Uttarakhand (//), formerly known as Uttaranchal (//), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Devbhumi (literally "Land of the Gods") due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being carved from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh. It borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts. The interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital.
Location of Uttarakhand in India
Map of Uttarakhand
|Coordinates (Dehradun): Coordinates:|
|Statehood||9 November 2000[a]|
|• Body||Government of Uttarakhand|
|• Governor||Baby Rani Maurya|
|• Chief Minister||Trivendra Singh Rawat (BJP)|
|• Chief Justice||Ramesh Ranganathan|
|• Speaker of the Assembly||Premchand Aggarwal (BJP)|
|• Electoral constituencies|
|• Total||53,483 km2 (20,650 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||7,816 m (25,643 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||187 m (614 ft)|
|• Density||189/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||26th|
|GDP (nominal) (2019–20)|
|• Total||₹2.63 lakh crore (US$38 billion) (20th)|
|• Per capita||₹177,356 (US$2,600) (9th)|
|• Additional official||Sanskrit|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-UT|
|Vehicle registration||UK 01—XX|
|HDI (2017)|| 0.677|
medium · 13th
|Literacy (2011)||78.81%. 13th|
|Sex ratio (2011)||963 ♀/1000 ♂ (14th)|
|^a Uttarakhand was formed by the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 with the bifurcation of erstwhile Uttar Pradesh on 9 November 2000.|
^b Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.
^c 70 seats are open for the direct election while 1 seat is reserved for the member of Anglo-Indian community.
|Symbols of Uttarakhand|
|Song||Uttarakhand Devabhumi Matribhumi|
|Animal||Alpine Musk Deer|
|Insect||West Himalayan Common Peacock|
Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times. The region formed a part of the Uttara Kuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism. Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighboring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s.
The natives of the state are generally called Uttarakhandi, or more specifically either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India.
Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words uttara (उत्तर) meaning 'north', and khaṇḍa (खण्ड) meaning 'land', altogether simply meaning 'Northern Land'. The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of "Kedarkhand" (present day Garhwal) and "Manaskhand" (present day Kumaon). Uttarakhand was also the ancient Puranic (पौराणिक) term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas.
However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led central government and Uttar Pradesh state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its allegedly less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act. The name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region, even while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage.
In August 2006, Union Cabinet of India assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, and the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament. The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by then President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, and since January 1, 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand.
Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, paleolithic stone tools (hundreds of thousands of years old), and megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are also archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic (c. 1500 BCE) practices in the area. The Pauravas, Nandas, Mauryans, Kushanas, Kunindas, Guptas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Katyuris, Raikas, Palas, Karkotas, Chands, Parmars or Panwars, and the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns.
It is believed that the sage Vyasa scripted the Hindu epic Mahabharata in the state. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet. It is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk Hindu shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy also persisted here. However, Garhwal and Kumaon were restored to nominal Vedic Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.
Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley (modern-day Baijnath) in Kumaon. The historically significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and later remodelled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, and are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji, Buksa, and Tharu people.
By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period, learning and new forms of painting (the Pahari school of art) developed. Modern-day Garhwal was likewise unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs, also arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran Almora, the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom. It was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom also fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. The Garhwal Kingdom was then re-established from a smaller region in Tehri.
After India attained independence from the British, the Garhwal Kingdom was merged into the state of Uttar Pradesh, where Uttarakhand composed the Garhwal and Kumaon Divisions. Until 1998, Uttarakhand was the name most commonly used to refer to the region, as various political groups, including the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Uttarakhand Revolutionary Party), began agitating for separate statehood under its banner. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions. These bonds formed the basis of the new political identity of Uttarakhand, which gained significant momentum in 1994, when demand for separate statehood achieved almost unanimous acceptance among both the local populace and national political parties.
The most notable incident during this period was the Rampur Tiraha firing case on the night of 1 October 1994, which led to a public uproar. On 24 September 1998, the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly and Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council passed the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Bill, which began the process of forming a new state. Two years later the Parliament of India passed the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 and thus, on 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India.
|“||माटू हमरू, पाणी हमरू, हमरा ही छन यी बौण भी... पितरों न लगाई बौण, हमुनही त बचौण भी।
Soil ours, water ours, ours are these forests. Our forefathers raised them, it's we who must protect them.
—Old Chipko Song (Garhwali language)
Uttarakhand is also well known for the mass agitation of the 1970s that led to the formation of the Chipko environmental movement and other social movements. Though primarily a livelihood movement rather than a forest conservation movement, it went on to become a rallying point for many future environmentalists, environmental protests, and movements the world over and created a precedent for non-violent protest. It stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalized people. So much so that, a quarter of a century later, India Today mentioned the people behind the "forest satyagraha" of the Chipko movement as amongst "100 people who shaped India". One of Chipko's most salient features was the mass participation of female villagers. Both female and male activists played pivotal roles in the movement. Gaura Devi was the main activist who started this movement other participants were Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Sunderlal Bahuguna, and Ghanshyam Raturi, the popular Chipko poet.
