The Most Serene House of Braganza (Portuguese: Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), also known as the Brigantine dynasty (dinastia Brigantina), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin which reigned in Europe and the Americas.

Most Serene House of Braganza
Sereníssima Casa de Bragança
Parent housePortuguese House of Burgundy
by way of the House of Aviz
CountryPortugal, Brazil
Founded30 December 1442; 581 years ago (1442-12-30)
FounderAfonso I, Duke of Braganza
Current headDuarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Final ruler
United Kingdom of Portugal,
Brazil and the Algarves:
John VI (1822)
Kingdom of Portugal:
Manuel II (1910)
Empire of Brazil:
Pedro II (1889)
Kingdom of Portugal:
1910 Implementation of the Republic
Empire of Brazil:
1889 Proclamation of the Republic
Cadet branchesAgnatic:


The house was founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal of the House of Aviz, and would eventually grow into one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of Iberia during the Renaissance period.[1][2] The Braganzas came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves after successfully deposing the Philippine Dynasty in the Restoration War, resulting in the Duke of Braganza becoming King John IV of Portugal, in 1640.[3] The Braganzas ruled Portugal and the Portuguese Empire from 1640 and with the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, in 1815, and the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil.[4]

The House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and all four Brazilian monarchs, numerous consorts to various European kingdoms, such as Catherine of Braganza (wife of Charles II of England who introduced tea to Britain) and Maria Isabel of Braganza (wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain who founded the El Prado Museum), as well as sometime candidates for the thrones of Poland and Greece, Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém and Pedro, Duke of Braganza, respectively, and numerous other notable figures in the histories of Europe and the Americas. The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones in Europe and the Americas at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889,[5] and when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910.[6]

Feudal establishment edit

Afonso I, first Duke of Braganza and founder of the House of Braganza
Isabel of Braganza was the first to intermarry with the royal family, as wife of Infante João, Constable of Portugal.

The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, and Inês Pires.[7][a] Though Afonso was illegitimate, his father valued and cared for him a great deal, demonstrated by his arrangement of Afonso's marriage to Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira,[8] Portugal's most important general and a personal friend of King John I.[2] As well as increasing his social status by his marriage into a well-established house, Afonso was also ceded the title of Count of Barcelos.[7]

With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a highly successful political and social career. In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, and the leading members of the nobility and military. By the time of his father's death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society. With his brother's premature death in 1438, a regency was established for Afonso's nephew, the 6 year old King Afonso V, under the leadership of the king's mother, Leonor of Aragon, and later Afonso's brother, Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. The Duke of Coimbra's regency, however, soon proved unpopular and Afonso quickly became the King's preferred advisor. On 30 December 1442, the Duke of Coimbra, still the King's regent and thus acting in his name, created Afonso as the Duke of Braganza,[2][9] as a gesture of good will and reconciliation between the two brothers. Afonso's elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, which was to become a key family in Portuguese history.

As a result of the hard work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions and lived privileged lives. Afonso I's first son, Afonso of Braganza, was a prominent member of the nobility, having been ceded, by his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, the lucrative and powerful title of Count of Ourém, in 1422. He was an accomplished diplomat, and served as the king's representative at the Council of Basel in 1436, and the Council of Florence in 1439. In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. Later, in 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer. The Marquis of Valença, however, died in 1460, one year before his father and therefore did not succeed him. Afonso I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal.[10] Isabel's strategic marriage proved successful, and produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history. Afonso I's last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the military and society.

When Fernando I was born, in 1403, his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, ceded him the title of Count of Arraiolos. Fernando became an accomplished military man, participating in various Portuguese imperial campaigns. Though Fernando I was a popular and powerful member of the nobility, he did not always find himself in the favour of the king, most notably exemplified when Fernando I openly declaimed King Duarte I, at the Portuguese Cortes, on the topic of the rescue and recovery of the King's brother, Infante Fernando, Lord of Salvaterra de Magos from the Moors. However, Fernando I became a favourite of both the royal and imperial government and of King Afonso V, earning him the position of Governor of Ceuta and the titles of Marquis of Vila Viçosa and Count of Neiva.

The Palace of the Dukes, in Guimarães, was seat of the House of Braganza from 1420 until Fernando II of Braganza was executed for treason by King João II in 1483.

Fernando I's children, by his wife, Joana de Castro, Lady of Cadaval, continued to enlarge the influence of the House of Braganza. Of his nine children, all six who survived to adulthood established themselves either through positions or marriages, though the actions of King João II would seek to weaken their influence. Fernando I's first son and successor, Fernando II, was initially a bright and popular nobleman, but his conflict with King João II would see his and the House's downfall. His second son, João of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo, was an accomplished military man and was made Constable of Portugal. Fernando's third son, Afonso of Braganza, became a popular nobleman of society and was made 1st Count of Faro. The Duke's fourth son, Álvaro of Braganza, inherited the fiefs of his mother, becoming the 5th Lord of Ferreira, 4th Lord of Cadaval, and 1st Lord of Tentúgal. Fernando's eldest surviving daughter, Beatriz of Braganza, married Pedro de Meneses, 1st Marquis of Vila Real. Fernando's last surviving child, Guiomar of Braganza, married Henrique de Meneses, 4th Count of Viana do Alentejo. Ultimately, however, Fernando I's children and grandchildren would suffer great difficulty under the reign of King João II.

