Welsh independence

Welsh independence (Welsh: Annibyniaeth i Gymru) is the political movement advocating for Wales to become a sovereign state, independent from the United Kingdom.

March for Welsh independence held in Cardiff, May 2019

Wales was conquered during the 13th century by Edward I of England following the killing of Llywelyn the Last (Prince of Wales). Edward introduced the royal ordinance, the Statute of Rhuddlan, in 1284, introducing English common law alongside Welsh law and custom and causing the recently established Welsh principality to be incorporated into the Kingdom of England.[1] Owain Glyndŵr restored Welsh independence c. 1400–10, but Henry IV of England put down the revolt.

Henry VIII of England introduced the Laws in Wales Acts between 1535 and 1542, English law replaced Cyfraith Hywel (Welsh medieval law), and the Welsh principality and Marches were integrated into England.[2] and Wales gained representation in parliament and a new equality under the law.[3] The Wales and Berwick Act defined "England" to include Wales in 1746, but the Welsh Language Act 1967, partly repealed this with the term "England and Wales".[4]

The modern Welsh independence movement emerged during the mid-19th century, as did a movement for "home rule". Since 1999, Wales has been granted some legislative power as part of Welsh devolution from the UK parliament, and contemporary Welsh law within the English legal system. At present, the political parties Plaid Cymru,[5] Propel, Gwlad, and the Wales Green Party support Welsh independence, as does the non-partisan YesCymru campaign group.[6] Support for independence has increased from 14% in 2014 to its highest support of 46% in April 2021 when excluding don't knows.[7][8] A YouGov poll in January 2021 found that 47% of people in Wales opposed holding a referendum on Welsh independence within the next five years with 31% supporting,[9] and in March 2023, support for independence dropped to its lowest level since 2019 at 18%, the drop was potentially attributed to the prospect of a Labour UK Government.[10]

Location of Wales in the United Kingdom.


Conquest of WalesEdit

The only King to unite Wales was Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who ruled as King of Wales from about 1057 until his death in 1063.[11][12] Fourteen years later the Norman invasion of Wales began, which briefly controlled much of Wales, but by 1100 Anglo-Norman control was reduced to the lowland Gwent, Glamorgan, Gower, and Pembroke, while the contested border region between the Welsh princes and Anglo-Norman barons became known as the Welsh Marches.[13] The remaining territory was divided between native Welsh principalities. The leading principality was Gwynedd, and, with other Welsh princes becoming their vassals, princes of Gwynedd took the title Prince of Wales. Although English monarchs had made several attempts to seize control of the native Welsh territories, it was not until Edward's war of conquest against Llywelyn, the last native prince of Wales, that this was achieved with the death of Llywelyn in 1282.[14][15]

A significant revolt against English rule was the Glyndŵr Rising of 1400–1415, which briefly restored Welsh independence. Owain Glyndŵr held the first Welsh parliament (Senedd) in Machynlleth in 1404 where he was proclaimed Prince of Wales and a second parliament in 1405 in Harlech.[16] During the same period, the Penal Laws against the Welsh people was implemented, restraining Welsh rights which were reaffirmed during the 15th century and were not removed form the statue books until the 17th century.[17]

During the reign of the King of England Henry VIII, two statutes were passed that are often referred to as the "Acts of Union". The laws incorporated Wales (both the principality and the march) into the King's empire and imposed English law in Wales. Wales was geographically and legally defined, and the laws allowed the Welsh equal status and representation in the English parliament. Nevertheless, the Welsh did not not share in legal or political sovereignty and English was insisted as the official language of government, administration and law, which proved to be unpopular.[18]

The Act of Uniformity 1549 made English the language of the reformed church and no provision were made for a Welsh prayer book.[18]

Home rule movement (1881–present)Edit

Independence of churchEdit

The march for home rule in Wales began with the movement for disestablishing the Anglican church in Wales, and the first step towards this was the Sunday Closing (Wales) Act 1881 was the first legislation to acknowledge that Wales had a separate politico-legal character from the rest of the English state.[19] The majority of people in Wales belonged to noncomformists chapels despite members of the Church of England having legal and social privileges. This led to a view that things could be done differently in Wales[20]

David Lloyd George, MP for Caernarfon at the time, was committed to the cause of disestablishment,[21] but it wasn't until 1914 that the Welsh Church Act was passed giving the Church in Wales the freedom to govern its own affairs. The Act came into effect from 1920.[22]

Cymru FyddEdit

In response to the Irish demand for "home rule", Liberal prime minister of the UK, William Gladstone proposed two bills on home rule for Ireland in 1886 and 1893, which both failed.[23] In the same year, the Cymru Fydd (Young Wales) movement was founded to further the cause.[19] The main leaders were David Lloyd George, J. E. Lloyd, O. M. Edwards, T. E. Ellis (leader, MP for Merioneth, 1886–1899) and Beriah Gwynfe Evans.[24] Their goal was a devolved assembly, but the movement was disbanded in 1896 amid personal rivalries.[19][25]

Home Rule All RoundEdit

After the end of the first world war, there was widespread belief that "home rule all round" was an essential part of reformations and discussions of self-government for small nations were considered an essential part of any peace conference. Home rule for Ireland had been enacted via the Government of Ireland Act 1914 but faced opposition from Ulster unionists and the 1916 Easter Rising proving significant. The UK government considered home rule for Wales and Scotland to avoid making a special case for Ireland. In may 1918, a home rule conference for Wales was held in Llandrindod mostly attended by Liberals and a month later," home rule all round" was in the Labour manifesto. A stance on federalising the UK was agreed by the South Wales Labour Federation and Arthur Henderson believed that a home ruled Wales could be a "modern utopia". Support was widespread in Wales and some Welsh media felt it was imminent.[26]

Liberal Joseph Chamberlain also proposed "Home Rule All Round" for all nations of the United Kingdom, but after the formation of the Irish free state in 1922, "home rule all round" lost support.[27]

Plaid CymruEdit

In 1925 Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru ("the National Party of Wales") was founded; it was renamed Plaid Cymru – The Party of Wales in 1945. The party's principles as defined in 1970 were (1) self government for Wales, (2) to safeguard the culture, traditions, language and economic position of Wales and (3) to secure membership for a self-governing Welsh state in the United Nations.[28] The party's first Westminster seat (MP) was won by Gwynfor Evans in 1966.[29][30] By 1974 the party had won three MP seats[28] and in the 2019 general election it won four seats.[31] Following the formation of the Senedd in 1999, Plaid Cymru won 17 of 60 seats in the initial Welsh election of 1999 and 13 seats in 2021.[32]

In 1975, Plaid Cymru opposed remaining in the European Communities (EC). The party stated, at the time, that it felt that the EC's regional aid policies would "reconcile places like Wales to their subordinate position".[33][34] Nevertheless, 65% of Welsh voters voted to remain in the EC in the 1975 referendum.[35] The EC were incorporated into the European Union (EU) in 1993.[36]

