Southern Thai language
Southern Thai (Southern Thai/Thai: ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้ [pʰaːsǎː tʰaj tʰìn tâːj]), also known as Pak Thai (Southern Thai: ภาษาปักษ์ใต้) or Dambro (Thai: ภาษาตามโพร [pʰaːsǎː taːmpʰroː]), is a Southwestern Tai language spoken in the fourteen provinces of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states. It is spoken by roughly five million people, and as a second language by the 1.5 million speakers of Pattani and other ethnic groups such as the local Thai Chinese communities, Negritos, and other tribal groups. Most speakers are also fluent or understand the Central Thai dialects.
|ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้ /pʰaːsǎː tʰaj tʰìn tâːj/|
|Native to||Southern Thailand, Kedah, Kelantan and Tanintharyi Region|
|Ethnicity||Thai (Southern), Peranakan, Malaysian Siamese, Thai Malays, Mani and Thai Chinese|
|4.5 million (2006)|
Phonyarit (2018) recognizes the following nine main dialects of Southern Thai, based on tone split and merger patterns.
- upper western
- upper eastern
- lower western
- lower eastern
In Thailand, speakers of Southern Thai can be found in a contiguous region beginning as far north as southern part of Prachuap Khiri Khan Province and extending southward to the border with Malaysia. Smaller numbers of speakers reside in the Malaysian border states, especially Kedah, Kelantan, Penang, Perlis, and Perak. In these areas, it is the primary language of ethnic Thais as well as of the ethnically Malay people on both sides of the Thai-Malaysian border in Satun and Songkhla provinces. Although numerous regional variations exist and there is no one standard, the language is most distinct near the Malaysian border. All varieties, however, remain mutually intelligible. For economic reasons, many speakers of Southern Thai have migrated to Bangkok and other Thai cities. Some have also emigrated to the Malaysia, which offers not only economic opportunity but also a culture which shares the Islamic faith practiced by some speakers of Southern Thai.
Malay kingdoms ruled much of the Malay Peninsula, such as the Pattani Kingdom and Tambralinga, but most of the area, at one time or another, was under the rule of Srivijaya. The population of the Malay peninsula was heavily influenced by the culture of India transmitted through missionaries or indirectly through traders. Numerous Buddhist and Hindu shrines attest to the diffusion of Indian culture. The power vacuum left by the collapse of Srivijaya was filled by the growth of the kingdom of Nakhon Si Thammarat, which subsequently became a vassal of the Sukhothai Kingdom. The area has been a frontier between the northern Tai peoples and the southern ethnic Malays as well as between Buddhism and Islam.
- Ligor dialect, spoken in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Trang, Satun provinces and Mueang Pattani Kedah state, Mae Lan, Khok Pho and Nong Chik Districts of Pattani Province.
- Chaiya dialect, spoken in Krabi, Phang Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Surat Thani and Chumphon Provinces.
- Singora dialect, spoken in Songkhla, Yala and mostly part of Pattani Provinces.
- Tak Bai dialect, spoken in Kelantan state, Narathiwat Province and Yaring, Panare, Sai Buri districts of Pattani Province.
|Tone||Standard Thai||Phonemic||Phonetic||Example meaning in English|
- * Final consonant only.
- ** Implied before any vowel without an initial and after a short vowel without a final.
Differences from Central ThaiEdit
Although of the major regional languages of Thailand, Southern Thai is most similar in lexicon and grammar to Central Thai, the varieties are sufficiently different that mutual intelligibility between the two can be problematic. Southern Thai presents a diglossic situation wherein registers range from the most formal (Standard Central Thai spoken with Southern Thai tones and accent) to the common vernacular (usually a contracted form of Thai expressions and with some amount of loan words from Malay). The Thai language was introduced with Siamese incursions into the Malay Peninsula possibly starting as early as the Sukhothai Kingdom. During this and successive kingdoms, the area in which Southern Thai is spoken was a frontier zone between Thai polities and the Malay Sultanates. Malay vocabulary has been absorbed into the lexicon, as a considerable number of Malay speakers lived in or near Patani polity and interacted with the Thai speakers through trade; and the Malay language was formerly considered to be a lingua franca of the southern part of the Malay peninsula.
Southern Thai is mainly a spoken language, although the Thai alphabet is often used in the informal situations when it is written.
The words used that are etymologically Thai are often spoken in a reduced and rapid manner, making comprehension by speakers of other varieties difficult. Also, as Southern Thai uses up to seven tones in certain provinces, the tonal distribution is different from other regional varieties of Thai. Additionally, Southern Thai speakers almost always preserve ร as /r/ in contrast to Northern Thai, the Lao-based Isan language, and informal registers of Central Thai where it is generally realized as /l/.
|หร่อย, rɔːj||อร่อย, aʔrɔ̀ːj||delicious||ม่าย, maːj||ไหม, mǎj||question particle|
|แหลง, lɛːŋ||พูด, pʰûːt||to speak||จังหู้, tɕaŋhuː||มาก, mâːk||a lot|
|ดีปรี, _diːpriː||พริก, pʰrík||chilli||หลุหละ, lulaʔ||สกปรก, sòk.ka.pròk||dirty|
|หยีบ, jip||ยี่สิบ, jîːsìp||twenty||บาย, baːj||สบาย, saʔbaːj||to be well|
|ยานัด, jaːnát||สับปะรด, sàp.paʔ.rót||pineapple||นากา, naːkaː||นาฬิกา, naːlí.kaː||clock|
|ขี้มัน, kʰiːman||ขี้เหนียว, kʰîːnǐaw||stingy||พรือ, pʰrɯːa||อะไร, aʔraj||what?|
|ยัง, jaŋ||มี, miː||to have||แค, kʰɛː||ใกล้, klâj||near|
|พี่บ่าว, pʰiːbaːw||พี่ชาย, pʰîːtɕʰaːj||older brother||เกือก, kɯːak||รองเท้า, rɔːŋtʰáːw||shoe|
|ตอเช้า, tɔ.tɕʰaw||พรุ่งนี้, pʰrûŋ.níː||tomorrow||พร้าว, pʰraːw||มะพร้าว, máʔ.pʰráːw||coconut|
|หลาด, laːt||ตลาด, taʔ.làːt||market||ตู, tuː||ประตู, praʔ.tuː||door|
|แล, lɛː||ดู, duː||to see||นายหัว, naːj.hua||หัวหน้า, hǔa.nâː||boss|
- Southern Thai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Southern Thai". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Phonyarit, Ratchadaporn (2018). Tonal Geography of the Southern Thai Dialects. Paper presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, held May 17-19, 2018 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
- Gedney, William J., and Thomas J. Hudak. William J. Gedney's Tai Dialect Studies: Glossaries, Texts, and Translations. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, 1997. Print.
- Bradley, David. (1992). "Southwestern Dai as a lingua franca." Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Vol. II.I:13, pp. 780–781.
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- Miyaoka, Osahito. (2007). The Vanishing Languages of the Pacific Rim. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926662-X.
- Taher, Mohamed. (1998). Encylopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-261-0403-1.
- Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0356-3.
- Diller, A. Van Nostrand. (1976). Toward a Model of Southern Thai Diglossic Speech Variation. Cornell University Publishers.
- Li, Fang Kuei. (1977). A Handbook of Comparative Tai. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0540-2.