Uttarakhand has a total area of 53,483 km2, of which 86% is mountainous and 65% is covered by forest. Most of the northern part of the state is covered by high Himalayan peaks and glaciers. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the expanding development of Indian roads, railways and other physical infrastructure was giving rise to concerns over indiscriminate logging, particularly in the Himalaya. Two of the most important rivers in Hinduism originate in the glaciers of Uttarakhand, the Ganges at Gangotri and the Yamuna at Yamunotri. They are fed by myriad lakes, glacial melts and streams. These two along with Badrinath and Kedarnath form the Chota Char Dham, a holy pilgrimage for the Hindus.
The state hosts the Bengal tiger in Jim Corbett National Park, the oldest national park of the Indian subcontinent. The Valley of Flowers, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the upper expanses of Bhyundar Ganga near Joshimath in Gharwal region, is known for the variety and rarity of its flowers and plants. One who raised this was Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, who visited the region. As a consequence, Lord Dalhousie issued the Indian Forest Charter in 1855, reversing the previous laissez-faire policy. The following Indian Forest Act of 1878 put Indian forestry on a solid scientific basis. A direct consequence was the founding of the Imperial Forest School at Dehradun by Dietrich Brandis in 1878. Renamed the 'Imperial Forest Research Institute' in 1906, it is now known as the Forest Research Institute.
The model “Forest Circles” around Dehradun, used for training, demonstration and scientific measurements, had a lasting positive influence on the forests and ecology of the region. The Himalayan ecosystem provides habitat for many animals (including bharal, snow leopards, leopards and tigers), plants, and rare herbs.
Uttarakhand lies on the southern slope of the Himalaya range, and the climate and vegetation vary greatly with elevation, from glaciers at the highest elevations to subtropical forests at the lower elevations. The highest elevations are covered by ice and bare rock. Below them, between 3,000 and 5,000 metres (9,800 and 16,400 ft) are the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows. The temperate western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests grow just below the tree line. At 3,000 to 2,600 metres (9,800 to 8,500 ft) elevation they transition to the temperate western Himalayan broadleaf forests, which lie in a belt from 2,600 to 1,500 metres (8,500 to 4,900 ft) elevation. Below 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) elevation lie the Himalayan subtropical pine forests. The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests and the drier Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands cover the lowlands along the Uttar Pradesh border in a belt locally known as Bhabar. These lowland forests have mostly been cleared for agriculture, but a few pockets remain.
In June 2013 several days of extremely heavy rain caused devastating floods in the region, resulting in more than 5000 people missing and presumed dead. The flooding was referred to in the Indian media as a "Himalayan Tsunami".
|Source: Census of India|
The native people of Uttarakhand are generally called Uttarakhandi and sometimes specifically either Garhwali or Kumaoni depending on their place of origin in either the Garhwal or Kumaon region. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292 comprising 5,137,773 males and 4,948,519 females, with 69.77% of the population living in rural areas. The state is the 20th most populous state of the country having 0.83% of the population on 1.63% of the land. The population density of the state is 189 people per square kilometre having a 2001–2011 decadal growth rate of 18.81%. The gender ratio is 963 females per 1000 males. The crude birth rate in the state is 18.6 with the total fertility rate being 2.3. The state has an infant mortality rate of 43, a maternal mortality rate of 188 and a crude death rate of 6.6.
Uttarakhand has a multiethnic population spread across two geocultural regions: the Garhwal, and the Kumaon. A large portion of the population is Rajput (various clans of erstwhile landowning rulers and their descendants), including members of the native Garhwali, and Kumaoni as well as a number of immigrants. According to a 2007 study by Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Uttarakhand has the highest percentage of Brahmins of any state in India, with approximately 20% of the population being Brahmin. 18.76% of the population belongs to the Scheduled Castes (an official term for the indigenous aboriginal lower castes in the traditional Caste system in India). Scheduled Tribes such as the Tharu, Jaunsari, Buksa, Bhotiya and Raji constitute 2.89% of the population.
Hindi belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages is the official language of Uttarakhand and is spoken by 89.15% of the population (2011 Census of India figure includes Garhwali spoken by 23.03%, Kumaoni spoken by 19.94% and Jaunsari spoken by 1.35% of the population as variants of Hindi). Sanskrit is given the status of second official language. Garhwali and Kumaoni are endangered languages listed by UNESCO. Apart from Hindi, Urdu is the most spoken language with 4.22% speakers followed by Punjabi (2.61%), Bengali (1.50%), Nepali (1.05%) and Maithili (0.54).