A Parliament for WalesEdit

In the 1950s, the deterioration of the British Empire removed a sense of Britishness and there was a realisation that Wales was not as prosperous as south-east England and smaller European countries. Successive Conservative Party victories in Westminster led to suggestions that only through self-government could Wales achieve a government reflecting the votes of a Welsh electorate. The Tryweryn flooding which was voted against by almost every single Welsh MP, suggested that Wales as a nation was powerless.[37] The Epynt clearance in 1940 has also been described as a "significant – but often overlooked – chapter in the history of Wales".[38]

On 1 July 1955, a conference of all parties was called at Llandrindod by the New Wales Union (Undeb Cymru Fydd) to consider a national petition for a Parliament for Wales. The main leaders were Megan Lloyd George, the daughter of David Lloyd George, T. I. Ellis, and Sir Ifan ab Owen Edwards. According to the historian Dr William Richard Philip George, "Megan was responsible for removing much prejudice against the idea of a parliament for Wales". She later presented the petition with 250,000 signatures to the British government in April 1956.[39]

A Plaid Cymru rally in Machynlleth in 1949 where the "Parliament for Wales in 5 years" campaign was started

The declaration of Cardiff as the capital of Wales in 1955,[40][41] the Labour Party's 1959 commitment to appoint a Secretary of State for Wales, the creation of the Welsh Office in 1965,[42] and the repeal of the Wales and Berwick Act 1746 two years later seemed to demonstrate a growing nationalist impetus.[19] However, the heavy defeat for a proposed Welsh Assembly offered by Labour in the 1979 devolution referendum "suggested that the vast majority of the inhabitants of Wales had no desire to see their country having a national future".[19]

In the early 1990s, Labour became committed to devolution for both Scotland and Wales, and in 1997 it was elected with a mandate to hold referendums on a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly. The proposed assembly won a narrow majority in the 1997 referendum.[43]

The National Assembly for Wales was formed in 1999, which was renamed Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament in 2020.[44] Since the referendum on Welsh devolution in 1997 and formation of the Senedd (then National Assembly for Wales) in 1999, there has been increased support for and trust in the Senedd, with support for it to receive more devolved powers.[45] Further powers have been granted to the Senedd by the Government of Wales Act 2006, the Wales Act 2014, and the Wales Act 2017.[46]

Independence movementEdit

The independence movement has been present in Wales since the mid-19th century and Plaid Cymru has also campaigned for it throughout the majority of the 20th century, since it was founded in 1925.[47] In the 21st century, the question of Welsh independence became more prominent following increased discussion on a second Scottish independence referendum.[48]

YesCymru logo


Non-partisan pro-independence group, YesCymru was founded in 2014 and open to the public for membership in 2016. In 2020, the group claimed that they had had a sudden rise in membership with 17,000 members by the end of 2020, partly influenced by the British government response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[49]

Referendum proposalsEdit

In 2017, there were plans to hold a second referendum on Scottish independence, Plaid Cymru leader Leanne Wood said there needed to be a national debate on Welsh independence.[50] In July 2020, Plaid brought forward a motion to discuss a referendum on Welsh independence, but it was rejected by 43 votes to 9.[51] On 24 October 2020, Wales Green Party members voted at their party conference that the party would support Welsh independence in the event of a referendum being held on whether or not Wales should become independent from the United Kingdom.[52] In July 2020, Plaid Cymru tabled a motion for Welsh ministers to seek permission from Westminster for the right of the Senedd to legislate for a Welsh independence referendum. The members of Senedd rejected this motion by 43 votes to 9.[53] This was the first time in history that Welsh independence was debated in the Senedd.[54][55]

On 11 December 2020, Plaid Cymru leader Adam Price stated that if his party won a majority at the 2021 Senedd election, an independence referendum would be held in its first term in office.[56] At Plaid's special conference on independence, held on 13 February 2021, party members formally approved Price's pledge to hold a referendum in or before 2026.[57] In addition to Plaid, three other parties—the Wales Green Party, Gwlad and Propel—stood on a pro-independence platform at the Senedd election.[58] In the 2021 Senedd Election, of 60 seats, Plaid Cymru won 5 Constituency and 8 regional. Gwlad and Propel both won 0.[59]

In June 2022, the UK government announced its intention to repeal the Welsh Government's 2017 Trade Union Act, which bans agency staff from being used if public sector workers go on strike.[60] Price called this a "power grab" and "potentially devolution's breaking point", and called for a referendum to be held in order to protect the Senedd's powers. In response, First Minister Mark Drakeford stated that in order for a referendum to be held, a pro-referendum party would have to win the most seats in an election.[61]

Labour for an Independent WalesEdit

Labour for an Independent Wales, which is a group of Labour Party members[62] who "believe the best way to achieve a democratic socialist Wales is through independence", was formed in 2018.[63][64] Welsh Labour member, Harriet Protheroe-Soltani has suggested that in order for the Welsh independence movement to create a supermajority and a cross-party movement, then the support of Welsh Labour members is required.[65] In August 2020, a YouGov poll showed that 39% of Welsh Labour voters would vote for independence "if there was a referendum tomorrow". The Welsh Governance Centre also showed that in the last Senedd election over 40% of Labour voters supported independence.[65]

All Under One Banner Cymru and independence marchesEdit

On 11 May 2019, the first ever march in history for Welsh independence was organised by All Under One Banner Cymru (AUOB Cymru) in Cardiff, with an estimated 3,000 in attendance.[66][67][68] On 27 July 2019, AUOB organised an independence march in Caernarfon. An estimate put the attendance at about 8,000.[69] On 7 September 2019, a third AUOB Cymru was held in Merthyr Tydfil and attracted a crowd of 5,200.[70]

A pro-independence march organised by AUOBCymru, Indy Fest Wrexham and YesCymru[71] took place in Wrexham on 2 July 2022,[72] the first such march since before the pandemic. According to organisers, 6,000–8,000 were in attendance.[73] A further march was held in Cardiff on 1 October 2022,[74] with around 8,000 campaigners taking part.[75]

The first march of 2023 was held in Swansea on 20 May.[76] Between 6,000 and 7,000 supporters attended.[77]

Influence of Brexit and Scottish independenceEdit

In January 2021, Guto Harri, who was Boris Johnson's communications chief when the latter was Mayor of London, wrote in The Sunday Times that "the idea of independence is taking off, with new recruits from very different backgrounds." He went on to say, "Brexiteers will hate me for saying this, but it is clear that some have contributed more to the cause of Welsh independence than my late father. The prospect of being attached to a leftover English rump of the UK, if Scotland and Northern Ireland head off, seems bleak to many people. And having argued against pooling sovereignty with our neighbours to facilitate trade and maximise our influence, Brexiteers should not be surprised if the same logic is applied in a different setting."[78] Likewise, according to Martin Johnes, Professor of Modern History at Swansea University: "For so many [Welsh] voters, Brexit was not just a rejection of the EU but also of the British political establishment and its ways of doing things — ways that have failed far too many working-class communities for far too long. [...] For those who haven't given up on politicians entirely, independence can feel the only hope they have left. Some feel they have little to lose."[79]