By the tenure of the third duke, Fernando II, the House of Braganza was undoubtedly one of the greatest noble houses of Portugal and Iberia as a whole.[11] Fernando II continued the House's legacy of acquisition and gained the title of Duke of Guimarães.[12] To the Duke and the House's downfall, however, King João II's reign concerned itself with the royal consolidation of power and the diminishment of the nobility.[13][14][15] Fernando II, having been a prominent and powerful nobleman, was accused of treason and executed by King João II in 1483;[16][17] the House's titles and properties were merged into the crown and its members exiled to Castile.[18]

Due to their father's misfortunes, Fernando II's children, from his marriage to Isabel of Viseu, daughter of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu and Beja, initially had a tumultuous childhood; but King João II's successor, King Manuel I, who had previously himself been the Duke of Beja, chose to forgive the House and re-grant them all their properties in exchange for their loyalty. Fernando II's oldest surviving son and successor, Jaime I, returned to Portugal and reestablished himself at Vila Viçosa,[18] the former seat of the Dukes. Fernando II's only other surviving son, Dinis of Braganza, married Beatriz de Castro Osório, Countess of Lemos, and had four children with her.

Portuguese Renaissance edit

Jaime I restored the Braganzas' status after his father's execution and built the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa.
João of Braganza, Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo led the Portuguese conquest of Tangiers in 1472.

Jaime I's tenure as Duke of Braganza was one of restoration and grandness. Upon his return to Portugal from exile, Jaime took possession of the House's formerly confiscated properties. In order to establish a new image for the House, he ordered the construction of a new seat for the House, which would become one of the largest palaces in Iberia, the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa.[18] Jaime I's restoration also continued with the House's relations with the King, Jaime I having becoming a favourite of King Manuel I and even once his temporary heir. The Duke also had his share of scandal, having funded the conquest of the city of Azamor, for the royal crown as, as punishment for his ordering the murder of his first wife, Leonor Pérez de Guzman, daughter of Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia.

The children of Jaime I, both the two first children by his first wife, Leonor of Pérez de Guzman, and the later eight children by his second wife, Joana of Mendoça, all saw successful lives under the restored House of Braganza. Jaime I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, and had three children, while his first son and successor, Teodósio I, was a successful prince of the Portuguese Renaissance. Five of Jaime I's children, Jaime, Maria, Fulgêncio, Teotónio, and Vicência, all entered into religious orders. The Duke's second daughter, Joana of Braganza, married Bernardino de Cardenas, 3rd Marquis of Elche, and his third daughter, Eugénia of Braganza, married Francisco de Melo, 2nd Marquis of Ferreira. Jaime I's only other son, other than Teodósio I, to not enter into the church, Constantino of Braganza, married Maria de Melo, daughter of D. Rodrigo de Melo, 1st Marquis of Ferreira, but had no children. Constantino was famed as a great officer of the Portuguese Empire, having served as the Viceroy of Portuguese India and Captain of Ribeira Grande, among other positions.

Constantino of Braganza was Viceroy of Portuguese India & led the 1st Portuguese invasion of Sri Lanka.

The fifth Duke, Teodósio I, is remembered for being the personification of the Portuguese Renaissance. A patron of the arts and scholarly noble, Teodósio I maintained the prestige of the House of Braganza, although not leaving a significant mark on the House's history. The Duke notably ceded the Dukedom of Guimarães to Infante Duarte of Portugal as the dowry of his sister, Isabel of Braganza.

Teodósio I's second son, Jaime of Braganza, died fighting alongside King Sebastião I at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. The Duke's only daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Miguel Luis de Meneses, 1st Duke of Caminha, though their union had no issue. Teodósio I's first child and successor, João I, lived a very different life from Teodósio I's calm and relatively peaceful tenure, having been involved in the controversies of the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 and the subsequent War of the Portuguese Succession.

João I's tenure as Duke was one intertwined with controversy and intrigue. Having been married to Infanta Catarina, daughter of Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, and thus a grandchild of King Manuel I, during the succession crisis of 1580, the couple pressed their claims to the Portuguese throne. Though Infanta Catarina was a popular claimant, her Habsburg cousin was eventually crowned Philip I of Portugal and the Iberian Union was established. In an attempt at reconciliation with the Brigantine House, King Philip I renewed the title of Constable of Portugal, which João I had held previously, to the Duke's first son, Teodósio II, alongside other title and land grants to the Duke and the House.

João I's daughters, Maria, Serefina, Querubina, and Angélica, were some of the most eligible ladies of Portugal and all Iberia, though the only one to marry was Serefina of Braganza, who married Castilian Juan Fernandez Pacheco, 5th Duke of Escalona. The Duke's oldest son and successor, Teodósio II, famously fought in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir at the age of ten and later became an accomplished general. João I's second son, Duarte of Braganza, was made 1st Marquis of Frechilla, and the Duke's third son, Alexandre of Braganza, became Archbishop of Évora, both receiving their titles and many concessions from King Philip I when the monarch was making amends with the House of Braganza. Unlike his other sons, João I's last son, Filipe of Braganza, died without marriage, children, or titles.

