States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories, for a total of 36 states and union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.
|States and union territories of India|
|Location||Republic of India|
7 Union territories
|Populations||States: Min:610,577 Sikkim –Max:199,812,341 Uttar Pradesh
Union Territories: 64,473 Lakshadweep – 16,787,941 National Capital Territory
|Areas||States: Min:3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa –Max:342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: Min:32 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – Max:8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
|Government||State governments, Union Government (Union territories)|
The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.
Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:
- Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal.
- The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin.
- The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.
- The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.
States reorganization (1951–1956)Edit
The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.
The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.
Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.
Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.
In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.
|Andhra Pradesh||IN-AP||AP||Southern||Hyderabad (de jure)
Amaravati (de facto) Note 1
|Visakhapatnam||1 October 1953||49,506,799||160,205||Telugu||—|
|Arunachal Pradesh||IN-AR||AR||North-Eastern||Itanagar||20 February 1987||1,383,727||83,743||English||—|
|Assam||IN-AS||AS||North-Eastern||Dispur||Guwahati||26 January 1950||31,205,576||78,550||Assamese||—|
|Bihar||IN-BR||BR||Eastern||Patna||26 January 1950||104,099,452||94,163||Hindi||Urdu|
|Chhattisgarh||IN-CT||CG||Central||Naya Raipur||Raipur||1 November 2000||25,545,198||135,194||Hindi||—|
|Goa||IN-GA||GA||Western||Panaji||Vasco da Gama||30 May 1987||1,458,545||3,702||Konkani||Marathi|
|Gujarat||IN-GJ||GJ||Western||Gandhinagar||Ahmedabad||1 May 1960||60,439,692||196,024||Gujarati||—|
|Haryana||IN-HR||HR||Northern||Chandigarh||Faridabad||1 November 1966||25,351,462||44,212||Hindi||Punjabi|
|Himachal Pradesh||IN-HP||HP||Northern||Shimla (Summer)
|Shimla||25 January 1971||6,864,602||55,673||Hindi||English|
|Jammu and Kashmir||IN-JK||JK||Northern||Srinagar (Summer)
|Srinagar||26 January 1950||12,541,302||222,236
|Jharkhand||IN-JH||JH||Eastern||Ranchi||Jamshedpur||15 November 2000||32,988,134||74,677||Hindi||Urdu|
|Karnataka||IN-KA||KA||Southern||Bangalore||1 November 1956||61,095,297||191,791||Kannada||—|
|Kerala||IN-KL||KL||Southern||Thiruvananthapuram||Kochi||1 November 1956||33,406,061||38,863||Malayalam||—|
|Madhya Pradesh||IN-MP||MP||Central||Bhopal||Indore||1 November 1956||72,626,809||308,252||Hindi||—|
|Maharashtra||IN-MH||MH||Western||Mumbai||1 May 1960||112,374,333||307,713||Marathi||—|
|Manipur||IN-MN||MN||North-Eastern||Imphal||21 January 1972||2,855,794||22,347||Meitei||English|
|Meghalaya||IN-ML||ML||North-Eastern||Shillong||21 January 1972||2,966,889||22,720||English||Khasi[a]|
|Mizoram||IN-MZ||MZ||North-Eastern||Aizawl||20 February 1987||1,097,206||21,081||English, Hindi, Mizo||—|
|Nagaland||IN-NL||NL||North-Eastern||Kohima||Dimapur||1 December 1963||1,978,502||16,579||English||—|
|Odisha||IN-OR||OD||Eastern||Bhubaneswar||26 January 1950||41,974,218||155,820||Odia||—|
|Punjab||IN-PB||PB||Northern||Chandigarh||Ludhiana||1 November 1966||27,743,338||50,362||Punjabi||—|
|Rajasthan||IN-RJ||RJ||Northern||Jaipur||1 November 1956||68,548,437||342,269||Hindi||English|
|Sikkim||IN-SK||SK||North-Eastern||Gangtok||16 May 1975||610,577||7,096||English||Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang|
|Tamil Nadu||IN-TN||TN||Southern||Chennai||26 January 1950||72,147,030||130,058||Tamil||English|
|Telangana||IN-TG||TS||Southern||HyderabadNote 1||2 June 2014||35,193,978||114,840||Telugu, Urdu||—|
|Tripura||IN-TR||TR||North-Eastern||Agartala||21 January 1972||3,673,917||10,492||Bengali, Kokborok, English||—|
|Uttar Pradesh||IN-UP||UP||Central||Lucknow||Kanpur||26 January 1950||199,812,341||243,286||Hindi||Urdu|
|Uttarakhand||IN-UT||UK||Central||DehradunNote 3||9 November 2000||10,086,292||53,483||Hindi||Sanskrit|
|West Bengal||IN-WB||WB||Eastern||Kolkata||26 January 1950||91,276,115||88,752||Bengali, Nepali[b]||Hindi, Urdu, Santali, Odia and Punjabi|
- ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.
- ^Note 2 The area of Jammu and Kashmir is 222,236 km2 according to Indian claims; thereof 101,387 km2 are under Indian administration
- ^Note 3 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.
|Union territory||ISO 3166-2:IN||Vehicle code||Capital||Largest city||Population||Area
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||IN-AN||AN||Port Blair||380,581||8,249||Hindi, English||—|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||IN-DN||DN||Silvassa||343,709||491||Gujarati, Hindi||Marathi|
|Daman and Diu||IN-DD||DD||Daman||243,247||112||English, Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani[d]||—|
|Delhi||IN-DL||DL||New Delhi||—[e]||16,787,941||1,490||Hindi||Punjabi, Urdu|
|Puducherry||IN-PY||PY||Pondicherry||1,247,953||492||English, Tamil||Malayalam, Telugu|
|Madhya Bharat||Gwalior (winter)
|Eastern States Union||Raipur||1947–1948||Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh|
|Madras State||Madras||1950–1969||Tamil Nadu|
|Patiala and East Punjab States Union||Patiala||1948–1956||Punjab|
|Bombay State||Bombay||1947–1960||Maharashtra, Gujarat|
|Bhopal State||Bhopal||1949–1956||Madhya Pradesh|
|Coorg State||Madikeri||1950–1956||Mysore State|
|Travancore-Cochin||Trivandrum||1949–1956||Kerala, Madras State|
|Hyderabad State||Hyderabad||1948–1956||Andhra Pradesh|
|Vindhya Pradesh||Rewa||1948–1956||Madhya Pradesh|
|Kutch State||Bhuj||1947–1956||Bombay State|
|Bilaspur State||Bilaspur||1948–1954||Himachal Pradesh|
|Cooch Behar State||Cooch Behar||1949||West Bengal|
- Autonomous regions of India
- Emblems of Indian States
- ISO 3166-2:IN
- List of adjectives and demonyms for states and territories of India
- List of states and union territories of India by population
- List of states in India by past population
- List of states of India by wildlife population
- List of Indian state and union territory name etymologies
- Subdivisions of India
- List of princely states of British India (alphabetical)
- Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
- Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
- Chandigarh is both a city and a union territory.
- It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English.
- Delhi is both a city and a union territory.
- "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
- Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8.
- Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1.
- G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1.
- Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
- "India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) . A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
- Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202.
- "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
- "Article 1". Constitution of India.
- "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90.
- "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Goa Chronology". goaonline.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Chhattisgarh state – History". Cg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011".
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010.
- "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". Zee news. 28 January 2010.
- "Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Urdu Gets First Language Status".
- "Sanskrit: Reviving the language in today’s India – Livemint".
- "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014.
- "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV.
- "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2015.