Richard Wyn Jones, director of the Welsh governance centre at Cardiff University, claimed that the cause of independence in Wales would be boosted significantly if Scotland chose independence first.[80] Adam Price made the argument that if the UK Supreme Court allowed a referendum on Scottish independence to be held without Westminster's position, then Wales should be allowed to do the same.[81] The judgement of the Supreme Court in November 2022 was that "If the UK Government and Parliament were unwilling to modify those reserved powers (as they did before the 2014 independence referendum) then “the Scottish Parliament does not have the power to legislate for a referendum on Scottish independence”.[82]

Independent Constitution CommissionEdit

In September 2021, an open letter, signed by a number of groups who advocate for Welsh independence (including AUOBCymru, members of the former central committee of YesCymru as well as Welsh Football Fans for Independence), was sent to First Minister Mark Drakeford. Written in response to Drakeford's proposed constitutional commission, it stated that "Wales needs an independence commission, not one to salvage the union."[83]

The following month, the Independent Constitutional Commission was launched by the Welsh Labour government.[84] Led by Professor Laura McAllister and former Archbishop of Wales, Rowan Williams, it will examine Wales' future relationship with the rest of the UK and will consider Welsh independence as well.[85] Plaid Cymru called the commission the "most wide-ranging national conversation about Wales' future".[84] The interim findings of the commission outlined three viable options for Wales including independence, to be explored in more depth in 2023. The report outlined the option of a Free Trade Association during a transition period to independence where an agreement could be made for e.g England responsibility for matters such as defence. The report also identified a confederation of Britain and Ireland as a potential option and key questions on independence to be addressed in 2023.[86] The report concluded that there are "significant problems" with the way Wales is currently governed within the Union of the United Kingdom and independence is a "viable" option.[87]

Future Cymru ForumEdit

In the Plaid Cymru conference of 2022, leader Adam Price announced "The Future Cymru Forum" with the Wales Green Party to "consult, research and develop a ground-breaking body of work" on an independent Wales.[88]

On 23 December 2022, think tank Melin Drafod announced the first ever Welsh independence summit,[89] which was held in the Brangwyn Hall in Swansea on 28 January 2023. Speakers at the summit included Adam Price, Wales Green Party leader Anthony Slaughter and Councillor Rachel Garrick of Welsh Labour for Independence. Welsh independence campaign groups Undod and YesCymru as well as Welsh-language pressure group, Cymdeithas yr Iaith all made speeches as well.[90]

Melin Drafod's Harriet Protheroe-Soltani said, "This is the first summit of its kind where we're trying to bring people from all across the movement into one room to kind of thrash out some of those difficult discussions, to learn from one another. It is also to see the diversity of the movement in terms of different people in different parties having different tactics - but we're all on the same broader journey towards independence."[90]


The independent constitution commission identified "key questions" on the "viable" option of independence in its interim report. It aims to test potential solutions in the next phase, set to be published by the end of 2023. The key questions included addressing the following;

  • Sustaining at least the level of public services on the basis of its own fiscal capacity.
  • Financing matters currently controlled by UK government including pensions and benefits, and forming the capacity immigration, trade and overseas representation.
  • Establish fiscal stability and credibility, selection of currency.
  • Maintain confidence of the financial markets immediately after independence and in the long term.
  • Operating the Wales/England border operate and any implications for businesses and citizens crossing.
  • Implications of a national trade border with the rest of the UK, Europe and the world.
  • Would an independent Wales join the EU and how long would this take.[86]

Arguments for independenceEdit

Westminster criticismsEdit

As of the 2019 general election, 40 of 650 seats at the House of Commons are in Wales. Wales has the smallest average constituency size, with 56,000 constituents per MP compared to 72,200 per MP for England.[91] Proposals revealed by the Boundary Commission in 2020 would reduce the number of Welsh seats from 40 down to 32 as part of efforts to equalise constituency sizes.[92] Advocates for Welsh independence often cite the small number of seats in Wales as a justification for independence. They feel that this limits the ability of Wales to help make political decisions within the UK.[93][94][95] Dissatisfaction with the House of Lords, where members are appointed rather than elected, has also been cited as a reason for independence.[93][94][95] Further criticisms made of the Westminster system includes:

  • Westminster government is not necessarily the government Wales voted for
  • The Westminster first-past-the-post voting system ensures that a party can win a majority with only three in ten of voters
  • Lack of Westminster concern for Welsh matters and lack of investment in Wales
  • Welsh devolution powers are limited, with many matters reserved by Westminster
  • Westminster retains parliamentary sovereignty and devolved powers can be taken away[96][97]


The Senedd building, housing the Senedd (Senedd Cymru / Welsh Parliament)

A central argument made by those in favour of independence is that becoming an independent country would allow Wales to make its own decisions on policy areas such as foreign policy, taxation, and other non-devolved issues.[93][94][95] It has also been suggested that the Welsh government would be able to be fully accountable for an independent Wales and that the Welsh electorate would have sole political representation and would elect a government voted for by Wales only.[98][99] Further proposed powers include:

  • Ability to develop infrastructure such as transport and broadband
  • Ability to build large energy projects to generate electricity that could be sold
  • Creation of a custom, bespoke Welsh constitution including human rights and rights within the judicial system
  • Control over the Crown Estate to provide Welsh revenue and potential for even more green energy generation
  • Making Wales safer by separation from UK foreign affairs
  • Option for inclusion in the UK and Ireland Common Travel Area.
  • A custom immigration system[98][99]

Economy and tradeEdit

Video of Welsh Government COVID-19 press conference where Economy Minister Ken Skates, announces that the UK HMRC refused to share data with the Welsh Government.[100]

Welsh independence would also grant Wales far greater control over its economy. Proponents of independence argue that this would allow Wales to flourish as an independent country.[93][94][95]

Advocates for independence suggest that Wales could draw from the success of the Republic of Ireland following its independence from the UK. In 1922, Ireland was financially heavily dependent on Britain. Ireland is said to have benefitted from EU membership in 1973 and by International Monetary Fund and had an economic growth called the Celtic Tiger from the 1990s. It has also been noted that Wales is in a better economic state than 1920s Ireland, when it gained independence.[101] Think tank Melin Drafod suggests that an independent Wales would have newly found abilities to raise an additional £3 billion a year in public services funding via different tax and other policies.[102] Further economic arguments made for independence include:

  • Economic flexibility, more open to trade and adapt better to economic shock as a relatively small country as seen in the Flotilla effect.
  • Full control over economic ability
  • Powers for borrowing money
  • Ability to form a development bank
  • Ability to develop a competitive tax rate to draw industries
  • A system of bank regulation, designed to protect citizens and not just the banks
  • Addressing the fiscal deficit in Wales and reshaping the Welsh economy
  • Welsh internal exports within the UK not published. These could be substantial
  • Currency options: Pound, Welsh pound or euro all with pros and cons[98][99]