Government and politicsEdit
The Governor is the constitutional and formal head of the government and is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India on the advice of the Union government. The present Governor of Uttarakhand is Baby Rani Maurya. The Chief Minister, who holds the real executive powers, is the head of the party or coalition garnering the majority in the state elections. The current Chief Minister of Uttarakhand is Trivendra Singh Rawat. The unicameral Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly consists of 71 members, known as Members of the Legislative Assembly or MLAs, and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The Uttarakhand Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor of Uttarakhand on the advice of the Chief Minister of Uttarakhand and reports to the Legislative Assembly. Leader of the Opposition leads the Official Opposition in the Legislative Assembly. Auxiliary authorities that govern at a local level are known as gram panchayats in rural areas, municipalities in urban areas and municipal corporations in metro areas. All state and local government offices have a five-year term. The state also elects 5 members to Lok Sabha and 3 seats to Rajya Sabha of the Parliament of India. The judiciary consists of the Uttarakhand High Court, located at Nainital, and a system of lower courts. The incumbent Chief Justice of Uttarakhand is Justice Ramesh Ranganathan.
Politics in Uttarakhand is dominated by the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party. Since the formation of the state these two parties have ruled the state in turns. Following the hung mandate in the 2012 Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly election, the Indian National Congress, having the maximum number of seats, formed a coalition government headed by Harish Rawat that collapsed on 27 March 2016, following the political turmoil as about nine MLAs of INC rebelled against the party and supported the opposition party BJP, causing Harish Rawat government to lose the majority in assembly. However, on 21 April 2016 the High Court of Uttarakhand quashed the President's Rule questioning its legality and maintained a status quo prior to 27 March 2016 when 9 rebel MLAs of INC voted against the Harish Rawat government in assembly on state's money appropriation bill. This has been seen as a big blow to central government which is expected to take the matter to the Supreme Court of India to challenge the verdict of High Court. On 22 April 2016 the Supreme Court of India stayed the order of High Court till 27 April 2016, thereby once again reviving the President's Rule. In later developments regarding this matter, the Supreme Court ordered a floor test to be held on 10 May with the rebels being barred from voting. On 11 May at the opening of sealed result of the floor test, under the supervision of Supreme Court, the Harish Rawat government was revived following the victory in floor test held in Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly.
There are 13 districts in Uttarakhand which are grouped into two divisions, Kumaon and Garhwal. Four new districts named Didihat, Kotdwar Ranikhet, and Yamunotri were declared by then Chief Minister of Uttarakhand, Ramesh Pokhriyal, on 15 August 2011 but yet to be officially formed.
|Kumaon Division||Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Udham Singh Nagar|
|Garhwal Division||Chamoli, Dehradun, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal (commonly known as Pauri), Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal (commonly known as Tehri), Uttarkashi|
Each district is governed by a district magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions, which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions comprise blocks containing panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.
According to the 2011 census, Haridwar, Dehradun, and Udham Singh Nagar are the most populous districts, each of them having a population of over one million.
Architecture and craftsEdit
Mahasu Devta Temple at Hanol is notable for its traditional wooden architecture.
Architectural details of a Dharamshala, established 1822, Haridwar.
Abhisarika Nayika, a painting by Mola Ram.
Among the prominent local crafts is wood carving, which appears most frequently in the ornately decorated temples of Uttarakhand. Intricately carved designs of floral patterns, deities, and geometrical motifs also decorate the doors, windows, ceilings, and walls of village houses. Paintings and murals are used to decorate both homes and temples. Pahari painting is a form of painting that flourished in the region between the 17th and 19th century. Mola Ram started the Garhwal Branch of the Kangra school of painting. Guler State was known as the "cradle of Kangra paintings". Kumaoni art often is geometrical in nature, while Garhwali art is known for its closeness to nature. Other crafts of Uttarakhand include handcrafted gold jewellery, basketry from Garhwal, woollen shawls, scarves, and rugs. The latter are mainly produced by the Bhotiyas of northern Uttarakhand.