In 1640, John IV of Portugal became the first Braganza to reign as King of Portugal, starting the Portuguese Restoration War.

The seventh Duke, Teodósio II, became famous at a young age, having been made page to King Sebastião I and having marched into the Battle of Alcácer Quibir,[19] alongside the King and his uncle, Jaime of Braganza, at the age of ten. Teodósio II later pledged his allegiance and became a faithful countryman to the Philippine Dynasty, having even defended Lisbon against King Philip I's rival claimant to the throne, António, Prior of Crato, who had been acclaimed, by his supporters, as King António I of Portugal. In recognition for his military prowess, Teodósio II was made Constable of Portugal. The Duke's support and service to the Philippine Dynasty, earned the Braganzas more lands and titles and, by 1640, the House had amassed around 80,000 vassals, alongside numerous churches, orders, and institutions under its patronage.[20]

In 1603, Teodósio II married Ana de Velasco y Girón, daughter of Castilian Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frías, and had four children with her. The Duke's first son and successor, João II, raise the House of Braganza to new heights of power, having launched the Portuguese Restoration War and been acclaimed King João IV of Portugal, thus installing the House as the ruling dynasty of Portugal. Teodósio II's second son, Duarte of Braganza, was made Lord of Vila do Conde and became a diplomat, serving at the court of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, but later died a prisoner as a cost of the Restoration War. Teodósio II's two other children, Alexandre and Catarina, both died without children, titles, or marriage.

Throne of Portugal edit

Queen Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II of England, credited with introducing the English to tea-drinking, popular with the Portuguese nobility.

By 1640 the wise policies of D. Philip I in respect of Portugal were long past. The country was overtaxed, Portuguese colonies were left unprotected, and the King Philip III of Portugal no longer had the trust or support of most Portuguese nobility. He was especially loathed by the powerful Portuguese guild of merchants. Portugal, like the rest of Philip's kingdoms, was on the verge of rebellion.

The eighth Duke of Braganza, D. João II of Braganza, had inherited the claim of his grandmother, Infanta Catarina of Portugal, and the remoter claim through of his grandfather João I of Braganza. Because of his claims, the discontent Portuguese nobility asked João II to lead their restoration as their king.

According to court historians, D. João II was a modest man without particular ambitions to the crown. Legend says that his wife, Dona Luisa de Guzmán, daughter of the duke of Medina-Sidonia, urged him to accept the offer, saying "I'd rather be queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime." He accepted the leadership of the rebellion, which was successful, and was acclaimed João IV of Portugal on 1 December 1640.

After the accession of the Braganzas to the throne, the duchy was linked to the Crown. "Duke of Braganza" became the traditional title of the heir to the throne, together with Prince of Brazil and, later, Prince Royal of Portugal.

João's accession resulted in the Portuguese Restoration War with Spain. The sovereignty of Portugal's new dynasty would not be recognized until 1668 during the reign of João's son, Afonso VI.[21]

The zenith of the Braganza dynasty came with the long reign of D. João V (1706–1750), who ruled with grandeur and piety.[22] The reign of D. José I, son of D. João V, was marked by the great earthquake, which struck Lisbon in 1755.[23] The political genius of his reign was the 1st Marquis of Pombal.[24] The end of the 18th century was characterized by stability, under the rule of Dona Maria I (1777–1816), who discharged Pombal at her accession.[25] Because Maria's recurrent mental illness rendered her incapable of governing, her son João assumed the role of head of government in 1792.[26]

Realm in Brazil edit

Queen Maria I became the first monarch of Brazil with the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1815.

In 1807, faced with impending Napoleonic invasion, the Braganzas transferred their royal court to the State of Brazil, Portugal's largest colony.[27] Some time after they had crossed the Atlantic, a royal decree changed the status of Brazil from a Portuguese colony into kingdom alongside Portugal,[28] and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. In 1821, D. João VI, who succeeded in 1816, returned to Portugal.

D. Pedro, Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, the eldest son of D. João VI and also regent in Brazil, sided with the Brazilian rebels in January 1822.[29] He was acclaimed Emperor D. Pedro I of an independent Brazil in 1822, founding the Empire of Brazil. D. Pedro I ruled Brazil until 1831, when he abdicated in favor of his young son D. Pedro II, and returned to Portugal to aid his daughter D. Maria II (see below).[30]

D. Pedro II, being only 6 years old at the time of his coronation, had a regency established. The regency would rule until 1840, when the Emperor turned 14 years old.[31] His reign would last until 1889, when the Brazilian monarchy was abolished. His reign would see the abolition of slavery in Brazil, economic growth, and very long periods of tranquility and development in his empire.

Warring branches edit

King-Emperor João VI's children split the Braganzas into 3 branches: the Brazilian Imperial branch, the Portuguese Constitutional branch, and the exiled Miguelist branch.

