Asian visitors and families, but the top three source markets have been Germany, the UK, and Thailand, which contribute a combined 27 percent share. Bangkok Airways continues to modernize its fleet with new Airbuses, phasing out older ATR 72 propeller planes, which will provide 189,000 additional airline seats for Samui travelers. The airport has already increased the number of daily flights from 36 to 50.[24]

The island received more than 2.5 million foreign visitors in 2017, up from 2.34 million in 2016. According to a luxury hotelier, tourists traveling to Ko Samui spend an average of 7,700 to 8,200 baht per head per day.[25]

As of 2020, legislators in the Thai parliament have put forward a proposal to build an 18 km (11 mi) bridge linking mainland Nakhon Si Thammarat Province with Ko Samui. The MPs claim that the project would spur economic growth in south Thailand. They propose that—if built—it be named "Chan-o-cha" in honour of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha.[26]

Attraction sites edit

Samui has several tourist attraction sites ranging from beaches, waterfalls and is full of history. Some of the top attraction sites in this island include:

  • Beaches– Koh Samui is home for some of the most beautiful beaches in Thailand. Among the famous beaches include Chaweng Beach, Lamai Beach, Maenam Beach and Choeng Mon Beach.[2][27]
  • Wat Phra Yai– Also called Big Buddha Temple, it is one of the most iconic landmarks in Koh Samui. It has the giant golden Buddha statue, seated in a lotus position which is 12 meters high and is a symbol of peace and prosperity.[28]
  • Hin Ta and Hin Yai Rocks– These are natural rock formations also known as Grandfather and Grandmother Rocks. They resemble male and female genitalia and are believed to bring fertility and good luck.[29]
  • Na Muang Waterfalls
  • Fisherman's Village
  • Secret Buddha Garden
  • Elephant Sanctuaries In the last years, Koh Samui developed several elephant sanctuaries in a big wild area. A place to increase learning, compatibility, and understanding between humans and elephants as sentient beings. All assist in elephant care by supporting sincere and beneficial ethical tourism.[2][30]

Environmental improvements edit

Ko Samui hosts some 2,700,000 visitors per year. To manage this, every resort, hotel, villa, restaurant, and facility is required to maintain their own septic tank systems so there is no need for widespread wastewater treatment. Rainwater collection from roadway run-off along Samui's main ring road has been vastly improved during the main Ring Road revitalization and improvement project begun in 2017 and nearly completed as of 2020. The project has widened the main ring roads all the way around the entire island, upgrading with new steel-reinforced concrete along with asphalt blacktop, new sidewalks, additional street-lights, and run-off water collection. Ko Samui has three main run-off water treatment plants, in Chaweng, Lamai, and Maenam, to handle the rainwater collection from the roads; since all sewage is handled by each property's own required septic systems.

Other islands such as Koh Tao and Koh Phangan (famous for its full moon parties) have much more serious problems due to lack of good infrastructure and enforcement. Plans to build more water treatment plants on those other island has been stymied by lack of funding, making Koh Samui's better infrastructure much more appealing.[31]