Arts and literatureEdit
Uttarakhand's diverse ethnicities have created a rich literary tradition in languages including Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni, Jaunsari, and Bhoti. Many of its traditional tales originated in the form of lyrical ballads and chanted by itinerant singers and are now considered classics of Hindi literature. Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Badri Datt Pandey, Ganga Prasad Vimal, Harikrishna Raturi, Mohan Upreti, Naima Khan Upreti, Prasoon Joshi, Shailesh Matiyani, Shekhar Joshi, Shivani, Shiv Prasad Dabral 'Charan', Taradutt Gairola, Tom Alter; Lalit Kala Akademi fellow — Ranbir Singh Bisht; Sangeet Natak Akademi Awardees — B. M. Shah, Prem Matiyani and Urmil Kumar Thapliyal; Sahitya Akademi Awardees — Leeladhar Jagudi, Manglesh Dabral, Manohar Shyam Joshi, Ramesh Chandra Shah, Ruskin Bond and Viren Dangwal; Jnanpith Awardee and Sahitya Akademi fellow Sumitranandan Pant are some major literary, artistic and theatre personalities from the state. Prominent philosophers, Indian independence activists and environmental activists Gaura Devi, Govind Ballabh Pant, Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Kalu Singh Mahara, Mukandi Lal, Shri Dev Suman, Sunderlal Bahuguna and Vandana Shiva are also from Uttarakhand.
The primary food of Uttarakhand is vegetables with wheat being a staple, although non-vegetarian food is also served. A distinctive characteristic of Uttarakhand cuisine is the sparing use of tomatoes, milk, and milk-based products. Coarse grain with high fibre content is very common in Uttarakhand due to the harsh terrain. Crops most commonly associated with Uttarakhand are Buckwheat (locally called Kotu or Kuttu) and the regional crops, Maduwa and Jhangora, particularly in the interior regions of Kumaon and Garhwal. Generally, either Desi Ghee or Mustard oil is used for the purpose of cooking food. Simple recipes are made interesting with the use of hash seeds Jakhiya as spice. Bal Mithai is a popular fudge-like sweet. Other popular dishes include Dubuk, Chains, Kap, Bhatiya, Phana, Paliyo, Chutkani and Sei. In sweets; Swal, Ghughut/Khajur, Arsa, Mishri, Gatta and Gulgulas are popular. A regional variation of Kadhi called Jhoi or Jholi is also popular.
Dances and musicEdit
The dances of the region are connected to life and human existence and exhibit myriad human emotions. Langvir Nritya is a dance form for males that resembles gymnastic movements. Barada Nati folk dance is another dance of Jaunsar-Bawar, which is practised during some religious festivals. Other well-known dances include Hurka Baul, Jhora-Chanchri, Chhapeli, Thadya, Jhumaila, Pandav, Chauphula, and Chholiya. Music is an integral part of the Uttarakhandi culture. Popular types of folk songs include Mangal, Basanti, Khuder and Chhopati. These folk songs are played on instruments including dhol, damau, turri, ransingha, dholki, daur, thali, bhankora, mandan and mashakbaja. "Bedu Pako Baro Masa" is a popular folk song of Uttarakhand with international fame and legendary status within the state. It serves as the cultural anthem of Uttarakhandi people worldwide. Music is also used as a medium through which the gods are invoked. Jagar is a form of spirit worship in which the singer, or Jagariya, sings a ballad of the gods, with allusions to great epics, like Mahabharat and Ramayana, that describe the adventures and exploits of the god being invoked. Basanti Devi Bisht, Chander Singh Rahi, Girish Tiwari 'Girda', Gopal Babu Goswami, Heera Singh Rana, Narendra Singh Negi and Meena Rana are popular folk singers and musicians from the state, so is country music singer Bobby Cash.
Fairs and festivalsEdit
One of the major Hindu pilgrimages, Haridwar Kumbh Mela, takes place in Uttarakhand. Haridwar is one of the four places in India where this mela is organised. Haridwar most recently hosted the Purna Kumbh Mela from Makar Sankranti (14 January 2010) to Vaishakh Purnima Snan (28 April 2010). Hundreds of foreigners joined Indian pilgrims in the festival which is considered the largest religious gathering in the world.
Kumauni Holi, in forms including Baithki Holi, Khari Holi, and Mahila Holi, all of which start from Vasant Panchami, are festivals and musical affairs that can last almost a month. Ganga Dashahara, Vasant Panchami, Makar Sankranti, Ghee Sankrant, Khatarua, Vat Savitri, and Phul Dei are other major festivals. In addition, various fairs like Kanwar Yatra, Kandali Festival, Ramman, Harela mela, Kauthig, Nauchandi Mela, Giddi Mela, Uttarayani Mela and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Mela take place.
The Uttarakhand state is the second fastest growing state in India. It's gross state domestic product (GSDP) (at constant prices) more than doubled from ₹24,786 crore in FY2005 to ₹60,898 crore in FY2012. The real GSDP grew at 13.7% (CAGR) during the FY2005–FY2012 period. The contribution of the service sector to the GSDP of Uttarakhand was just over 50% during FY 2012. Per capita income in Uttarakhand is ₹1,03,000 (FY 2013) which is higher than the national average of ₹74,920 (FY2013). According to the Reserve Bank of India, the total foreign direct investment in the state from April 2000 to October 2009 amounted to US$46.7 million.
