Countries of the United Kingdom

Since 1922, the United Kingdom has been made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales (which collectively make up Great Britain) and Northern Ireland (variously described as a country,[1] province,[2][3][4] jurisdiction[5] or region[6][7]). The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom.[8]

Countries of the United Kingdom
CategoryAdministrative division
Location United Kingdom
Found inLegal jurisdictions
Northern Ireland
Possible status
Additional status

Although the United Kingdom is a unitary sovereign country, it contains three distinct legal jurisdictions in Scotland, England and Wales, and Northern Ireland, each retaining its own legal system even after joining the UK.[9] Since 1998, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales have also gained significant autonomy through the process of devolution. The Parliament of the United Kingdom and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament, and the Welsh Senedd. Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland (see North/South Ministerial Council) and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland (see British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference). England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom,[10][11] does not have its own devolved government, and remains fully the responsibility of the United Kingdom Parliament centralised in London.

England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) list of countries. However, the ISO list of the subdivisions of the United Kingdom, compiled by British Standards and the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics, uses "country" to describe England, Scotland, and Wales.[12] Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a "province" in the same lists.[12] Each has separate national governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions, including the Commonwealth Games. Northern Ireland also forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for some sports, including rugby union.[13]

The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. Similarly, the British Overseas Territories, remnants of the British Empire, are not part of the UK.

From 1801, following the Acts of Union, until 1922 the whole island of Ireland was a country within the UK. Ireland was split into two separate jurisdictions in 1921, becoming Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. Pursuant to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the institutions of the revolutionary Irish Republic were assimilated into Southern Ireland, which then became the Irish Free State and left the United Kingdom in 1922. The Irish Free State adopted a new, essentially republican constitution in 1937 – albeit retaining the King for diplomatic functions – by which it would be known as simply Ireland. In 1949, by The Republic of Ireland Act 1948, it transferred these diplomatic functions to its own president, left the Commonwealth of Nations and adopted the description Republic of Ireland, by which it is now known.

Key facts

Overview of countries of the United Kingdom
Nation Flag Capital Legislature Executive Legal system Jurisdiction
England   London None[a] None[b] English law England and Wales
Scotland   Edinburgh Scottish Parliament Scottish Government Scots law Scotland
Wales   Cardiff Senedd Welsh Government English law,
Welsh law
England and Wales
Northern Ireland None[c] Belfast Northern Ireland Assembly Northern Ireland Executive[d] Northern Ireland law,
Irish land law
Northern Ireland
United Kingdom   London UK Parliament UK Government UK law United Kingdom
2021 population statistics of the countries of the United Kingdom[16][17]
Nation Population Land area Density
Gross value added
People (%) (km2) (%) £ (billion) (%) £ per capita
England 56,536,000 84.3% 130,310 53.7% 434 1,760 86.3% 31,138
Scotland 5,480,000 8.2% 77,901 32.1% 70 150 7.3% 27,361
Wales 3,105,000 4.6% 20,737 8.5% 150 70 3.4% 22,380
Northern Ireland 1,905,000 2.8% 13,793 5.7% 141 46 2.2% 24,007
Extra-regio[e] 15 0.7%
United Kingdom 67,026,000 100% 242,741 100% 276 2,040 100% 30,443



Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Acts of Parliament

  • The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 annexed Wales to England[18] to create the single legal entity, though legal differences remained. Further Acts meant this combined territory was referred to in law simply as 'England' from 1746 until 1967. Wales was described (in varying combinations) as the "country", "principality", and "dominion" of Wales.[18][19] The Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed.[20][21]
  • The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "part" of a united kingdom of Great Britain[22]
  • The Acts of Union 1800 use "part" in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. However, they use the word "country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland respectively, when describing trade between them[23]
  • The Government of Ireland Act 1920 described Great Britain, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland as "countries" in provisions relating to taxation.
  • The Northern Ireland Act 1998, which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, does not use any term to describe Northern Ireland.

The Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms "England", "Wales" and the "United Kingdom", but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines "Scotland" or "Northern Ireland". Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act. The definitions in the 1978 Act are listed below:

  • "England" means, "subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972, the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly." This definition applies from 1 April 1974.
  • "United Kingdom" means "Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927.
  • "Wales" means the combined area of the 8 Preserved counties of Wales as outlined section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as originally enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act (consequential alteration of boundary following alteration of watercourse). In 1996 these eight new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities.

For Welsh law, "Wales" and "Cymru" are defined in the Legislation (Wales) Act 2019 as "(a)the combined area of the counties and county boroughs in Wales (see Parts 1 and 2 of Schedule 4 to the Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70)), together with (b)the sea adjacent to Wales within the seaward limits of the territorial sea."

In the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of Scotland, with the definition in section 126 simply providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland".[24]

The Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 refers to England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as "parts" of the United Kingdom in the following clause: "Each constituency shall be wholly in one of the four parts of the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland)."

Other official usage


The Royal Fine Art Commission's 1847 report on decorating the Palace of Westminster referred to "the nationality of the component parts of the United Kingdom" being represented by their four respective patron saints.[25]

European Union


For the purposes of NUTS 1 collection of statistical data in a format that is compatible with similar data collected in the European Union (on behalf of Eurostat), the United Kingdom was divided into twelve regions of approximately equal size.[26] Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were regions in their own right while England was divided into nine regions. Following Brexit, the Office for National Statistics uses International Territorial Level, which is currently a mirror of the NUTS 1 system until the 2024 review.[27]



The official term rest of the UK (RUK or rUK) is used in Scotland, for example in export statistics[28] and in legislating for student funding.[29]

The alternative term Home Nations is sometimes used in sporting contexts and may include all of the island of Ireland.

Identity and nationality


According to the British Social Attitudes Survey, there are broadly two interpretations of British identity, with ethnic and civic dimensions:

The first group, which we term the ethnic dimension, contained the items about birthplace, ancestry, living in Britain, and sharing British customs and traditions. The second, or civic group, contained the items about feeling British, respecting laws and institutions, speaking English, and having British citizenship.[30]

Of the two perspectives of British identity, the civic definition has become the dominant idea and in this capacity, Britishness is sometimes considered an institutional or overarching state identity.[31][32] This has been used to explain why first-, second- and third-generation immigrants are more likely to describe themselves as British, rather than English, Northern Irish, Scottish or Welsh, because it is an "institutional, inclusive" identity, that can be acquired through naturalisation and British nationality law; the vast majority of people in the United Kingdom who are from an ethnic minority feel British.[33] However, this attitude is more common in England than in Scotland or Wales; "white English people perceived themselves as English first and as British second, and most people from ethnic minority backgrounds perceived themselves as British, but none identified as English, a label they associated exclusively with white people".[34] Contrariwise, in Scotland and Wales "there was a much stronger identification with each country than with Britain."[35]

Studies and surveys have reported that the majority of the Scots and Welsh see themselves as both Scottish/Welsh and British though with some differences in emphasis. The Commission for Racial Equality found that with respect to notions of nationality in Britain, "the most basic, objective and uncontroversial conception of the British people is one that includes the English, the Scots and the Welsh".[36] However, "English participants tended to think of themselves as indistinguishably English or British, while both Scottish and Welsh participants identified themselves much more readily as Scottish or Welsh than as British".[36] Some people opted "to combine both identities" as "they felt Scottish or Welsh, but held a British passport and were therefore British", whereas others saw themselves as exclusively Scottish or exclusively Welsh and "felt quite divorced from the British, whom they saw as the English".[36] Commentators have described this latter phenomenon as "nationalism", a rejection of British identity because some Scots and Welsh interpret it as "cultural imperialism imposed" upon the United Kingdom by "English ruling elites",[37] or else a response to a historical misappropriation of equating the word "English" with "British",[38] which has "brought about a desire among Scots, Welsh and Irish to learn more about their heritage and distinguish themselves from the broader British identity".[39] The propensity for nationalistic feeling varies greatly across the UK, and can rise and fall over time.[40]