Medical care edit

Samui has four private hospitals: Samui International Hospital;[32] Thai International;[33] Bandon Hospital;[34] and Bangkok Hospital Samui.[35] The government hospital is in Nathon.[36]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Ko Samui (Surat Thani, Southern Region, Thailand) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map, Location, Weather and Web Information".
  2. ^ a b c "Ko Samui". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  3. ^ Worrachaddejchai, Dusida (19 August 2019). "Koh Samui opts for luring Thais as foreigners flee". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  4. ^ Joe Bindloss; Steven Martin; Wendy Taylor (2004). Thailand's Islands and Beaches. Lonely Planet. p. 199. ISBN 1-74059-500-9.
  5. ^ a b TPBS (2012-01-20). "พินิจนคร (Season 2) ตอน สมุย 1" [Pinijnakorn (Season 2) ep. Samui 1]. youtube (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2021-12-22. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
  6. ^ "ชื่อนามที่มาของเกาะ สมุย" [Origin of the name of Ko Samui]. komchadluek.net (in Thai). 2009-08-21. Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  7. ^ Levy, Adrian; Scott-Clark, Cathy (2006-04-08). "Danger in paradise". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 Feb 2015.
  8. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งสุขาภิบาลเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 73 (75 ง ฉบับพิเศษ): 84–85. 1956-09-20. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2018.
  9. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงเขตสุขาภิบาลเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 80 (38 ง): 1203–1204. 1963-04-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2021.
  10. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงเขตสุขาภิบาลเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 90 (106 ง): 2443–2447. 1973-08-21. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2018.
  11. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงเขตสุขาภิบาลเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 98 (215 ง): 4769–4771. 1981-12-29. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2018.
  12. ^ "พระราชบัญญัติเปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะของสุขาภิบาลเป็นเทศบาล พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๒" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 116 (9 ก): 1–4. 1999-02-24. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008.
  13. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะเทศบาลตำบลเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี เป็นเทศบาลเมืองเกาะสมุย" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 127 (พิเศษ 116 ง): 15. 2010-10-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2012.
  14. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะเทศบาลเมืองเกาะสมุย อำเภอเกาะสมุย จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี เป็นเทศบาลนครเกาะสมุย" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 131 (พิเศษ 18 ง): 1. 2014-01-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2014.
  15. ^ "Weather in Thailand". Travelfish.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
  16. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  17. ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 108. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  18. ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Population statistics 2017" (in Thai). Department of Provincial Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  20. ^ ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง แบ่งท้องที่ตั้งเป็นกิ่งอำเภอ (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 87 (90 ง): 2790. 24 Sep 1970. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2008.
  21. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกาเปลี่ยนแปลงเขตอำเภอเกาะสมุย กับอำเภอดอนสัก จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี พ.ศ. ๒๕๒๓" (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 97 (165 ก ฉบับพิเศษ): 4–6. 1980-10-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 10, 2018.
  22. ^ "Koh Samui Airport, Thailand". airport-technology.com. Kable. 2013. Retrieved 18 Jan 2014.
  23. ^ "Samui may get second airport". Bangkok Post. 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
  24. ^ "Bangkok Airways Part 2: Plans for further network, fleet & partnership portfolio expansion for 2016". CAPA - Centre for Aviation. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  25. ^ Sritama, Suchat (6 July 2018). "Cape Fahn to open on private island". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  26. ^ "18km Samui bridge urged". Bangkok Post. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Benefits of Owning a Property in Koh Samui, Thailand: General". northshore.instructure.com. Retrieved 2023-04-07.
  28. ^ Barnes, Jo (2022-12-12). "Top 10 Very Best Things to do in Koh Samui". Your Lifestyle Business. Retrieved 2023-03-27.
  29. ^ Planet, Lonely; Harper, Damian (2018-10-01). Lonely Planet Pocket Ko Samui. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-78868-197-1.
  30. ^ "Benefits of ethical tourism on Koh Samui, Thailand: General". kohsamuitourism.org/.
  31. ^ Chaolan, Supapong; Wipatayotin, Apinya (8 April 2018). "Islands seek clean break from trail of tourist trash". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  32. ^ Samui International Hospital. Retrieved on 21 March 2015.
  33. ^ Thai International Hospital. Retrieved on 21 March 2015.
  34. ^ "Samui's Leading First Class Medical Center | Bandon International Hospital Samui". Bandon International Hospital Samui. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  35. ^ Bangkok Samui Hospital. Retrieved on 21 March 2015.
  36. ^ "Koh Samui Hospitals (Thai Visa Samui)". Archived from the original on 2013-09-20. Retrieved 2013-07-21.

External links edit

  Media related to Ko Samui at Wikimedia Commons