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Mathematics is the study of representing and reasoning about abstract objects (such as numbers, points, spaces, sets, structures, and games). Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered. (Full article...)

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proof without words that the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is the square of the sum of the first n natural numbers
proof without words that the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is the square of the sum of the first n natural numbers
Nicomachus's theorem states that the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is the square of the sum of the first n natural numbers. This result is generalized by Faulhaber's formula, which gives the sum of pth powers of the first n natural numbers. The special case of Nicomachus's theorem can be proved by mathematical induction, but a more direct proof can be given which is illustrated by a proof without words, pictured here.

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The region between two loxodromes on a geometric sphere.
Image credit: Karthik Narayanaswami

The Riemann sphere is a way of extending the plane of complex numbers with one additional point at infinity, in a way that makes expressions such as

well-behaved and useful, at least in certain contexts. It is named after 19th century mathematician Bernhard Riemann. It is also called the complex projective line, denoted CP1.

On a purely algebraic level, the complex numbers with an extra infinity element constitute a number system known as the extended complex numbers. Arithmetic with infinity does not obey all of the usual rules of algebra, and so the extended complex numbers do not form a field. However, the Riemann sphere is geometrically and analytically well-behaved, even near infinity; it is a one-dimensional complex manifold, also called a Riemann surface.

In complex analysis, the Riemann sphere facilitates an elegant theory of meromorphic functions. The Riemann sphere is ubiquitous in projective geometry and algebraic geometry as a fundamental example of a complex manifold, projective space, and algebraic variety. It also finds utility in other disciplines that depend on analysis and geometry, such as quantum mechanics and other branches of physics. (Full article...)

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General Foundations Number theory Discrete mathematics


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