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Appalachian Mountains
Mount Ararat, as seen from Armenia.

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

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Esker at Fulufjället, western Sweden

An esker, eskar, eschar, or os, sometimes called an asar, osar, or serpent kame, is a long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. Eskers are frequently several kilometres long and, because of their peculiar uniform shape, are somewhat like railway embankments. Read more...

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The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif, Arabic: الريف Al-Rif) is a mainly mountainous cultural region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.

The Rif has some fertile plains and stretches from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Berkane and the Melwiyya River in the east and from the Mediterranean in the north to the Ouergha River in the south. Read more...

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A group of mud volcanoes in Gobustan, Azerbaijan

The mud produced by mud volcanoes is mostly formed as hot water, which has been heated deep below the Earth's surface, begins to mix and blend with subterranean mineral deposits, thus creating the mud slurry exudate. This material is then forced upwards through a geological fault or fissure due to local subterranean pressure imbalances. Mud volcanoes are associated with subduction zones and about 1100 have been identified on or near land. The temperature of any given active mud volcano generally remains fairly steady and is much lower than the typical temperatures found in igneous volcanoes. Mud volcano temperatures can range from near 100 °C (212 °F) to occasionally 2 °C (36 °F), some being used as popular "mud baths."

About 86% of the gas released from these structures is methane, with much less carbon dioxide and nitrogen emitted. Ejected materials are most often a slurry of fine solids suspended in water that may contain a mixture of salts, acids and various hydrocarbons. Read more...

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Bowyangs are pieces of cord, rope or leather that are tied around the wearer's lower legs. A "bowyang" is a single piece of the tie. Bowyangs come in several varieties:

  • A thong or string used to hold trousers legs up, so that the wearer can squat or bend often without dragging the waist-belt down to the point where the trousers fall off. The thong or string is tied above the calf muscle of the lower leg, just below the knees, and in such a way as to hold a suitable amount of the upper leg of the trouser above the knee. A second purpose is to stop dust, grass seeds, insects and snakes going up the legs of farm workers. There is also the thought that in days gone by when farm workers only bathed once a week the bowyangs kept the dust and dirt from going up the legs and so helped keep the wearer clean.
These devices are commonly used in Australia and New Zealand by agricultural workers and those who frequently work in a stooped position. They are a particular feature of the dress of a shearer and used, nowadays, worldwide by them. The statue of a ploughman and his plough on the war memorial on North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia has a man wearing bowyangs. Read more...

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The Professional Ski Instructors of America and American Association of Snowboard Instructors (PSIA-AASI) is the world’s largest nonprofit education association dedicated to promoting the sports of skiing and snowboarding through instruction. With more than 32,500 members instructing at 300 member ski and snowboard schools, PSIA-AASI establishes certification standards for snowsports instructors and develops education materials to be used as the core components of instructor training.

PSIA-AASI members spend more time with the skiing and snowboarding public than any other ski area employee. PSIA-AASI supports area management through research and development of instructional programs in alpine skiing, snowboarding, telemark skiing, cross-country skiing, and para-alpine skiing. The association also develops educational materials and programs to serve specific ski and snowboard demographics, such as children’s and freestyle specializations. Read more...


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Eruption of Pinatubo 1991

Flora and fauna

Climbing in Greece
Georg Winkler.jpg

Lists of mountains

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