Culture and sportEdit

St David's Day, 2014.
  • Bank holiday powers, including a proposed St David's Day bank holiday[103]
  • Better protection of Welsh culture[98][99]
  • Supporters of Welsh independence have argued that the ability to form Welsh teams in sports such as cricket or at the Olympics would represent a significant benefit.[93]
  • Better protection of the Welsh language[98][99]

European Union membershipEdit

The United Kingdom left the EU in 2020 following a referendum on membership in 2016.[104] At the referendum, 53% of Welsh voters voted to leave, though Plaid Cymru, the only pro-independence party with representatives in the Welsh Assembly, opposed leaving.[105][106] While most people who are pro-independence also favour joining the EU, this is not a universal position. According to Ashcroft Polls, a "significant" number of Plaid voters also voted for Brexit.[107]

Since Brexit, many pro-independence campaigners, including Plaid, have argued that joining the EU would be a benefit to leaving the UK, noting the success of small nations such as Lithuania, Slovakia and the Republic of Ireland within the EU.[101] It has been suggested that an independent Wales would have the option to join the EU in an exclusive Welsh deal if this option benefits Wales.[99] A January 2021 poll found that a majority of Welsh voters were in favour of rejoining the EU, (44% for and 38% against).[108]

An alternative option to EU membership is membership of the European Free Trade Association with a view to joining the European single market.[109] Plaid Cymru has said that it will " explore the prospects for an independent Wales becoming a member of the European Free Trade Association, with a view to becoming part of the European Economic Area."[110] With EFTA membership, an independent Wales would also be in a position to negotiate a free trade deal with England.[111] Adam Price has stated that Plaid Cymru would seek to join the EFTA if Wales became independent.[112] The Welsh Labour Government's current position it to remain outside both the EU and single market. In June 2022, Adam Price of Plaid Cymru called on the Welsh Labour Government to support rejoining the single market (without rejoining the EU) as was previously supported by both parties in the "Securing Wales's Future" white paper.[113][114]

Arguments against independenceEdit

Reasons for continuing the union can be summarised as follows:

  • Fiscal Deficit - At £4,300, Wales' fiscal deficit per capita is the second highest of the UK’s economic regions, after the Northern Ireland fiscal deficit.[115][116] Tax revenue per capita in Wales is 76 percent of the UK average, but spending is 108 percent, leading to a shortfall.[117] This shortfall is currently made up in part by the net fiscal surplus of some English regions of the UK and the absence of this in the event of Welsh independence would necessitate some combination of increased revenue, reduced expenditure or increased borrowing.[118]
  • Currency – In the event of independence for either Scotland or Wales, the issue over currency is brought up. A currency union between an independent Scotland and the remaining UK was ruled out in the lead-up to the 2014 referendum. Scotland can continue to use the pound sterling without a currency union, however will lack control over its monetary policy, such as interest rates as those would be the responsibility of the Bank of England, the UK's central bank, who may prioritise the UK's economy over Scotland, in the absence of a currency sharing agreement.[119]
  • Business – Some sources suggest some business uncertainty and potential restructuring of businesses so that headquarters are relocated in the country where the greatest amount of business occurs.[120]
  • "A stronger voice" and money from other parts of the UK – former First Minister of Wales and Leader of Welsh Labour from 2009 to 2018, Carwyn Jones, argued in 2012 that Wales being part of the UK "gives us a much stronger voice on the world stage". He also argued that "money is transferred from richer parts of the UK into Wales".[121]

Support for independenceEdit

Political parties with parliamentary representation in WalesEdit

Other partiesEdit



Opposition to independenceEdit

Parties with parliamentary representation in WalesEdit

Other partiesEdit


  • Further devolution of powers – More powers devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to Wales and its devolved government.[168][169][170][171][172] Devolution of powers to either local councils or a regional collection of them, such as North Wales has also been advocated.[173]
  • Decentralising power and wealth across the UK, including to and within Wales – This argument not only supports greater decentralisation to Wales, but also more power decentralised within Wales and the rest of the UK to local authorities and regions.[174][175][176] For example, it has been argued that too much power is centralised in Cardiff, which could be handed out to the regions of Wales.[177]
  • Devolution system reform – An April 2022 article in The Economist argued that "a better combination of devolution and centralisation would compel governments to work together". The author argues that the existing devolution settlement "is making the United Kingdom chronically miserable", as politics in Scotland and Northern Ireland are "dominated by unresolved arguments about the constitution", neglecting local issues, such as healthcare and schooling. The editor suggests that powers were "crudely handed out" to devolved bodies and the resulting politics "favour blaming the centre [Westminster] rather than working with it". Leading to clashes over issues such as new nuclear power stations or gas drilling as energy policy is reserved to Westminster but planning is devolved. An "exchange" of powers to allow for better co-ordination, such as increasing devolved say over immigration and EU relations in return for increased UK-devolved cooperation in major transport links and energy security, as well as direct Westminster involvement in devolution failings over health and education, was advocated.[178]
  • Federal system – Federalism in the United Kingdom has been touted as an alternative political system to prevent a possible breakup.[179][180][181][182][183]

Public opinionEdit


A graphical summary of yes/no independence polls, excluding non-standard questions.