In Portugal, D. Pedro I of Brazil became King as D. Pedro IV (1826), but no one wanted to re-establish the union of Portugal and Brazil. Pedro abdicated the Portuguese throne in favor of his daughter Princess Maria da Glória, then seven years old. D. Pedro's brother D. Miguel was to act as Regent, and to marry Maria when she came of age.[32] In 1828, Miguel instead proclaimed himself King of Portugal and repudiated the liberal constitution granted by D. João VI, trying to establish an absolute monarchy.[33]

In 1828, Maria II was forced into exile by her uncle, the new King Miguel I. Her father D. Pedro IV of Portugal returned from Brazil, launched a successful military campaign, from the Azores, against Miguel I.[30] He finally defeated and exiled Miguel I in 1834.[34] Though exiled, Miguel would not give up his claim to the throne and would establish the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza.[35] The strategic marriages of his children to the various royal houses of Europe would earn him the nickname the "Grandfather of Europe" (see Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal).

First Reign of Brazil edit

Emperor-King Pedro I & IV achieved Brazil's independence as Emperor of Brazil & won the Liberal Wars as King of Portugal.

On 7 September 1822, Dom Pedro of Braganza, Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, member of the House of Braganza, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, declared the country's independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and was acclaimed Emperor of Brazil. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy. In 1825, signing the treaty of Rio de Janeiro of this date, his father, King Dom João VI, recognized the independence of the new state, the former Portuguese dominion, now Empire of Brazil.

Pedro I encountered a number of crises during his reign. A secessionist rebellion in the Cisplatine Province in early 1825 and the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (later Argentina) to annex Cisplatina led the Empire into the failed Cisplatine War. In March 1826, João VI died and Pedro I inherited the Portuguese crown, briefly becoming King Pedro IV of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Maria II. The situation worsened in 1828 when the war in the south ended with Brazil's loss of Cisplatina, which would become the independent republic of Uruguay. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother.

Other difficulties arose when the Empire's parliament opened in 1826. Pedro I, along with a significant percentage of the legislature, argued for an independent judiciary, a popularly elected legislature and a government which would be led by the emperor who held broad executive powers and prerogatives. Others in parliament argued for a similar structure, only with a less influential role for the monarch and the legislative branch being dominant in policy and governance.

The struggle over whether the government would be dominated by the emperor or by the parliament was carried over into debates from 1826 to 1831 on the establishment of the governmental and political structure. Unable to deal with the problems in both Brazil and Portugal simultaneously, the Emperor abdicated on behalf of his son, Pedro II, on 7 April 1831 and immediately sailed for Europe to restore his daughter to her throne.

Second Reign of Brazil edit

Pedro II was the last Emperor of Brazil after the Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil in 1889.
Isabel of Braganza, Princess Imperial of Brazil signed the Lei Áurea in 1888, abolishing slavery in Brazil.

Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II. As the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions. Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age in 1840, at 14 years old, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which eventually became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War) under Pedro II's rule, and the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained mostly Catholic. Slavery, which had initially been widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888 by Princess Isabel.

Even though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution. The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable.[citation needed] Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government, republicans began pressuring army officers to overthrow the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic. Throughout the coup Pedro II dismissed all suggestions put forward by politicians and military leaders for quelling the rebellion. The Emperor and his family were exiled to the Portuguese kingdom and France. Although there was significant monarchist reaction after the fall of the Empire,[citation needed] this was thoroughly suppressed, and neither Pedro II nor his daughter and heiress supported a forced restoration.

Constitutional Kings edit

Manuel II, last King of Portugal and the last Braganza to rule as a monarch.

In 1836, Queen Maria II of Portugal married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, later King Ferdinand II of Portugal.[36] Despite the tradition of following the custom of patrilineal descent of royal houses, common throughout Europe, Article 5 of the Portuguese constitution of 1826 stated that "The Reigning Dynasty of the Most Serene House of Braganza Shall Continue in the Person of Lady Princess Maria da Glória, by the Abdication and Cession of Her August Father Lord Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, Legitimate Heir and Successor of Lord João VI.".[37]

Maria II was succeeded in 1853 by her son D. Pedro V, a hard-working reformer who died prematurely in 1861 due to typhoid fever.[38] D. Pedro V was succeeded by his brother D. Luís, as D. Pedro V had no children.[39]

D. Luís I was succeeded in 1889 by his son D. Carlos I. Carlos I's popularity dramatically declined after the British Ultimatum of 1890, whereby the Portuguese Empire ceded its claim to territories (known as the Pink Map) between Portuguese West Africa and Portuguese East Africa to the British.[40] The unpopularity of the Ultimatum combined with the deposition of the Emperor Pedro II of Brazil resulted in a rise of Republican sentiment in Portugal.[41]

King Carlos I was assassinated in 1908 together with his eldest son, D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal and Duke of Braganza, by republicans.[42] His younger son, D. Manuel, Duke of Beja, survived the attack on his father and elder brother and became king as Manuel II,[43] but was toppled two years later in the 1910 republican revolution.[44] After the revolution, Manuel sought refuge in Great Britain and showed little inclination towards pursuing a restoration.[45]

Modern Braganzas edit

Portuguese Braganzas edit

D. Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, Head of the House of Braganza and recognized pretender to the Crown of Portugal since 1976.

After the revolution of 1910, King Manuel II settled in England until his death in 1932. He was childless, and descendants of Miguel of Braganza (the usurper of 1826) claimed the throne.[46] In 1922, the two (of the now four) branches of the House of Braganza allegedly negotiated an pact under which Manuel II named as his heir Duarte Nuno of Braganza, grandson of Miguel.[47] In 1942, Duarte Nuno, now Duke of Braganza, married a great-granddaughter of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, uniting the two lines of the House.[48] He remained the Braganza pretender until his death in 1976.