Like most of India, agriculture is one of the most significant sectors of the economy of Uttarakhand. Basmati rice, wheat, soybeans, groundnuts, coarse cereals, pulses, and oil seeds are the most widely grown crops. Fruits like apples, oranges, pears, peaches, lychees, and plums are widely grown and important to the large food processing industry. Agricultural export zones have been set up in the state for lychees, horticulture, herbs, medicinal plants, and basmati rice. During 2010, wheat production was 831 thousand tonnes and rice production was 610 thousand tonnes, while the main cash crop of the state, sugarcane, had a production of 5058 thousand tonnes. As 86% of the state consists of hills, the yield per hectare is not very high. 86% of all croplands are in the plains while the remaining is from the hills.
|Economy of Uttarakhand at a Glance|
|Economy at a Glance (FY-2012)||In Indian rupees|
|Per capita income||₹1,03,000|
Other key industries include tourism and hydropower, and there is prospective development in IT, ITES, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and automobile industries. The service sector of Uttarakhand mainly includes tourism, information technology, higher education, and banking.
During 2005–2006, the state successfully developed three Integrated Industrial Estates (IIEs) at Haridwar, Pantnagar, and Sitarganj; Pharma City at Selakui; Information Technology Park at Sahastradhara (Dehradun); and a growth centre at Sigaddi (Kotdwar). Also in 2006, 20 industrial sectors in public private partnership mode were developed in the state.
Flora and faunaEdit
Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster)
Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus)
West Himalayan Common Peacock (Papilio bianor polyctor)
Uttarakhand has a diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 34,666 km2 which constitutes 65% of the total area of the state. Uttarakhand is home to rare species of plants and animals, many of which are protected by sanctuaries and reserves. National parks in Uttarakhand include the Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest national park of India) at Ramnagar in Nainital District, and Valley of Flowers National Park and Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli District, which together are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A number of plant species in the valley are internationally threatened, including several that have not been recorded from elsewhere in Uttarakhand. Rajaji National Park in Haridwar District and Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Sanctuary and Gangotri National Park in Uttarkashi District are some other protected areas in the state.
Leopards are found in areas which are abundant in hills but may also venture into the lowland jungles. Smaller felines include the jungle cat, fishing cat, and leopard cat. Other mammals include four kinds of deer (barking, sambar, hog and chital), sloth, Brown and Himalayan black bears, Indian gray mongooses, otters, yellow-throated martens, bharal, Indian pangolins, and langur and rhesus monkeys. In the summer, elephants can be seen in herds of several hundred. Marsh crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris), gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) and other reptiles are also found in the region. Local crocodiles were saved from extinction by captive breeding programs and subsequently re-released into the Ramganga river. Several freshwater terrapins and turtles like the Indian sawback turtle (Kachuga tecta), brahminy river turtle (Hardella thurgii), and Ganges softshell turtle (Trionyx gangeticus) are found in the rivers. Butterflies and birds of the region include red Helen (Papilio helenus), the great eggfly (Hypolimnos bolina), common tiger (Danaus genutia), pale wanderer (Pareronia avatar avatar), jungle babbler, tawny-bellied babbler, great slaty woodpecker, red-breasted parakeet, orange-breasted green pigeon and chestnut-winged cuckoo. In 2011, a rare migratory bird, the bean goose, was also seen in the Jim Corbett National Park. A critically endangered bird ,last seen in 1876 is the Himalayan quail endemic to the western Himalayas of the state.
Evergreen oaks, rhododendrons, and conifers predominate in the hills. sal (Shorea robusta), silk cotton tree (Bombax ciliata), Dalbergia sissoo, Mallotus philippensis, Acacia catechu, Bauhinia racemosa, and Bauhinia variegata (camel's foot tree) are some other trees of the region. Albizia chinensis, the sweet sticky flowers of which are favoured by sloth bears, are also part of the region's flora. A decade long study by Prof. Chandra Prakash Kala concluded that the Valley of Flowers is endowed with 520 species of higher plants (angiosperms, gymnosperms and pteridophytes), of these 498 are flowering plants. The park has many species of medicinal plants including Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Picrorhiza kurroa, Aconitum violaceum, Polygonatum multiflorum, Fritillaria roylei, and Podophyllum hexandrum. In the summer season of 2016, a large portion of forests in Uttarakhand caught fires and rubbled to ashes during Uttarakhand forest fires incident which resulted in the damage of forest resources worth billions of rupees and death of 6 people with hundreds of wild animals died during fires.
