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[vîət nāːm] ( ) listen
), officially the
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
, is a country in
. Located at the eastern edge of
mainland Southeast Asia
, it covers 311,699 square kilometres (120,348 sq mi). With a population of over 96 million, it is the world's
fifteenth-most populous country
. Vietnam borders
to the north,
to the west, and shares
Gulf of Thailand
, and the
South China Sea
. Its capital is
and its largest city is
Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam was inhabited as early as the
Paleolithic age. The first known states during the first millennium BC centered on the Red River Delta, located in modern-day northern Vietnam. The Han dynasty annexed and put Northern and Central Vietnam under Chinese rule from 111 BC, until the first dynasty emerged in 939. Successive monarchical dynasties absorbed Chinese influences through Confucianism and Buddhism, and expanded southward to the Mekong Delta, conquering Champa. The Nguyễn—the last imperial dynasty—fell to French colonisation in 1887. Following the August Revolution, the nationalist Viet Minh under the leadership of communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh proclaimed independence from France in 1945.
Vietnam went through prolonged warfare through the 20th century. After
World War II, France returned to reclaim colonial power in the First Indochina War, from which Vietnam emerged victorious in 1954. The Vietnam War began shortly after, during which the nation was divided into communist North supported by the Soviet Union and China, and anti-communist South supported by the United States. Upon the North Vietnamese victory in 1975, Vietnam reunified as a unitary socialist state under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in 1976. An ineffective planned economy, a trade embargo by the West, and wars with Cambodia and China crippled the country further. A unitary one-party socialist republic, in 1986, the CPV decided to initiate economic and political reforms similar to the Chinese economic reform a few years prior, transforming the country to a market-oriented economy. The reforms facilitated Vietnamese reintegration into global economy and politics.
developing country with a lower-middle-income economy, Vietnam after a turbulent 20th century is nevertheless one of the fastest growing economies of the 21st century, and its total GDP is predicted to possibly rival those of several developed nations by 2050 under current trajectories. Contemporary issues in Vietnam include high levels of corruption, censorship and a poor human rights record; the country ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, freedom of the press and freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. It is part of international and intergovernmental institutions including the ASEAN, the APEC, the CPTPP, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OIF, and the WTO. It has assumed a seat on the United Nations Security Council twice. ( )
Selected article -
Viet Minh troops plant their flag over the captured French headquarters at Dien Bien Phu (
( Battle of Dien Bien Phu French: Bataille de Diên Biên Phu pronounced ; [bataj də djɛ̃ bjɛ̃ fy] Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ, IPA: ) was a climactic confrontation of the [t͡ɕjěn zîk̚ ɗîənˀ ɓīən fû] First Indochina War that took place between 13 March and 7 May 1954. It was fought between the French Union's colonial Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist revolutionaries. The United States was officially not a party to the war, but it was secretly involved by providing financial and material aid to the French Union, which included CIA contracted American personnel participating in the battle. The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union similarly provided vital support to the Viet Minh, including most of their artillery and ammunition.
The French began an operation to insert, then support, their soldiers at
Điện Biên Phủ
, deep in the autonomous
up in the hills northwest of
. The operation's purpose was to cut off Viet Minh supply lines into the neighboring
Kingdom of Laos
(a French ally), and draw the Viet Minh into a major confrontation in order to cripple them. The plan was to resupply the French position by air, a strategy adopted based on the belief that the Viet Minh had no
. The Viet Minh, however, under General
Võ Nguyên Giáp
, surrounded and
the French. They brought in vast amounts of heavy artillery (including
) and managed to move these bulky weapons through difficult terrain up the rear slopes of the mountains. They then dug tunnels through the mountains and arranged the guns to target the French position. (
, just before it merges with Da Nang Bay
Cu Đê River
Hanging fishing nets in the
Hồ Chí Minh attended French Communist Congress in Marseilles in 1921 under the name Nguyễn Ái Quốc.
, after a rain
The sunset over
Trần Nhân Tông who has now become a monk and returned to Hanoi from his hermitage in Vũ Lâm.
The painting depicts the retired emperor
Wooden doors in the Imperial palace in
Did you know -
General images -
The following are images from various Vietnam-related articles on Wikipedia.
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