Yes/No Independence pollsEdit

Polling organisation
& client
Should Wales be an independent country? Lead Notes
Yes No Undecided
12–17 May 2023 YouGov/Barn Cymru 1,064 20% 54% 15% 34%
14–15 May 2023 Redfield and Wilton Strategies 1,058 32% 58% 11% 26%
15–17 April 2023 Redfield and Wilton Strategies 1,251 29% 60% 11% 31%
17–23 Feb 2023 YouGov / WalesOnline 1,083 18% 55% 16% 37%
25 Nov – 1 Dec 2022 YouGov / Barn Cymru 1,042 22% 55% 14% 33%
21–25 November 2022 YouGov / YesCymru 1,033 23% 54% 13% 31%
20–22 September 2022 YouGov / Barn Cymru 1,014 24% 52% 14% 28% Age 16+
16–19 August 2022 YouGov / The Sunday Times 1,025 30% 48% 13% 18% Non-standard question:
If Liz Truss became Prime Minister of the UK
16–19 August 2022 YouGov / The Sunday Times 1,025 25% 53% 12% 28%
12–16 June 2022 YouGov / ITV Wales 1,020 25% 50% 25% 25%
25 Feb – 1 March 2022 YouGov/ Barn Cymru 1,086 21% 53% 26% 32% Age 16+
5 May 2021 Savanta ComRes 1,002 30% 55% 15% 25% Taken with 29 April – 4 May 2021 poll, online
2–4 May 2021 YouGov / Welsh Barometer 1,071 21% 55% 14% 34%
29 April – 4 May 2021 Savanta ComRes 1,002 27% 58% 14% 31% Online
23–28 April 2021 Savanta ComRes 1,002 42% 49% 8% 7% 46% (excluding "don't know"), the highest ever level of support.[184]
18–21 April 2021 YouGov 1,142 22% 54% 24% 32% Age 16+
9–19 April 2021 Opinium / Sky News 2,005 28% 52% 19% 24%
16–19 March 2021 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,174 22% 55% 23% 33% Age 16+
18–22 February 2021 Savanta ComRes / ITV News 1,003 35% 55% 10% 20% 39% (excluding "don't know"), the highest ever support at the time.[185][186] Age 16+.
19–22 February 2021 WalesOnline / YouGov 1,059 25% 50% 14% 25% Age 16+
18–21 January 2021 The Sunday Times / YouGov 1,059 23% 52% 25% 29% Age 16+
11–14 January 2021 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,018 22% 53% 25% 31% Age 16+
26–29 October 2020 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,013 23% 53% 25% 30% Age 16+
24–27 August 2020 YesCymru / YouGov 1,044 25% 52% 23% 27%
29 July – 7 August 2020 YesCymru / YouGov 1,044 26% 55% 19% 29% Age 16+
29 May – 1 June 2020 ITV Wales / YouGov / Cardiff Uni 1,021 25% 54% 21% 29%
20–26 January 2020 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,037 21% 57% 22% 36% Age 16+
6–9 December 2019 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,020 17% 60% 23% 43%
22–25 November 2019 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,116 20% 57% 22% 37%
31 October – 4 November 2019 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,032 22% 57% 21% 35%
10–14 October 2019 Welsh Barometer Survey / YouGov 1,032 21% 57% 23% 36%
6–10 September 2019 Plaid Cymru / YouGov 1,039 24% 52% 23% 28%
6–10 September 2019 Plaid Cymru / YouGov 1,039 33% 48% 20% 15% Non-standard question:
If an independent Wales was within the European Union
7–14 December 2018 Sky News Data: Wales 1,014 17% 67% 16% 50%
30 May – 6 June 2018 YouGov 2,016 19% 65% 16% 46%
July 2016 ITV Wales / YouGov 1,010 15% 65% 20% 50%
July 2016 ITV Wales / YouGov 1,010 28% 53% 20% 25% Non-standard question:
If an independent Wales was within the European Union
July 2016 ITV Wales / YouGov 1,010 19% 61% 21% 42% Non-standard question:
If Scotland left the UK
8–11 September 2014 ITV Wales / YouGov / Cardiff University >1,000 17% 70% 13% 53% The week before the Scottish independence referendum
April 2014 YouGov 1,000 12% 74% 14% 62%
March 2013 ITV Wales / YouGov Unknown 10% 62% 28% 52% Non-standard question: If Scotland left the UK
5–8 January 2007 BBC / Opinion Research Business 527 19% 69% 13% 50% Would you like the Union to continue as it is or would you like to see it come to an end?

If it were to end this would mean that Scotland (in Wales say “Wales”) became an independent country?

"0–10" Independence polls – (Respondents asked to rate 0–10. 0–4 Against, 5 indifferent, 6–10 In Favour. "Don't Know" removed)

Polling organisation
& client
Sample size Total
In favour Indifferent Against Total
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
10–15 May 2019 YesCymru / YouGov 1,133 36% 14% 4% 5% 6% 7% 17% 5% 6% 6% 2% 28% 47%
9–12 May 2017 YesCymru / YouGov 1,000 29% 10% 2% 6% 6% 5% 18% 4% 6% 7% 5% 31% 53%

By age (February, 2023)[187]Edit

Age group No Yes Do not know Lead
18–24 41% 20% 16% 21%
25–49 44% 18% 23% 26%
50–64 59% 22% 12% 37%
65+ 72% 12% 11% 60%

Devolution extent polls

Polling organisation Support
independence (%)
Support more
powers for
the Senedd (%)
status quo (%)
Support fewer
powers for
the Senedd (%)
Support abolition
of the Senedd (%)
not reply/Other (%)
28 January – 21 February 2021[188] BBC / ICM Unlimited 14 35 27 3 15 6
29 May – 1 June 2020[189] ITV Wales & Cardiff University / YouGov 16 20 24 5 22 14
4–22 February 2020[190] BBC / ICM 11 43 25 2 14 3
7–23 February 2019[191] BBC / ICM 7 46 27 3 13 4
December 2018[192] SkyData 8 40 23 4 18 7
February 2017[193] BBC / ICM 6 44 29 3 13 4
February 2016[194] BBC / ICM 6 43 30 3 13 4
February 2015[195] BBC / ICM 6 40 33 4 13 4
September 2014[196] BBC / ICM 3 49 26 2 12 6
February 2014[197] BBC / ICM 5 37 28 3 23 5
2013[198] BBC / ICM 9 36 28 2 20 4
2012[198] BBC / ICM 7 36 29 2 22 4
2011[198] BBC / ICM 11 35 18 17 15 4
2010[198] BBC / ICM 11 40 13 18 13 4

Side by side polls – Independence vs. No devolved government in Wales

Polling Organisation
& client
Sample size Independence
(inc. sub-samples)
No devolved government
(inc. sub-samples)
/ no reply (%)
Total (%) Conservative (%) Labour (%) Lib Dem (%) Plaid Cymru (%) Total (%) Conservative (%) Labour (%) Lib Dem (%) Plaid Cymru (%)
29 May – 1 June 2020 ITV Wales / YouGov / Cardiff Uni 1,021 33% 12% 45% 39% 87% 45% 79% 35% 53% 4% 21%

