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Introduction

Physical map of Earth with political borders as of 2016
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be.

Geography is often defined in terms of the two branches of human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

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Dawson Creek
Dawson Creek is a small city in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. It covers an area of 20.66 square kilometres (7.98 sq mi)* in the dry and windy prairie land of the Peace River Country. The city is in the British Columbia Peace Lowland ecosection of the Canadian Boreal Plains ecozone on the continental Interior Platform. Located in the Cordillera Climatic Region, it lies at the southern end of a subarctic climate. The 1941 census, the first to include Dawson Creek as a defined subdivision, counted 518 residents. In 2011 the city had a population of 11,583. Growth slowed in the 1960s, with the population reaching its all-time high in 1966, although since 1992 the city has grown and undergone several boundary expansions. Dubbed "The Capital of the Peace", it is a service centre for the rural areas south of the Peace River and the seat of the Peace River Regional District. Once a small farming community, Dawson Creek became a regional centre when the western terminus of the Northern Alberta Railways was extended there in 1932. The community grew rapidly in 1942 as the US Army used the rail terminus as a transshipment point during construction of the Alaska Highway. In the 1950s the city was connected to the interior of British Columbia via a highway and railway through the Rocky Mountains.

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Mount Hood
Credit: Oregon's Mt. Hood Territory

Mount Hood, a dormant stratovolcano, reflected in the waters of Mirror Lake, Oregon, United States. At 11,249 feet (3,429 metres), Mount Hood is the highest mountain in Oregon and the fourth-highest in the Cascade Range. It is considered an active volcano, but no major eruptive events have been catalogued since systematic record keeping began in the 1820s.

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Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, 1902 edition, Part Two (1902)

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