A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a monarch".

In a federal republic, a division of powers exists between the federal government and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.[2] Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.

Otherwise, federal states primarily contrast with unitary states, where the central government retains many of the powers that are delegated to the subdivisions in federal republics. While there are exceptions, the overall tendency is for federal republics to be larger, more populous, and more internally heterogeneous than unitary states, with such larger size and internal heterogeneity being more manageable in a federal system than in a unitary one.

Contemporary edit

Country Official name and style Administrative divisions Form of government Head of state Head of government
  Argentina Argentine Republic Provinces (23) and autonomous city (1) Presidential system
  Austria[3] Republic of Austria States (9) Parliamentary republic Alexander Van der Bellen Karl Nehammer
  Bosnia and Herzegovina[4] Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities (2) and self-governing district (1) Parliamentary republic Željka Cvijanović
Denis Bećirović
Željko Komšić
Borjana Krišto
  Brazil[5] Federative Republic of Brazil States (26) and federal district (1) Presidential system
  Comoros Union of the Comoros Autonomous islands (3) Presidential system
  Ethiopia[6] Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions (10) and chartered cities (2) Parliamentary republic Sahle-Work Zewde Abiy Ahmed
  Germany[7] Federal Republic of Germany States (16) Parliamentary republic Frank-Walter Steinmeier Olaf Scholz
  India[8] Republic of India States (28) and union territories (8) Parliamentary republic Droupadi Murmu Narendra Modi
  Iraq Republic of Iraq Governorates (19) Parliamentary republic Abdul Latif Rashid Mohammed Shia' Al Sudani
  Mexico[9] United Mexican States States (31) and autonomous entity (1) Presidential system
  Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia States (4) Presidential system
    Nepal[10] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal[11] Provinces (7) Parliamentary republic Ram Chandra Poudel Pushpa Kamal Dahal
  Nigeria[12] Federal Republic of Nigeria States (36) and federal territory (1) Presidential system
  Pakistan[13] Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces (4), autonomous territories (2) and federal territory (1) Parliamentary republic Asif Ali Zardari Shehbaz Sharif
  Russia[14] Russian Federation Federal subjects (85) Semi-presidential system Vladimir Putin Mikhail Mishustin
  Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia Federal member states (6) Parliamentary republic Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (acting) Hamza Abdi Barre
  South Sudan Republic of South Sudan States (10), administrative areas (2) and area with special administrative status (1) Presidential system
  Sudan Republic of the Sudan States (18) Provisional government Abdel Fattah al-Burhan Osman Hussein
   Switzerland[15] Swiss Confederation Cantons (26) Directorial Parliamentary republic
  United States[16] United States of America States (50), federal district (1) and territories (14), nine of which are uninhabited. Presidential system
  Venezuela[17] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States (23) and capital district (1) Presidential system

Historical edit

Country Official name and style Period of federal form of government Administrative divisions
  Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Serenissima Res Publica Poloniae 1569–1795 Provinces and Voivodeships
  Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands 1581–1795 Provinces
  Valais Republic of the Seven Tithings 1613–1798
  Gran Colombia Republic of Colombia 1819–1831
  Federal Republic of Central America Federal Republic of Central American 1823–1838
  Granadine Confederation Granadine Confederation 1858–1863
  United States of Colombia United States of Colombia 1863–1886 States
  First Spanish Republic Spanish Republic 1873-1874 Cantons
  Republic of China Republic of China 1912–1928 Provinces
  Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1917–1922 Republics
  Weimar Republic German Reich 1919–1933 States
  East Germany German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 States
  Soviet Union[a] Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Republics
  Yugoslavia[18] Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)
1945–1992 Republics
  Serbia and Montenegro Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)

State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006)

1992–2006 Constituent republics
  Burma Union of Burma 1948–1962 States
  Indonesia Republic of the United States of Indonesia 1949–1950[b] States
  Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon 1961–1972
  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic[18] Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
1969–1990 Republics
  Czech and Slovak Federative Republic Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 1990–1992 Republics

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Nominally a federal union of multiple national republics; in practice its government and economy were highly centralized until its final years.
  2. ^ The states lived on until a final treaty in 1956 in which Republic of South Maluku and the State of Eastern Sumatra agreed to devolve into the Republic of Indonesia.

References edit

  1. ^ "republic".
  2. ^ Forum of Federations: [1], Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pp. 373–391, 2005.
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009
  8. ^ CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009
  11. ^ "UNTERM". unterm.un.org. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009
  13. ^ CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009
  14. ^ "Text of the Russian constitution in English". Constituteproject.org.
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009
  16. ^ CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009
  17. ^ CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009
  18. ^ a b "The CIA World Factbook officially dated October 15, 1991". Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-02-05.