See alsoEdit


Related movementsEdit


  1. ^ Jones, Francis (1969). The Princes and Principality of Wales. University of Wales P. ISBN 978-0-900768-20-0.
  2. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - The 1536 Act of Union". BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Laws in Wales Act 1535 (repealed 21.12.1993)".
  4. ^ "The Welsh language Act of 1967". BBC. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Aims//Our History". Plaid Cymru. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  6. ^ Pitt, Ellie (6 November 2020). "Thousands join YesCymru and say "Westminster isn't working for Wales"". ITV News. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  7. ^ Henry, Graham (19 April 2014). "Wales says no to Scottish independence: our exclusive YouGov poll". WalesOnline. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  8. ^ "Savanta ComRes Wales Voting Intention – 29 April 2021" (PDF).
  9. ^ "YouGov / Sunday Times Survey Results" (PDF).
  10. ^ Hayward, Will (1 March 2023). "Support for Welsh independence at its lowest level for three years". WalesOnline. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  11. ^ "Archaeologia Cambrensis (1846-1899) | BRUT Y TYWYSOGION: GWENTIAN CHRONICLE 1863 | 1863 | Welsh Journals - The National Library of Wales". journals.library.wales. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  12. ^ "Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, the First and Last King of Wales". Historic UK. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  13. ^ Davies, R. R. (2000). The age of conquest : Wales, 1063-1415. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 5–7, 21. ISBN 978-0-19-820878-5.
  14. ^ "Kings and Princes of Wales". Historic UK. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  15. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Chapter 8: The end of Welsh independence". BBC. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  16. ^ "OwainGlyndwr - Parliaments". www.owain-glyndwr.wales. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  17. ^ Watkin, Thomas Glyn (2007). The Legal History of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. pp. 116–117.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  18. ^ a b Watkin, Thomas Glyn (2007). The Legal History of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. pp. 124–144.
  19. ^ a b c d e The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008
  20. ^ "130 years since Sunday drinking was banned in Wales". BBC News. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  21. ^ "OLCreate: CYM-WH_E1 Sources for Unit 8: Source 8F". www.open.edu. Retrieved 1 March 2022. I am deeply impressed with the fact that Wales has wants and inspirations of her own which have too long been ignored, but which must no longer be neglected. First and foremost amongst these stands the cause of religious liberty and equality in Wales. If returned to Parliament by you, it shall be my earnest endeavour to labour for the triumph of this great cause. I believe in a liberal extension of the principle of decentralisation.
  22. ^ "Volume I: Prefatory Note". Church in Wales. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  23. ^ "Two home rule Bills".
  24. ^ Jones, J.G. (1 January 1990). "Alfred Thomas's National Institution (Wales) Bills of 1891-92". Welsh History Review. 15 (1): 218. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  25. ^ "Wales | Vol, V no. 8/9 | 1945 | Cylchgronau Cymru - Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru" (in Welsh). National Library of Wales. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  26. ^ Davies, John (2007). A History of Wales. pp. 507–508, 526–527.
  27. ^ Rembold, Elfie (2014). "'Home Rule All Round': Experiments in Regionalising Great Britain, 1886–1914". Reforming the Constitution: 201–224. doi:10.4324/9781315039787-8. ISBN 9781315039787. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  28. ^ a b Lutz, James M. (1981). "The Spread of the Plaid Cymru: The Spatial Impress". The Western Political Quarterly. 34 (2): 310–328. doi:10.2307/447358. ISSN 0043-4078. JSTOR 447358.
  29. ^ "Site of Plaid Cymru's founding, Pwllheli - History Points". historypoints.org. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  30. ^ "A Profile of Plaid Cymru - All you need to know". Politics.co.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Results of the 2019 General Election in Wales - BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  32. ^ "Welsh Parliament election 2021". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  33. ^ Williams, Joe (22 October 2019). "The Welsh independence movement's Brexit stance risk alienating Leave voters". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  34. ^ Evans-Kanu, Dan (23 September 2019). "Some brief thoughts on Wales and Brexit". Medium. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  35. ^ "Europe Referendum 1975: How BBC reported Wales results". BBC News. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  36. ^ "Treaty of Maastricht on European Union". Europa web portal. Activities of the European Union. 7 February 1992. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  37. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Chapter 22: A new nation". BBC. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  38. ^ "Epynt: A lost community". www.nfu-cymru.org.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  39. ^ George, W. R. P. (2001). "Lloyd George (Family)". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  40. ^ "Cardiff as Capital of Wales: Formal Recognition by Government". The Times. No. 53, 409. 21 December 1955. p. 5.
  41. ^ "Cardiff gains recognition as capital of Wales". Manchester Guardian. 21 December 1955.
  42. ^ "NDAD | Welsh Office". UK: The National Archives. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  43. ^ Balsom, Denis (2000). "Political Developments in Wales 1979–1997". In Balsom; Jones, Barry (eds.). The Road to the National Assembly for Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  44. ^ "Welsh assembly renamed Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament". BBC News. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  45. ^ "Governance". Welsh Assembly Government.
  46. ^ Rawlings, Richard (2018). "The Strange Reconstitution of Wales" (PDF). Public Law: 62–83. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  47. ^ "Beyond Catalonia: pro-independence movements in Europe". The Guardian. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  48. ^ "Welsh independence". instituteforgovernment.org.uk. 22 April 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  49. ^ ap Rhobert, Iestyn (2 March 2021). "How it all began: A look back at the first five years of YesCymru". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  50. ^ Craig, Ian (13 March 2017). "'Wales needs to debate independence' – says Plaid Cymru leader Leanne Wood after Scotland referendum call". South Wales Argus. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  51. ^ "Plaid independence referendum call rejected by Senedd members". BBC News. 15 July 2020.
  52. ^ a b "Wales Green Party vote to back Welsh independence at conference". Nation.Cymru. 24 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  53. ^ "StackPath". Institute for Government. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  54. ^ "Plaid independence referendum call rejected by Senedd members". BBC News. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  55. ^ "Live Blog: The Senedd debates independence for the first time". Nation.Cymru. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  56. ^ Hayward, Will (11 December 2020). "Plaid pledges independence referendum if they win Senedd election". WalesOnline. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  57. ^ "Plaid Cymru formally adopt independence referendum pledge at special conference". Nation.Cymru. 13 February 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  58. ^ Wells, Ione (2 February 2021). "Welsh independence: How worried should UK ministers be?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  59. ^ "Welsh election results 2021: Labour's road to victory in numbers". BBC News. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  60. ^ "UK Government confirm they will scrap Welsh law as part of trade union crackdown". 27 June 2022.
  61. ^ Wilks, Rebecca (29 June 2022). "Plaid Cymru call for Welsh indyref after Westminster 'power grab'". The National. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  62. ^ "Labour supporters lay out vision of independent Wales".
  63. ^ Garrick, Rachel (14 May 2022). "Rachel Garrick on Wales, the Senedd and the Union". The National Wales. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  64. ^ "About". Labour for an Independent Wales. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  65. ^ a b Protheroe-Soltani, Harriet (7 September 2021). "Why the Welsh independence movement needs Labour supporters to win". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  66. ^ Russell, Greg (8 May 2019). "'Tide is turning' in Welsh indy movement as AUOB holds first march". The National.