In 1950 Portugal repealed the law of exile against the Braganzas,[49] and D. Duarte Nuno moved to the country in 1952.[48]

Duarte Nuno was succeeded as pretender by his son, Duarte Pio of Braganza (born 1945). Duarte Pio served in the Portuguese Armed Forces and took the customary oath of allegiance to the Republic, but Portuguese monarchists recognize him as the pretender to the Portuguese throne. In 1995 he married Isabel de Herédia, a Portuguese businesswoman and descendant of Francisco Correia de Herédia, Viscount of Ribeira Brava[50] (a Vitalício title,[50] meaning Life peerage). He worked actively in support of the independence of East Timor from Indonesia.

Duarte Pio and Isabel have three children. Duarte Pio's oldest son is Afonso de Santa Maria, who bears the traditional titles of Prince of Beira (as heir apparent to the Portuguese pretender) and Duke of Barcelos (as heir apparent to the Duke of Braganza).[citation needed] He has a brother Dinis, Duke of Porto, and a sister, Infanta Maria Francisca.

Prince Bertrand of Orléans-Braganza, Head of the Brazilian Imperial Family since the death of his older brother in 2022.

Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza, who claimed she was an illegitimate daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal, began asserting that she was the heir to the throne from 1957. Allegedly, she adopted the Italian Rosario Poidimani, transferring her claimed rights to the Portuguese throne to him.

Brazilian Braganzas edit

After the military coup of 1889, Emperor Dom Pedro II settled in France until his death in 1891.[51] His eldest daughter and family went to live in the Chateau d'Eu in French Normandy. She was recognized by Brazilian monarchists as Empress-in-Exile as Dona Isabel I of Brazil until her death in 1921.

She was succeeded by her grandson, Prince Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza, as Head of the Imperial House of Brazil, and he by his son and current Head, Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza.

With the end of the banishment of the Imperial Family in 1920, some princes returned to live in Brazil, while another remained in Europe. After the end of World War II, Prince Pedro Henrique, then Head of the Imperial House and married to Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria, returned to Brazil with his family.

The Imperial House of Brazil divided into rival branches because of the renunciation of Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará in 1908 and the subsequent repudiation of that act by his descendants.[52]

While some members of the two branches of the family subsequently lived in the Grão-Pará Palace, some married royalty or nobles and have lived in Europe, and others elsewhere in Brazil.[52] A 1993 referendum on restoration of the monarchy was defeated, garnering 13.2 percent of the vote against 66 percent for the republic.[53] Members of both the so-called Petropolis branch of Braganzas (Princes Pedro Gastão and his nephew, Joazinho of Orléans-Braganza) and the more broadly recognised Vassouras line of the Imperial Family led by Prince Luiz Gastão of Orléans-Braganza, participated in the restoration effort,[52] and the Head of the Vassouras branch continues to lead a growing movement to restore the monarchy.[citation needed]

Braganza dukes and monarchs edit

D. João II of Braganza – The first Braganza King of Portugal as King João IV.
D. Pedro I of Braganza
The 1st Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal as Emperor-King Pedro I & IV.

Dukes of Braganza (before ascension to the throne) edit

Name Became duke Notes
Afonso I of Braganza 1442 Duke of Braganza; Count of Barcelos
Fernando I of Braganza 1461 Duke of Braganza; Marquis of Vila Viçosa
Fernando II of Braganza 1478 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Guimarães
Jaime I of Braganza 1498 Duke of Braganza
Teodósio I of Braganza 1532 Duke of Braganza;
ceded Dukedom of Guimarães
João I of Braganza 1563 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Barcelos
Teodósio II of Braganza 1583 Duke of Braganza
João II of Braganza 1630 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Guimarães;
first Braganza monarch of Portugal

Monarchs of Portugal edit

Name Became monarch Notes
João IV of Portugal 1640 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
first Braganza monarch of Portugal
Afonso VI of Portugal 1656 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
died without heir
Pedro II of Portugal 1683 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
brother of Afonso VI
João V of Portugal 1706 King of Portugal and the Algarves
José I of Portugal 1750 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Maria I of Portugal &
Pedro III of Portugal
1777 Queen and King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
João VI of Portugal 1816 King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves;
Titular Emperor of Brazil
Pedro IV of Portugal 1826 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
Emperor of Brazil
Maria II of Portugal 1826 Queen of Portugal and the Algarves;
lost throne to Miguel I in 1828;
regained throne in 1834
Miguel I of Portugal 1828 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
reigned for 6 years; succeeded by Maria II
Pedro V of Portugal 1853 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Luís I of Portugal 1861 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Carlos I of Portugal 1889 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
assassinated in Lisbon Regicide
Manuel II of Portugal 1908 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
last monarch of Portugal

Monarchs of Brazil edit

Name Became monarch Notes
Maria I of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves 1815 Queen and founder of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
John VI of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves 1816 King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves;
Titular Emperor of Brazil; last King of Brazil
Pedro I of Brazil 1822 Emperor of Brazil; proclaimer of Brazilian Independence
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Pedro II of Brazil 1831 Emperor of Brazil; last Emperor of Brazil

Symbols edit

Wyvern edit

The Sceptre of the Dragon.