Uttarakhand has 28,508 km of roads, of which 1,328 km are national highways and 1,543 km are state highways. The State Road Transport Corporation (SRTC), which has been reorganised in Uttarakhand as the Uttarakhand Transport Corporation (UTC), is a major constituent of the transport system in the state. The Corporation began to work on 31 October 2003 and provides services on interstate and nationalised routes. As of 2012, approximately 1000 buses are being plied by the UTC on 35 nationalised routes along with many other non-nationalised routes. There are also private transport operators operating approximately 3000 buses on non-nationalised routes along with a few interstate routes in Uttarakhand and the neighbouring state of U.P. For travelling locally, the state, like most of the country, has auto rickshaws and cycle rickshaws. In addition, remote towns and villages in the hills are connected to important road junctions and bus routes by a vast network of crowded share jeeps.
The air transport network in the state is gradually improving. Jolly Grant Airport in Dehradun, is the busiest airport in the state with six daily flights to Delhi Airport. Pantnagar Airport, located in Pantnagar of the Kumaon region have 1 daily air service to delhi and return too . There government is planning to develop Naini Saini Airport in Pithoragarh, Bharkot Airport in Chinyalisaur in Uttarkashi district and Gauchar Airport in Gauchar, Chamoli district. There are plans to launch helipad service in Pantnagar and Jolly Grant Airports and other important tourist destinations like Ghangaria and Hemkund Sahib.
As over 86% of Uttarakhand's terrain consists of hills, railway services are very limited in the state and are largely confined to the plains. In 2011, the total length of railway tracks was about 345 km. Rail, being the cheapest mode of transport, is most popular. The most important railway station in Kumaun Division of Uttarakhand is at Kathgodam, 35 kilometres away from Nainital. Kathgodam is the last terminus of the broad gauge line of North East Railways that connects Nainital with Delhi, Dehradun, and Howrah. Other notable railway stations are at Pantnagar, Lalkuan and Haldwani.
Dehradun railway station is a railhead of the Northern Railways. Haridwar station is situated on the Delhi–Dehradun and Howrah–Dehradun railway lines. One of the main railheads of the Northern Railways, Haridwar Junction Railway Station is connected by broad gauge line. Roorkee comes under Northern Railway region of Indian Railways on the main Punjab – Mughal Sarai trunk route and is connected to major Indian cities. Other railheads are Rishikesh, Kotdwar and Ramnagar linked to Delhi by daily trains.
View of a Bugyal (meadow) in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand has many tourist spots due to its location in the Himalayas. There are many ancient temples, forest reserves, national parks, hill stations, and mountain peaks that draw large number of tourists. There are 44 nationally protected monuments in the state. Oak Grove School in the state is on the tentative list for World Heritage Sites. Two of the most holy rivers in Hinduism the Ganges and Yamuna, originate in Uttarakhand.
Uttarakhand has long been called "Land of the Gods" as the state has some of the holiest Hindu shrines, and for more than a thousand years, pilgrims have been visiting the region in the hopes of salvation and purification from sin. Gangotri and Yamunotri, the sources of the Ganges and Yamuna, dedicated to Ganga and Yamuna respectively, fall in the upper reaches of the state and together with Badrinath (dedicated to Vishnu) and Kedarnath (dedicated to Shiva) form the Chota Char Dham, one of Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious pilgrimage circuits. Haridwar, meaning "Gateway to the God", is a prime Hindu destination. Haridwar hosts the Haridwar Kumbh Mela every twelve years, in which millions of pilgrims take part from all parts of India and the world. Rishikesh near Haridwar is known as the preeminent yoga centre of India. The state has an abundance of temples and shrines, many dedicated to local deities or manifestations of Shiva and Durga, references to many of which can be found in Hindu scriptures and legends. Uttarakhand is, however, a place of pilgrimage for the adherents of other religions too. Piran Kaliyar Sharif near Roorkee is a pilgrimage site to Muslims, Gurdwara Hemkund Sahib, Gurdwara Nanakmatta Sahib and Gurdwara Reetha Sahib are pilgrimage centers for Sikhs. Tibetan Buddhism has also made its presence with the reconstruction of Mindrolling Monastery and its Buddha Stupa, described as the world's highest at Clement Town, Dehradun.
The state has 12 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries which cover 13.8 percent of the total area of the state. They are located at different altitudes varying from 800 to 5400 metres. The oldest national park on the Indian sub-continent, Jim Corbett National Park, is a major tourist attraction.