The 2011 census which asked about national identity found that responders in Great Britain predominantly chose English, Welsh and Scottish rather than British.[41][42] Other research suggests that most people in England, Wales and Scotland tend to see themselves as British but that in Wales and Scotland in particular Scottish and Welshness tends to receive more emphasis. A poll of 1039 Scottish adults conducted by YouGov in August 2016[43] found that 28% of responders saw themselves as Scottish not British, 28% as more Scottish than British, 29% as Scottish and British whilst 10% described being British as their dominate identity (either more British than Scottish or British not Scottish).[44] A similar poll conducted in Wales during spring 2019 found that 21% saw themselves as Welsh not British, 27% as more Welsh than British, 44% as equally Welsh and British whilst 7% saw themselves as either more or exclusively British.[45] A 2018 survey of 20,000 adults in England found that 80% identified strongly as English and 82% identified strongly as British with the two identities appearing to be closely intertwined.[46]

The state-funded Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey,[47] part of a joint project between the University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast, has addressed the issue of identity since it started polling in 1998. It reported that 37% of people identified as British, whilst 29% identified as Irish and 24% identified as Northern Irish. 3% opted to identify themselves as Ulster, whereas 7% stated 'other'. Of the two main religious groups, 68% of Protestants identified as British as did 6% of Catholics; 60% of Catholics identified as Irish as did 3% of Protestants. 21% of Protestants and 26% of Catholics identified as Northern Irish.[48]

For Northern Ireland, however, the results of the Life & Times Survey are not the whole story. The poll asks for a single preference, whereas many people easily identify as any combination of British and Irish, or British, Northern Irish and Irish, or Irish and Northern Irish. The 2014 Life & Times Survey addressed this to an extent by choosing two of the options from the identity question: British and Irish. It found that, while 28% of respondents stated they felt "British not Irish" and 26% felt "Irish not British", 39% of respondents felt some combination of both identities. Six percent chose 'other description'.[49][failed verification]

The identity question is confounded further by identity with politics and religion, and particularly by a stance on the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Again in 2014, the Life & Times Survey asked what respondents felt should be the "long term future for Northern Ireland". 66% of respondents felt the future should be as a part of the UK, with or without devolved government. 17% felt that Northern Ireland should unify with the Republic of Ireland. 50% of specifically Roman Catholics considered that the long-term future should be as part of the UK, with 32% opting for separation. 87% of respondents identifying as any Protestant denomination opted for remaining part of the UK, with only 4% opting for separation. Of those respondents who declared no religion, 62% opted for remaining part of the UK, with 9% opting for separation.[49]

Following devolution and the significant broadening of autonomous governance throughout the UK in the late 1990s, debate has taken place across the United Kingdom on the relative value of full independence,[50] an option that was rejected[51] by the Scottish people in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum.

Cornwall is administered as a county of England, but the Cornish people are a recognised national minority, included under the terms of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014.[52][53] Within Cornwall, 13.8 per cent of the population associated themselves with a Cornish identity, either on its own or combined with other identities, according to the 2011 census. This data, however, was recorded without an available tick box for Cornish, as a result the percentage of the population within Cornwall associating with Cornish identity is likely higher.[54]



Each of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales has separate national governing bodies for sports and competes separately in many international sporting competitions.[55][56][57][58] Each country of the United Kingdom has a national football team, and competes as a separate national team in the various disciplines in the Commonwealth Games.[59] At the Olympic Games, the United Kingdom is represented by the Great Britain and Northern Ireland team, although athletes from Northern Ireland can choose to join the Republic of Ireland's Olympic team.[59][60] In addition to Northern Ireland having its own national governing bodies for some sports such as association football and netball, for others, such as rugby union and cricket, Northern Ireland participates with the Republic of Ireland in a joint All-Ireland team. England and Wales field a joint cricket team.