The traditional symbol and crest of the House of Braganza is a green wyvern, commonly taken to be a dragon,[54][55][56] representing Saint George,[57] patron saint of Portugal.

This symbol can be found in many different monuments in Portugal and Brazil, such as the Monument to the Independence of Brazil in São Paulo and in the palaces of the Imperial family in Rio de Janeiro and Petrópolis. It is famously found atop the Portuguese Crown Sceptre, the Sceptre of the Dragon and the Sceptre of the Emperor of Brazil.

The wyvern is also sometimes used as a supporter in the coat of arms of both the Brazilian and Portuguese branches of the family.

Because of its use in heraldry by the Braganza as the ruling house, and given Pedro IV's link with Porto, a dragon was added to the old coat of arms of the municipality of Porto[54] and is still a part of FC Porto's coat of arms, who are nicknamed "The Dragons".

Curse of the Braganzas edit

Since the 17th century, the House of Braganza has allegedly suffered from the Curse of the Braganzas (Portuguese: Maldição dos Braganças). For supposedly mistreating a Franciscan friar, a curse was purportedly placed on King João IV of Portugal, stating that never again would a first-born male of the Braganza Dynasty live long enough to succeed to the throne.[citation needed] Since the reign of King João IV, all first-born Braganza males, with only three exceptions, have died before they had the opportunity to reign as monarch, either in Portugal or Brazil.

Supposed victims of the Curse of the Braganzas:[58]

Estates and properties edit

Armorial edit

Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure
Emperor of Brazil 1822–1889
King of the United Kingdom of
Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
King of Portugal 1640–1910
King of the Algarves 1640–1910
Prince of Portugal
Prince of Brazil
Prince Royal of Portugal
1481–present [b]
Prince of Beira 1734–present [c]
Prince Imperial of Brazil 1822–1889
Duke of Braganza
Duke of Guimarães
Duke of Barcelos
Marquis of Vila Viçosa
1442–present [d]
Duke of Porto 1833–present[e]
Duke of Viseu 1909–present[f]
Duke of Coimbra 1847–present [g]
Count of Ourém
Count of Neiva
Count of Faria

Genealogy edit

Ducal line: Afonso I to Teodósio II (1377–1630) edit

Genealogical tree of the House of Braganza, during its ducal period, from origins of its founder, Afonso I, Duke of Braganza, to the issue of its last noble duke, Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza:

King Pedro I
King of Portugal and the Algarve
Member of the Portuguese House of Burgundy
King João I
King of Portugal and the Algarve
Founder of the House of Aviz
Afonso I
1st Duke of Braganza, 8th Count of Barcelos
Founder of the House of Braganza
Afonso of Braganza
1st Marquis of Valença
Fernando I
2nd Duke of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa
Isabel of Braganza
Infanta of Portugal
Infante João
Constable of Portugal
From his issue
descend the lines of the
Counts of Vimioso and
the Marquises of Valença
João of Braganza
1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo
Fernando II
3rd Duke of Braganza, 1st Duke of Guimarães
Álvaro of Braganza
Lord of Cadaval
Afonso of Braganza
1st Count of Faro
Infanta Beatriz
Duchess of Viseu
Dinis of Braganza
6th Count of Lemos
Jaime I
4th Duke of Braganza, 2nd Duke of Guimarães
From his issue
descend the lines of
the Dukes of Aveiro and
the House of Cadaval
From his issue
descend the lines of
the Counts of Faro and
the Counts of Odemira
King Manuel I
King of Portugal and the Algarves
From his issue
descend the lines of
the Counts of Lemos, the Dukes of Berwick,
and the Dukes of Veragua in Spain and
the Counts of Santa Cruz, the Marquesses of Gouvêa
and the Marquesses of Lavradio in Portugal.
Isabel of Lencastre
Duchess of Braganza
Teodósio I
5th Duke of Braganza, 3rd Duke of Guimarães
Constantino of Braganza
Viceroy of India
Isabel of Braganza
Duchess of Guimarães
Infante Duarte
4th Duke of Guimarães
João I
6th Duke of Braganza, 1st Duke of Barcelos
Infanta Catarina
Duchess of Braganza
Teodósio II
7th Duke of Braganza, 2nd Duke of Barcelos
Duarte of Braganza
1st Marquis of Frechilla
Duarte of Braganza
Lord of Vila do Conde
King João IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
8th Duke of Braganza, 6th Duke of Guimarães

From him descend
the lines of the Dukes
of Frías
and Escalona and
the Marquises of Jarandilla
and Villar de Grajanejos.

