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Extra dimensions

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In physics, extra dimensions are proposed additional space or time dimensions beyond the (3 + 1) typical of observed space-time, such as the first attempts based on the Kaluza–Klein theory. Among theories proposing extra dimension are:[1]


  1. ^ Rizzo, Thomas G. (2004). "Pedagogical Introduction to Extra Dimensions". SLAC Summer Institute. Retrieved 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ For a pedagogical introduction, see M. Shifman (2009). Large Extra Dimensions: Becoming acquainted with an alternative paradigm. Crossing the boundaries: Gauge dynamics at strong coupling. Singapore: World Scientific. arXiv:0907.3074 . 
  3. ^ Randall, Lisa; Sundrum, Raman (1999). "Large Mass Hierarchy from a Small Extra Dimension". Physical Review Letters. 83 (17): 3370–3373. arXiv:hep-ph/9905221 . Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.3370R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3370.