The United Kingdom participates in the Eurovision Song Contest as a single entity, though there have been calls for separate Scottish and Welsh entrants. In 2017, Wales participated alone in the spin-off Eurovision Choir, followed by a separate entry for Scotland in 2019. [61]

See also



  1. ^ The UK Parliament makes legislation for England.
  2. ^ The UK Government exercises executive power in England
  3. ^ The former flag of Northern Ireland, the Ulster Banner, is still used in some sport-related contexts. The Irish Tricolour, the flag of the Republic of Ireland, has occasionally been mistakenly used in Great Britain to represent Northern Ireland.[14][15]
  4. ^ Due to the NI power-sharing arrangement, executive power is sometimes conferred in the Secretary of State when the Assembly is suspended.
  5. ^ Extra-regio comprises activity that cannot be assigned to regions




  1. ^ "A Beginners Guide to UK Geography (2023)". Open Geography Portal. Office for National Statistics. 24 August 2023. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  2. ^ "Standard: ISO 3166 — Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions". ISO. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  3. ^ "What is direct rule for Northern Ireland?". BBC News. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  4. ^ "Northern Ireland travel guide: all you need to know". Times Travel. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  5. ^ S. Dunn; H. Dawson (2000), An Alphabetical Listing of Word, Name and Place in Northern Ireland and the Living Language of Conflict, Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, One specific problem – in both general and particular senses – is to know what to call Northern Ireland itself: in the general sense, it is not a country, or a province, or a state – although some refer to it contemptuously as a statelet: the least controversial word appears to be jurisdiction, but this might change.
  6. ^ J. Whyte; G. FitzGerald (1991), Interpreting Northern Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press, One problem must be adverted to in writing about Northern Ireland. This is the question of what name to give to the various geographical entities. These names can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences. ... some refer to Northern Ireland as a 'province'. That usage can arouse irritation particularly among nationalists, who claim the title 'province' should be properly reserved to the four historical provinces of Ireland-Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connacht. If I want to a label to apply to Northern Ireland I shall call it a 'region'. Unionists should find that title as acceptable as 'province': Northern Ireland appears as a region in the regional statistics of the United Kingdom published by the British government.
  7. ^ D. Murphy (1979), A Place Apart, London: Penguin Books, Next – what noun is appropriate to Northern Ireland? 'Province' won't do since one-third of the province is on the wrong side of the border. 'State' implies more self-determination than Northern Ireland has ever had and 'country' or 'nation' are blatantly absurd. 'Colony' has overtones that would be resented by both communities and statelet sounds too patronizing, though outsiders might consider it more precise than anything else; so one is left with the unsatisfactory word 'region'.
  8. ^ "Countries within a country,". 10 January 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  9. ^ Dewart, Megan (2019). The Scottish Legal System. UK: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 57. ISBN 9781526506337. The laws and legal institutions of Scotland and of England and Wales were not merged by the Union of 1707. Thus, they remain separate 'law areas', with separate court systems (as does Northern Ireland), and it is necessary to distinguish Scots law and English law (and Northern Irish law).; "The justice system and the constitution". Courts and Tribunals Judiciary. Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 13 June 2023. The United Kingdom has three separate legal systems; one each for England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This reflects its historical origins and the fact that both Scotland and Ireland, and later Northern Ireland, retained their own legal systems and traditions under the Acts of Union 1707 and 1800.
  10. ^ 2011 Census – Population. According to the 2011 census, the population of England was 53,012,456, and the population of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775, therefore England comprises 84% of the UK population.
  11. ^ Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. According to the ONS, England has an area of 130,279 km², and the UK has an area of 242,509 km², therefore England comprises 54% of the area of the UK.
  12. ^ a b "ISO Newsletter ii-3-2011-12-13" (PDF). Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Sport Northern Ireland | Performance | Governing Bodies of Sport". 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  14. ^ "Foster attacks BBC for using Irish flag to represent North". 4 September 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  15. ^ Mulgrew, Seoirse (5 June 2022). "Platinum Jubilee mishap as Irish tricolour flag shown to represent parts of the United Kingdom". Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  16. ^ Park, Neil (21 December 2022). "Population estimates for the UK, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2021". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  17. ^ Fenton, Trevor (25 April 2023). "Regional gross value added (balanced) per head and income components". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  18. ^ a b Laws in Wales Act 1535, Clause I
  19. ^ Laws in Wales Act 1542
  20. ^ "Laws in Wales Act 1535 (repealed 21.12.1993)". Archived from the original on 2 January 2008.