Vasudhara Falls, near Badrinath is a waterfall with a height of 122 metres (400 ft) set in a backdrop of snow-clad mountains. The state has always been a destination for mountaineering, hiking, and rock climbing in India. A recent development in adventure tourism in the region has been whitewater rafting in Rishikesh. Due to its proximity to the Himalaya ranges, the place is full of hills and mountains and is suitable for trekking, climbing, skiing, camping, rock climbing, and paragliding. Roopkund is a trekking site, known for the mysterious skeletons found in a lake, which was featured by National Geographic Channel in a documentary. The trek to Roopkund passes through the meadows of Bugyal.
On 30 September 2010 there were 15,331 primary schools with 1,040,139 students and 22,118 working teachers. At the 2011 census the literacy rate of the state was 78.81% with 87.4% literacy for males and 70% literacy for females. The language of instruction in the schools is either English or Hindi. There are mainly government-run, private unaided (no government help), and private aided schools in the state. The main school affiliations are CBSE, CISCE or UBSE, the state syllabus defined by the Department of Education of the Government of Uttarakhand.
Uttarakhand is also home to a number of universities and degree colleges. Dehradun is known as school capital of India.
The high mountains and rivers of Uttarakhand attract many tourists and adventure seekers. It is also a favorite destination for adventure sports, such as paragliding, sky diving, rafting and bungee jumping.
- "Uttarakhand State Budget 2019-20" (PDF). PRS. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 3 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Trivedi, Anupam (19 January 2010). "Sanskrit is second official language in Uttarakhand". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Sanskrit second official language of Uttarakhand". The Hindu. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "State Symbols of Uttarakhand". Garhwal Mandal Vikas Nigam Limited. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Now Uttarakhand Will Sing Its Own Official Song". The Times of India. 6 February 2016. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- "ढोल होगा उत्तराखण्ड का राज्य वाद्य" (in Hindi). Dainik Jagran. 13 February 2015. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Common Peacock Male Papilio Bianor Polyctor". Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Uttarakhand To Declare Common Peacock As State Butterfly". 18 November 2016. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "Uttarakhand State Signs | Uttarakhand State Tree". uttaraguide.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
State Flower : Brahma Kamal
- "Myrica esculenta". ayushveda.com. 2016. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- Ved Vilas, Uniyal (2 June 2018). "नारैण काफल पाको चैता..." Devbhoomi Media. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Ganga gets a tag: national river – Vote whiff in step to give special status" Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, The Telegraph, 5 November 2008
- Trivedi, Anupam; Jagati, Kamal (22 March 2017). "Uttarakhand HC declares Ganga, Yamuna living entities, gives them legal rights". Hindustan Times. Dehradun/Nainital. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- "फुटबॉल होगा उत्तराखण्ड का राज्य खेल". Live Hindustan (in Hindi). 27 April 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Define Uttarakhand at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Uttarakhand – definition of Uttarakhand in English from the Oxford dictionary". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Chopra, Jaskiran (21 June 2017). "Devbhumi Uttarakhand: The original land of yoga". The Daily Pioneer. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "About Us". Government of Uttarakhand. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Uttarakhand Population, Sex Ratio, Literacy Rate Uttarakhand". www.census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- Kandari, O. P., & Gusain, O. P. (Eds.). (2001). Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture & Society. Srinagar, Garhwal: Transmedia.
- Negi, B. (2001). "Round One to the Lobbyists, Politicians and Bureaucrats." The Indian Express, 2 January.
- "Uttaranchal becomes Uttarakhand". UNI. The Tribune (India). 13 October 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Uttarakhand". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Subhash, Kak. "The Mahabharata as an encyclopaedia" (PDF). Louisiana State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Saklani, D. P. (1998). Ancient communities of the Himalaya. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.
- Pande, B. D. (1993). History of Kumaun: English version of "Kumaun Ka Itihas". Almora, U.P., India: Shyam Prakashan: Shree Almora Book Depot.
- Rawat, A. S. (1989). History of Garhwal, 1358–1947: an erstwhile kingdom in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.
- Saklani, A. (1987). The history of a Himalayan princely state: change, conflicts and awakening: an interpretative history of princely state of Tehri Garhwal, U.P., A.D. 1815 to 1949 A.D. (1st ed.). Delhi: Durga Publications.
- Aggarwal, J. C., Agrawal, S. P., & Gupta, S. S. (Eds.). (1995). Uttarakhand: past, present, and future. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co.
- Kumar, P. (2000). The Uttarakhand Movement: Construction of a Regional Identity. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.
- "HC quashes CBI report on Rampur Tiraha firing". The Times of India. 31 July 2003. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Reorganisation Bill passed by UP Govt Archived 7 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Indian Express, 24 September 1998.