Royal line: João IV to João VI (1604–1826) edit

Genealogical tree of the House of Braganza, from its first monarch, João IV, King of Portugal, to the fracture of the house into its three main branches, in the issue of João VI, King of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves:

King João IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
8th Duke of Braganza

Prince Teodósio
1st Prince of Brazil
King Afonso VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves
King Pedro II
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Princess Joana
1st Princess of Beira
Queen Catarina
Queen Consort of England
Infante Francisco
Duke of Beja
Infante António
Infante of Portugal
Infanta Francisca Josefa
Infanta of Portugal
King João V
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Infante Manuel
Count of Ourém
Princess Isabel Luísa
Princess of Beira
Luísa of Braganza
Duchess of Cadaval
José of Braganza
Archbishop of Braga

Miguel of Braganza
Duke of Lafões
João of Braganza
Duke of Abrantes
Infante Carlos
Infante of Portugal
King José I
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Queen Barbara
Queen Consort of Spain
José of Braganza
High-Inquisitor of Portugal

Gaspar of Braganza
Archbishop of Braga

From his issue
descend the lines of the
Dukes of Lafões, the
Marquises of Marialva
and of Arronches
King Peter III
King of Portugal and the Algarves
3rd Lord of the Infantado

Queen Maria I
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Queen of Brazil

Infanta Maria Ana
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Doroteia
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Mariana
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta of Spain

King João VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves
King and Emperor of Brazil

Prince José
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Beira

Princess Benedita
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Beira

Infante Pedro
Infante of Portugal
Infante of Spain

Princess Teresa
Princess of Beira
Countess of Molina

King Miguel I
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Duke of Braganza

Emperor-King Pedro I/IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Emperor of Brazil

Queen Maria Isabel
Queen Consort of Spain
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Assunção
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Francisca
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta of Spain

Infanta Isabel
Regent of Portugal
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Ana de Jesus
Infanta of Portugal
Marquise of Loulé

From their marriage
descends the
House of
From him descends
the Miguelist branch of the
House of Braganza
Queen Maria II
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Emperor Pedro II
Emperor of Brazil
From her marriage
descends the
House of Loulé
From her descends
the Constitutional branch of the
House of Braganza
From him descends
the Brazilian branch of the
House of Braganza

Constitutional line: Maria II to Manuel II (1819–1932) edit

Imperial line: Pedro I to Pedro II (1798–1891) edit

Genealogical tree of the Brazilian branch House of Braganza, from its first monarch, Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, to the issue of Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil.

Emperor-King Pedro I/IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Emperor of Brazil

Queen Maria II
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Princess Januária
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Countess of Aquila

Emperor Pedro II
Emperor of Brazil
Princess Paula
Princess of Brazil
Princess Francisca
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Joinville

Princess Maria Amélia
Princess of Brazil
From her descends the
Constitutional Line
Princess Isabel
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Princess Leopoldina
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

From her descends the
House of Orléans-Braganza
From her descends
the cadet branch of the
Brazilian Imperial Family

Orléans-Braganza line: Isabel to Luiz & Pedro Carlos (1846–Present) edit

Genealogical tree of the House of Orléans-Braganza, from its origin to the current claimants:

Vassouras line: The descendants of Prince Luís of Orléans-Braganza

Princess Isabel
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Countess of Eu
Prince Pedro de Alcântara
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Luís
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Antônio Gastão
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Pedro Henrique
Prince and Head of the House of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Luiz Gastão
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Princess Pia Maria
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Countess Nicolay
Prince Luiz
Prince and Head of the House of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Bertrand
Prince and Head of the House of Orléans-Braganza
(b. 1941)
Princess Isabel
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Antônio
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(b. 1950)
Princess Eleanora
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Princess of Ligne
(b. 1953)
Seven more
Princes of Orléans-Braganza
who renounced their dynastic rights
Prince Rafael Antônio
Prince of Grão-Pará
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(b. 1986)
Princess Maria Gabriela
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
(b. 1989)

Petrópolis line: The descendants of Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará

Princess Isabel
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Prince Pedro de Alcântara
Prince of Grão-Pará
Prince of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Luís
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Antônio Gastão
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza

Princess Isabelle
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Countess of Paris

Prince Pedro Gastão
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Princess Maria Francisca
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Duchess of Braganza

Prince João Maria
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
Princess Teresa Teodora
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
Prince Pedro Carlos
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(b. 1945)
Princess Maria da Glória
Princess of Orléans-Braganza
former Crown Princess of Yugoslavia

(b. 1946)

Miguelist line: Miguel I to Duarte Pio (1802–Present) edit

Agnatic descendants of John IV edit

Non-agnatic branches edit

See also edit

Endnotes edit

  1. ^ There is some controversy regarding the ancestry of Inês Pires (born in Borba, c. 1350). She was the daughter of Pedro Esteves (for that she is sometimes called Inês Pires Esteves) and Maria Anes ("Grande Enciclopédia Portuguesa e Brasileira", Editorial Enciclopédia, Lisboa, vol. 4, pp. 172; António Caetano de Sousa, "História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa", Atlântida Ed., Coimbra, 1946, vol. 2, pp. 25). Some historians and genealogist claim that her father was a converso – a Jew converted to Catholicism (Augusto Soares d' Azevedo Barbosa de Pinho Leal, "Portugal Antigo e Moderno", Cota d' Armas, Lisboa, 1990; Isabel Violante Pereira, "De Mendo da Guarda a D. Manuel I", Livros Horizonte, Lisboa, 2001), while the majority of sources give her a long and well attested noble Christian ancestry (Felgueiras Gayo, "Nobiliário das Famílias de Portugal", Carvalhos de Basto, Braga, 1989).
  2. ^ a b Title currently held by Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
  3. ^ Title currently held by Afonso, Prince of Beira
  4. ^ Titles currently held by Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and Afonso, Prince of Beira
  5. ^ Title currently held Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto
  6. ^ Title currently held by Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu
  7. ^ Title currently held by Infante Maria Francisca, Duchess of Coimbra

