Portal:China


China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country with a population exceeding 1.4 billion people. China spans five geographical time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third or fourth largest country. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Modern Chinese trace their origins to a cradle of civilization in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. The semi-legendary Xia dynasty in the 21st century BCE and the well-attested Shang and Zhou dynasties developed a bureaucratic political system to serve hereditary monarchies, or dynasties. Chinese writing, Chinese classic literature, and the Hundred Schools of Thought emerged during this period and influenced China and its neighbors for centuries to come. In the third century BCE, Qin's wars of unification created the first Chinese empire, the short-lived Qin dynasty. The Qin was followed by the more stable Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), which established a model for nearly two millennia in which the Chinese empire was one of the world's foremost economic powers. The empire expanded, fractured and re-unified, was conquered and reestablished, absorbed foreign religions and ideas, and made world-leading scientific advances, such as the Four Great Inventions: gunpowder, paper, the compass, and printing. After centuries of disunion following the fall of the Han, the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties reunified the empire. The multi-ethnic Tang welcomed foreign trade and culture that came over the Silk Road and adapted Buddhism to Chinese needs. The early modern Song dynasty (960–1279) became increasingly urban and commercial. The civilian scholar-official or literati used the examination system and the doctrines of Neo-Confucianism to replace the military aristocrats of earlier dynasties. The Mongol invasion established the Yuan dynasty in 1279, but the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) re-established Han Chinese control. The Manchu-led Qing dynasty nearly doubled the empire's territory and established a multi-ethnic state that was the basis of the modern Chinese nation, but suffered heavy losses to foreign imperialism in the 19th century.

China is currently governed as a unitary one-party socialist republic by the CCP. China is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and a founding member of several multilateral and regional cooperation organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the RCEP, and is a member of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. It ranks among the lowest in largely Western measurements of civil liberties, government transparency, freedom of the press, freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. The Chinese authorities have been criticized by Western governments and non-governmental organizations for alleged human rights abuses, including political repression, mass censorship, mass surveillance of their citizens, and violent suppression of protests. (Full article...)

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Beiyue Temple

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Chinese noodles at a noodle shop in Tuen Mun, Hong Kong

Chinese noodles vary widely according to the region of production, ingredients, shape or width, and manner of preparation. Noodles were invented in China, and are an essential ingredient and staple in Chinese cuisine. They are an important part of most regional cuisines within China, and other countries with sizable overseas Chinese populations. Chinese noodles can be made of wheat, buckwheat, rice, millet, oats, beans, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and even fish. There are over 1,200 types of noodles commonly consumed in China today.

Chinese noodles have also entered the cuisines of neighboring East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. (Full article...)

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Mummified seahorse
Credit: Jon Zander

Macro of a naturally mummified seahorse, which is considered a fundamental ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM practices include theories, diagnosis and treatments such as herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage. In the West, traditional Chinese medicine is considered alternative medicine, but in China and Taiwan, it is considered an integral part of the health care system.

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In the news

29 September 2022 – COVID-19 pandemic
Indonesia grants approval for the first Chinese mRNA vaccine against COVID-19, the Walvax COVID-19 vaccine. (Reuters)
28 September 2022 – Insurgency in Balochistan
One person is killed and two others are injured when a gunman opens fire against Chinese-Pakistani nationals at a dental clinic in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. All of the victims were in their 70s and had worked for the clinic for more than 40 years. (BBC News)
28 September 2022 –
A restaurant fire kills 17 people and injures three others in Changchun, Jilin, China. (AP)
22 September 2022 – Corruption in China
China's former justice minister Fu Zhenghua is sentenced to death with reprieve, which means his sentence will be life in prison without the possibility of parole, after pleading guilty to accepting bribes. (DW)
18 September 2022 – 2022 Guizhou bus crash
Twenty-seven people are killed and 20 others are injured when a bus carrying people to a COVID-19 quarantine facility crashes on a highway in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. (Reuters)
14 September 2022 – 2022 Pacific typhoon season
Typhoon Muifa makes landfall in eastern China with the maximum wind speed near its centre reaching 42 metres per second (150 kilometres per hour (93 mph)). (Bloomberg) (Reuters)

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China's Politics

Emblem of the Communist Party of China
Xi Jinping

The General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, officially General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is head of the Chinese Communist Party and the highest-ranking official within China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat. The officeholder is usually considered the paramount leader of China.

According to the Constitution, the General Secretary serves as an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. Since the early 1990s, the holder of the post has been, except for transitional periods, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making the holder the Commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.

The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping (picture), who took the office at the 18th National Congress on 15 November 2012.

National Emblem of the Republic of China
Tsai Ing-wen

The President of the Republic of China is the head of state of the Republic of China (ROC).

The Constitution names the president as head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces (formerly known as the National Revolutionary Army). The president is responsible for conducting foreign relations, such as concluding treaties, declaring war, and making peace. The president must promulgate all laws and has no right to veto. Other powers of the president include granting amnesty, pardon or clemency, declaring martial law, and conferring honors and decorations.

The current President is Tsai Ing-wen (picture), since May 20, 2016. The first woman to be elected to the office, Tsai is the seventh president of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution and the second president from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP).

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Wikipedias in languages found in China

粵語 / 广东话 (Cantonese)           古文 / 文言文 (Classical Chinese)           赣语 (Gan)           Hak-kâ-fa (Hakka)           قازاق تىلى (Kazakh)           中文 / 普通话 (Mandarin) (Now unable to access in
China Mainland because of the GFW)          
闽东语 (Min Dong)           闽南语 (Min-nan)           བོད་ཡིག (Tibetan)           ئۇيغۇرچە (Uyghur)           吴语 (Wu)           Sawcuengh (Zhuang)

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Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Xiang (湘语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Pu-Xian Min (莆仙话) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Min Bei (闽北语)
Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator lahu (拉祜族,拉祜语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Nuosu (彝族,彝语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator hmong (苗族,苗语)
Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Bouyei (布依族,布依语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator manchu (满族,满语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Xong (苗族,湘西苗语)
Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator Daw (苗族,白苗苗语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator xibo (锡伯族,锡伯语) Incubator-notext.svg wiki incubator salar (撒拉族,撒拉语)
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