  21. ^ "Laws in Wales Act 1542 (repealed)". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  22. ^ e. g. "... to be raised in that Part of the united Kingdom now called England", "...that Part of the united Kingdom now called Scotland, shall be charged by the same Act..." Article IX
  23. ^ e. g. "That, from the first Day of January one thousand eight hundred and one, all Prohibitions and Bounties on the Export of Articles, the Growth, Produce, or Manufacture of either Country, to the other, shall cease and determine; and that the said Articles shall thenceforth be exported from one Country to the other, without Duty or Bounty on such Export"; Union with Ireland Act 1800, Article Sixth.
  24. ^ Scotland Act 1998 Interpretation of Scottish Act 1998, Nov 1998
  25. ^ "About Parliament > Art in Parliament > Online Exhibitions > The Palace of Westminster > National Patron Saints > St David and Wales". Official website. UK Parliament. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS)". The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  27. ^ "International, regional and city statistics - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  28. ^ "RUK exports". Scottish Government. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  29. ^ "Response to Scottish Government proposals for RUK fees" (PDF). Edinburgh University Students' Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  30. ^ Park 2005, p. 153.
  31. ^ Langlands, Rebecca (1999). "Britishness or Englishness? The Historical Problem of National Identity in Britain". Nations and Nationalism. 5: 53–69. doi:10.1111/j.1354-5078.1999.00053.x.
  32. ^ Bradley, Ian C. (2007). Believing in Britain: The Spiritual Identity of 'Britishness'. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-326-1.
  33. ^ Frith, Maxine (8 January 2004). "Ethnic minorities feel strong sense of identity with Britain, report reveals". The Independent. London: Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  34. ^ "White and English, but not white-English: how to deal with the discriminatory Census for England and Wales". Britology Watch: Deconstructing \'British Values\'. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  35. ^ Commission for Racial Equality 2005, p. 35
  36. ^ a b c Commission for Racial Equality 2005, p. 22
  37. ^ Ward 2004, pp. 2–3.
  38. ^ Kumar, Krishan (2003). "The Making of English National Identity" (PDF). assets. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  39. ^ "The English: Europe's lost tribe". BBC News. 14 January 1999. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  40. ^ "Devolution, Public Attitudes and National Identity" (PDF). www. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. "The rise of the Little Englanders". London: The Guardian, John Carvel, social affairs editor. 28 November 2000. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  41. ^ "2011 Census - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  42. ^ "National identity | Scotland's Census". 3 August 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  43. ^ Smith, Matthew (7 September 2016). "What makes a person Scottish, according to Scots". YouGov. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  44. ^ Smith, Matthew (7 December 2021). "What makes a person Scottish, according to Scots". YouGov. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  45. ^ Evans, Felicity (7 March 2019). "The Changing Face of Wales: How Welsh do you feel?". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  46. ^ Easton, Mark (3 June 2018). "The English question: What is the nation's identity?". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  47. ^ "Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey home page". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  48. ^ "Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 2014, national identity module". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  49. ^ a b "Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 2014, Political Attitudes module". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  50. ^ "Devolution and Britishness". Devolution and Constitutional Change. UK's Economic and Social Research Council. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009.
  51. ^ "Scotland Rejects Independence in Record-Breaking Referendum – NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Cornish people formally declared a national minority along with Scots, Welsh and Irish". The Independent. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  53. ^ "Cornish granted minority status within the UK". 24 April 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  54. ^ "Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  55. ^ "Sport England". Sport England website. Sport England. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  56. ^ "Sport Northern Ireland". Sport Northern Ireland website. Sport Northern Ireland. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  57. ^ "Sportscotland". Sportscotland website. Sportscotland. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  58. ^ "Sport Wales". Sport Wales website. Sport Wales. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  59. ^ a b World and Its Peoples, Terrytown (NY): Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2010, p. 111, In most sports, except soccer, Northern Ireland participates with the Republic of Ireland in a combined All-Ireland team.
  60. ^ "Irish and GB in Olympic Row". BBC Sport. 27 January 2004. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  61. ^ "Scotland: BBC Alba to Decide on Eurovision Choir 2023 Participation By End of January". Eurovoix News. Retrieved 10 December 2023.



Further reading

  • Gallagher, Michael (2006). The United Kingdom Today. London, England: Franklin Watts. ISBN 978-0-7496-6488-6.