References edit

  1. ^ Marques 1976, pp. 88–89.
  2. ^ a b c Newitt 2019, p. 67.
  3. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 69–76.
  4. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 189–202.
  5. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 318.
  6. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 39, 291.
  7. ^ a b McMurdo 1889a, p. 352.
  8. ^ McMurdo 1889a, p. 235.
  9. ^ McMurdo 1889a, p. 470.
  10. ^ McMurdo 1889a, p. 484.
  11. ^ Marques 1976, p. 180.
  12. ^ McMurdo 1889a, pp. 488, 490.
  13. ^ Marques 1976, p. 179.
  14. ^ McMurdo 1889b, p. 2.
  15. ^ Stephens 1891, pp. 159–160.
  16. ^ McMurdo 1889b, pp. 13–18.
  17. ^ Stephens 1891, p. 162.
  18. ^ a b c Newitt 2019, p. 68.
  19. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 69.
  20. ^ McMurdo 1889b, p. 363.
  21. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 47.
  22. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 118.
  23. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 153.
  24. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 137.
  25. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 166–170.
  26. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 173, 181.
  27. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 183–184.
  28. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 189.
  29. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 202.
  30. ^ a b Newitt 2019, p. 213.
  31. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 302.
  32. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 219–220.
  33. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 221–224.
  34. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 228–229.
  35. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 230.
  36. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 233–234, 238.
  37. ^ Portuguese Constitution of 1826 p. Title 1, Article 5.
  38. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 255–259.
  39. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 260.
  40. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 273–274.
  41. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 276–277.
  42. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 283.
  43. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 286–287.
  44. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 290–291.
  45. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 292–293.
  46. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 48.
  47. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 295.
  48. ^ a b Newitt 2019, p. 296.
  49. ^ Law no. 2040 (published in the Diário do Governo no. 99/1950, Series I of 1950-05-27, p. 323)
  50. ^ a b Zúquete 1989, p. 214
  51. ^ Newitt 2019, pp. 318–319.
  52. ^ a b c Podesta, Don. 20 April 1993. Claimants Dream of New Brazilian Monarchy.
  53. ^ Justiça Eleitoral. Resultado Geral do Plebiscito de 1993.
  54. ^ a b Barbosa 1860, p. 167
  55. ^ Berry 1828, article: America, Independent States of (Note: English translation of a decree of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil)
  56. ^ Brazil 1890, p. 3 (Portuguese Royal decree signed by Prince Regent Dom João on 20 January 1813)
  57. ^ Sousa 1736, p. 28.
  58. ^ Newitt 2019, p. 49.

Sources edit

  • Barbosa, Ignacio de Vilhena (1860). As cidades e villas da Monarchia portugueza que teem brasão d'armas: Volume I. Lisboa: Typographia do Panorama.
  • Berry, William (1828). Encyclopaedia Heraldica or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry: Volume I. London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper.
  • Brazil (1890). Collecção das leis do Brazil de 1812. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional.
  • Leal, Augusto Soares de Azevedo Barbosa de Pinho (1882). Portugal Antigo e Moderno; Diccionario: Volume X. Lisboa: Mattos Moreira.
  • Marques, Antonio Henrique R. de Oliveira (1976). History of Portugal.
  • McMurdo, Edward (1889a). History of Portugal. Vol. II. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington.
  • McMurdo, Edward (1889b). History of Portugal. Vol. III. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington.
  • Newitt, Malyn (2019). The Braganzas: The Rise and Fall of the Ruling Dynasties of Portugal and Brazil, 1640–1910. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78914-165-8.
  • Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris (1841). History of the orders of knighthood of the British Empire; of the order of the Guelphs of Hanover; and of the medals, clasps and crosses, conferred for naval and military services; Volume I. London: Pickering, Rodwell.
  • Sousa, D. Antonio Caetano de (1736). Historia Genealogica da Casa Real Portugueza: Tomo II. Lisboa: Joseph Antonio da Sylva.
  • Stephens, H. Morse (1891). The Story of Portugal. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  • Zúquete, Afonso Eduardo Martins, ed. (1989). Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil (in Portuguese). Vol. III (2nd ed.). Lisboa: Editorial Enciclopédia.

External links edit

House of Braganza
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Regnal titles
Preceded by Ruling House of the
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves

Monarchy Abolished
See First Portuguese Republic
New title Ruling House of the
Kingdom of Brazil

Independence of Brazil
See Empire of Brazil
New title Ruling House of the
Empire of Brazil

Monarchy Abolished
See First Brazilian Republic
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
as the reigning house
Claimant House of the
Portuguese monarchy

Reason for succession failure:
Portuguese monarchy abolished
Preceded by
as the reigning house
Claimant House of the
Brazilian monarchy

Reason for succession failure:
Brazilian monarchy abolished
Succeeded by