  67. ^ "Huge crowds join Welsh independence rally". BBC News. 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  68. ^ Osborne, Rob (11 May 2019). "Thousands call for Welsh Independence in historic march". ITV News. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  69. ^ "More than 8,000 people march through Caernarfon for Welsh independence". Daily Post. 27 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  70. ^ "Thousands pack Penderyn square in Merthyr Tydfil to call for Welsh independence". Nation.Cymru. 7 September 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  71. ^ Jones, Ben (1 July 2022). "Welsh Independence March To Take Place Amid Westminster Aggression". voice.wales. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  72. ^ Forgrave, Andrew; Hudspith, Jaymelouise; Whilding, Alex (2 July 2022). "Thousands of Welsh Independence supporters join Wrexham march". North Wales Live. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  73. ^ Owen, Twm (21 June 2022). "Wrexham indy march will be the best yet, say organisers". The National Wales. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  74. ^ Jones, Branwen (21 June 2022). "Welsh independence march planned for first time since pandemic". WalesOnline. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  75. ^ Harries, Robert; Thomas, Angharad (1 October 2022). "Thousands march through the streets of Cardiff in support of Welsh independence". WalesOnline. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  76. ^ Jones, Branwen (20 January 2023). "Date for first Welsh independence march of year announced". WalesOnline.
  77. ^ https://www.itv.com/news/wales/2023-05-20/an-excellent-turnout-nearly-seven-thousand-join-latest-independence-march
  78. ^ Clarke, Hilary (29 January 2021). "United Kingdom? After Scotland, talk of Wexit, Welsh independence". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  79. ^ Johnes, Martin (2 February 2023). "Brexit has galvanised Welsh independence". UnHerd. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  80. ^ Bounds, Andy (5 April 2021). "Wales finds greater belief in self-government amid pandemic response". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  81. ^ "Scottish indyref push could lead to Welsh vote, says Plaid's Adam Price". BBC News. 29 June 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  82. ^ "UK Government statement on Supreme Court ruling on draft independence referendum bill". GOV.UK. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  83. ^ Griffiths, Siriol (27 September 2021). ""Wales needs an independence commission, not one to salvage the union"". The National Wales. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  84. ^ a b Chandler, Andy (19 October 2021). "Commission considers Welsh independence". Herald.Wales. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  85. ^ "Welsh independence to be considered by commission". BBC News. 19 October 2021.
  86. ^ a b "Interim report by The Independent Commission on the Constitutional Future of Wales" (PDF).
  87. ^ "Welsh independence a 'viable' constitutional option, landmark report says".
  88. ^ "Plaid Cymru: Welsh independence 'would remove Tories forever'". BBC News. 21 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  89. ^ "Welsh independence summit to discuss way forward planned for Swansea next month". Nation.Cymru. 23 December 2022.
  90. ^ a b Duffy, Judith (28 January 2023). "Plaid Cymru and Labour speakers to address Welsh independence summit". The National. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
  91. ^ "Parliamentary constituencies". UK Parliament. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  92. ^ "Wales could lose eight MPs in Commons boundary shakeup". BBC News. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  93. ^ a b c d e "10 arguments that will make you support Welsh independence". Nation.Cymru. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  94. ^ a b c d "Independence in your pocket". YesCymru. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  95. ^ a b c d INDEPENDENCE IN YOUR POCKET (PDF). YesCymru. 2017.
  96. ^ "Independence in your pocket". YesCymru EN. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  97. ^ "10 arguments that will make you support Welsh independence". Nation.Cymru. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  98. ^ a b c d e "10 arguments that will make you support Welsh independence". Nation.Cymru. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  99. ^ a b c d e f "Independence in your pocket". YesCymru. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  100. ^ Nuttall, Andrew (20 October 2020). "UK Government repeatedly "turning down" First Minister's solutions for job support". The Leader. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  101. ^ a b Jenkins, Simon (1 May 2021). "Plaid Cymru has a mountain to climb, but Welsh independence is no pipe dream". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  102. ^ "An Independent Wales could invest billions more in public services - report". Nation.Cymru. 27 January 2023. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  103. ^ Ceidiog Hughes, Gareth (16 December 2021). "Westminster's justification for denying Wales a St David's Day bank holiday is inane and insulting". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  104. ^ "Brexit: UK leaves the European Union". BBC News. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  105. ^ "EU referendum results". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019.
  106. ^ "Positions". partyof.wales. Plaid Cymru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  107. ^ Williams, Joe (22 October 2019). "The Welsh independence movement's Brexit stance risk alienating Leave voters". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  108. ^ "Poll finds that Wales would vote to rejoin EU". ITV News. 21 January 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  109. ^ Towards an Independent Wales (PDF). Y Lolfa. 2020.
  110. ^ "Wales' Relationship with the EU". The Party of Wales. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  111. ^ "Launching the Independence Commission report". The Party of Wales. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  112. ^ "Wales election: Details on independent Wales 'not possible' yet". BBC News. 19 April 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  113. ^ Barry, Sion (28 June 2022). "Plaid Cymru calls for the UK to rejoin the single market". Business Live. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  114. ^ "Plaid Leader says return to single market 'simple solution' to cost of living crisis". Nation.Cymru. 14 June 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  115. ^ Birnie, Esmond (18 February 2020). "Scrutinising Northern Ireland's sizeable fiscal deficit is interesting". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  116. ^ Rutter, Calum (2 August 2019). "Welsh spending cuts cause deficit reduction, says study". Public Finance. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  117. ^ "Shortfall in public finances in Wales due to lower revenues, report finds". Cardiff University. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  118. ^ Thomas, Landon (27 January 2012). "The Welsh Economy Slips, but London Cushions the Fall". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  119. ^ Sim, Philip (25 May 2018). "Independence: Could Scotland keep the pound?". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  120. ^ "The Scottish Independence Debate: Evidence from Business". Centre on Constitutional Change. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  121. ^ "Carwyn Jones says Wales benefits from being part of UK". BBC News. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  122. ^ El-Bar, Karim (25 September 2020). "Welsh nationalist party issues roadmap to independence". AA. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  123. ^ Masters, Adrian (10 February 2020). "Independent AM Neil McEvoy to launch new Welsh National Party". ITV News. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  124. ^ "New McEvoy party rejected by Electoral Commission once more over 'confusingly similar' name". Nation.Cymru. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  125. ^ "Gwlad - The Welsh Independence Party". Gwlad.
  126. ^ "Break up the British state". Socialist Worker. 1 October 2019.
  127. ^ Thomas, Simon (21 September 2021). "Eddie Butler is worried about Wales and says independence is the only way". WalesOnline. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  128. ^ Church, Charlotte (29 April 2021). "I'm Backing Independence - Charlotte Church". YesCymru. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  129. ^ Jones, Branwen (22 June 2022). "Welsh independence march planned for first time since pandemic". WalesOnline. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  130. ^ a b "AUOB Cymru say independence march will go ahead despite Wrexham Council opposition". Nation.Cymru. 27 June 2022. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  131. ^ "Football legend 'Big Nev' to make the case for Welsh independence at Labour conference event". Nation.Cymru. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  132. ^ "Watch: All the speeches and images from the Cardiff march for independence". Nation.Cymru. 2 October 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  133. ^ Weatherby, Bronwen (1 October 2022). "House Of The Dragon actor joins march for Welsh independence in Cardiff". The Independent. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  134. ^ "Interview: RS Thomas". The Guardian. 30 October 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  135. ^ "Why control over broadcasting would give Wales its voice". Nation.Cymru. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  136. ^ "'If independence can fix child poverty in Wales, then I'm all for it'". Nation.Cymru. 29 April 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  137. ^ "Welsh independence rally in Merthyr Tydfil draws thousands". BBC News. 7 September 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  138. ^ "It's A Sin's Callum Scott Howells: Rising to fame, Welsh independence and his love of Cardiff City". ITV. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  139. ^ a b "Cardiff to host Wales' first Independence Festival". Nation.Cymru. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  140. ^ "'There's more reason to be yes than no' says rugby star on Welsh Independence". Nation.Cymru. 7 April 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  141. ^ Tudur, Non (30 June 2022). "Y Proclaimers yn datgan eu bod o blaid annibyniaeth i Gymru – "rhaid ymladd yn ôl"" [The Proclaimers declare their support for Welsh independence - "must fight back"]. Golwg360 (in Welsh). Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  142. ^ a b "Audio: All the speeches from Saturday's independence march in Merthyr". Nation.Cymru. 7 September 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  143. ^ "Review: Whose Wales? argues that it was Labour - not Plaid Cymru - who drove Welsh devolution". Nation.Cymru. 1 September 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  144. ^ "Archbishop of Wales 'in favour of independence'". Nation.Cymru. 26 January 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  145. ^ "'It's A Sin' screenwriter Russell T Davies speaks out on Welsh independence". Nation.Cymru. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  146. ^ "'It led to more deaths': It's A Sin writer Russell T Davies compares 'silence' of AIDS crisis with Covid". ITV News. 26 January 2021.
  147. ^ Mosalski, Ruth (24 April 2021). "The Adam Price election interview: Independence isn't a distraction". WalesOnline. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  148. ^ "Leanne Wood: 'Just Wanting Independence Isn't Enough. We Need a Strategy'". Novara Media. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  149. ^ WalesOnline (21 April 2005). "Goodbye to the Member for Wales". WalesOnline. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  150. ^ Iorwerth, Rhun ap (2 July 2018). "My vision for a thriving, welcoming, independent Wales". WalesOnline. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  151. ^ "It's time to define what independence means". The National Wales. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  152. ^ James, David (12 July 2007). "Who is Ieuan Wyn Jones?". WalesOnline. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  153. ^ Davies (1994), p. 547
  154. ^ Live, North Wales (12 January 2012). "Lord Elis-Thomas sets out his stall for the Plaid leadership election and speaks of the monarchy's role in an independent Wales". North Wales Live. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  155. ^ admin (14 September 2018). "Plaid Cymru leadership election, Yes Cymru and Independence". Institute of Welsh Affairs. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  156. ^ "Welsh devolution is being betrayed, says Lord Elystan-Morgan". BBC News. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  157. ^ "Could Labour Lead Wales to Independence?". Novara Media. Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  158. ^ "Senedd election: Labour pledges energy revolution for Wales". BBC News. 26 February 2021.
  159. ^ Shipton, Martin (5 March 2021). "Tories say no Senedd deal with 'divisive' Plaid Cymru". WalesOnline. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  160. ^ Wilks, Rebecca (30 June 2022). "Welsh Lib Dems oppose Welsh independence referendum". South Wales Argus. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  161. ^ Peterkin, Tom (28 April 2013). "Co-Op Party chair quits over indy support". The Scotsman.
  162. ^ "The Liberal Party". liberal.org.uk.
  163. ^ a b Axenderrie, Gareth (13 April 2021). "Senedd election: UKIP and Reform UK launch campaigns". The National Wales. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  164. ^ Webster, Laura (30 April 2021). "Adam Price tears apart Abolish the Welsh Assembly party claims during BBC debate". The National Scotland. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  165. ^ "CONSTITUTION". Social Democratic Party.
  166. ^ Thraves, Alec (20 July 2017). "What We Stand For". Socialist Party Wales.
  167. ^ "Government and Democracy". The Christian Party.
  168. ^ "Why greater autonomy for Wales is the best way to strengthen the UK". Nation.Cymru. 5 November 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  169. ^ "Wales may need more devolution, but UK is better together - Shadow Welsh Secretary". ITV News. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  170. ^ Shipton, Martin (26 February 2021). "First Minister Mark Drakeford demands 'home rule' for Wales". WalesOnline. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  171. ^ "Proposals for Further Devolution to Wales need to be durable and lasting". senedd.wales. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  172. ^ Thompson, Gavin (12 January 2022). "Let's talk about independence, devolution and Wales' future". The National Wales. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  173. ^ Meechan, Brian (14 January 2016). "North Wales 'needs more devolution' for powerhouse boost". BBC News. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  174. ^ Wood, Leanne (15 July 2013). "Britain is failing Wales, Scotland and the regions. It's time for change". openDemocracy. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  175. ^ Brown, Jack (20 May 2019). "London is still the UK's golden goose – and that needs to change". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  176. ^ Antoniw, Mick (23 January 2021). "There is a consensus on the need for radical reform in Wales – now we must find common ground". Nation.Cymru. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  177. ^ "Too much power centralised in Cardiff, says Alun Cairns". BBC News. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  178. ^ "Devolution is making the United Kingdom chronically miserable". The Economist. 2 April 2022. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  179. ^ Blick, Prof Andrew (3 March 2021). "Federalism for the United Kingdom: an answer that raises questions". The Federal Trust. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  180. ^ "Can the United Kingdom be saved through federation? Lessons from 1919". The Federal Trust. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  181. ^ Bradley, Jayne (21 March 2021). "UK federal system 'could replace independence', argues Professor". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  182. ^ Jenkins, Simon (5 July 2022). "The United Kingdom is broken. It's time for a new British federation". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  183. ^ "UK heading towards 'breakup' says Financial Times". Nation.Cymru. 31 December 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  184. ^ "Savanta ComRes Wales Voting Intention –29 April 2021" (PDF).
  185. ^ Axenderrie, Gareth (4 March 2021). "Polls chart rise of support for Welsh independence". The National Wales. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  186. ^ da Silva, Chantal (4 March 2021). "Highest ever support for Welsh independence, new poll shows". The Independent. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  187. ^ Hayward, Will (1 March 2023). "Support for Welsh independence at its lowest level for three years". WalesOnline. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  188. ^ "Voting attitudes and Senedd powers quizzed in poll for BBC Wales". BBC News. 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  189. ^ Awan-Scully, Roger (5 June 2020). "Attitudes to Devolution and Welsh Independence". Cardiff University. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  190. ^ "St Davids Day Poll 2020". 1 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  191. ^ "Attitudes to Brexit and economy polled". BBC News. 1 March 2019.
  192. ^ Awan-Scully, Roger (20 December 2018). "Does Wales Want to Abolish the Assembly?". Cardiff University.
  193. ^ "EU migrants should have skills, public tells BBC Wales poll". BBC News. 1 March 2017.
  194. ^ "St David's Day Poll" (PDF). blogs.cardiff.ac.uk. 1 March 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  195. ^ "ICM Poll for the BBC" (PDF). www.icmunlimited.com. 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  196. ^ "'Record low' back Welsh independence - BBC/ICM poll". Wales Online. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  197. ^ "BBC Cymru Wales poll: Few in Wales back Scottish independence". BBC News. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  198. ^ a b c d "Historical Polls". icmunlimited. Retrieved 24 June 2022.

Further readingEdit

  • Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.