- Sengupta, Amit (11 September 2004). "Chipko! Hill conservationists". Tehelka. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Guha, R. (2000). The unquiet woods: ecological change and peasant resistance in the Himalaya (Expanded ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
- Hijacking Chipko Archived 10 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Political ecology: a critical introduction, by Paul Robbins. Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. ISBN 1-4051-0266-7. Page 194.
- Agarwal, Anil. "The Chipko Movement". india-today.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Mishra, A., & Tripathi, (1978). Chipko movement: Uttaranchal women's bid to save forest wealth. New Delhi: People's Action/Gandhi Book House.
- "Chipko Movement, India". International Institute for Sustainable Development. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Info about Uttarakhand". Nainital Tours & Package. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Negi, S. S. (1991). Himalayan rivers, lakes, and glaciers. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.
- Kala, C.P. 2012. How Valley of Flowers Got World Heritage, Site Tag. Down to Earth. "How Valley of Flowers got World Heritage Site tag". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- Sinha, Govind Narayan (September 2006). British India's Forestry and Modern Environmentalism. Itanagar: State Forest Research Institute, Department of Environment & Forests, Government of Arunachal Pradesh Publication No. 22 – General.
- Negi, S. S. (1995). Uttarakhand: land and people. New Delhi: MD Pub.
- "Census Population" (PDF), Census of India, Ministry of Finance India, archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008, retrieved 18 December 2008
- "Census of India-2011 (Uttarakhand)" (PDF) (in Hindi). Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India (ORGI). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Provisional Population Totals (Uttarakhand)". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India (ORGI). Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Demography". Government of Uttarakhand. Archived from the original on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Annual Health Survey 2010–2011 Fact Sheet" (PDF). Govt. of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Brahmins In India". Outlook. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Sharma, S.R. (1993). "Tibeto-Burman Languages of Uttar Pradesh-- an Introduction". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 53: 343–348. JSTOR 42936456.
- "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- ""Baby Rani Maurya sworn in as new Uttarakhand governor"". Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- Kavita Upadhyay. "Trivendra Singh Rawat takes oath as Uttarakhand Chief Minister Archived 19 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine". The Hindu. 18 March 2017.
- "Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly". legislativebodiesinindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 9 April 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Our Parliament". Parliamentofindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Justice Ramesh Ranganathan Sworn-in As Uttarakhand High Court Chief Justice". The Indian Express. 3 November 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- "Uttarakhand CM announces four new districts". Zee News. 15 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Subodh Upadhyay, An Essence of Himalaya, a book about Uttarakhand cuisine
- "Folk Dances Of North India". culturalindia.net. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Folk Songs of Uttarakhand". aboututtarakhand.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Bedu Pako". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015.
- "Bedu Pako Song – From Uttarakhand to Globe". Uttarakhand Stories – Connect to Uttarakhand with eUttarakhand and Share Stories. 16 November 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- "Dylan of hills singes CM". The Telegraph. 30 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Millions dip in Ganges at world's biggest religious festival". 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2017., The Independent, 14 April 2010
- "Madhya Pradesh now fastest growing state, Uttarakhand pips Bihar to reach second". The Indian Express. 8 September 2014. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Uttarakhand's per capita income up : State of the States – India Today". Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Shishir Prashant (11 July 2014). "Uttarakhand per capita income rises to Rs 1.03 lakh". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Uttarakhand" (PDF). India Brand Equity Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Uttarakhand: The State Profile" (PDF). PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Uttarakhand Economy at a Glance". State Domestic Product and other aggregates (2004–05 series). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 1 August 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Uttaranchal (Uttarakhand)". Government of India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Uttarakhand Annual Plan 2011–12 Finalisation Meeting Between Hon'ble Dputy Chairman, Planning Commission & Hon'ble Chief Minister, Uttarakhand" (PDF). planningcommission.nic.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Wildlife Eco-Tourism In Uttarakhand" (PDF). uttarakhandforest.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- Riley, Laura; William Riley (2005):208. Nature's Strongholds: The World's Great Wildlife Reserves. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12219-9.
- K. P. Sharma (1998). Garhwal & Kumaon: A Guide for Trekkers and Tourists. Cicerone Press Limited. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-1-85284-264-2. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "A Rare Visit of Ben Goose at Corbett". corbett-national-park.com. 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Kala, C.P. 2005. The Valley of Flowers; A newly declared World Heritage Site. Current Science, 89 (6): 919–920.
- Kala, C.P. 2004. The Valley of Flowers; Myth and Reality. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, India
- "Historical Information". Government of Uttarakhand. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Uttarakhand Getting there & around". lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Govt seeks Rs 25 cr from Centre for Naini-Saini airport". Business Standard. 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Airports in Uttarakhand". uttaranchal-india.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Dehradun Railway Station". euttaranchal.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Alphabetical List of Monuments — Uttarakhand". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Dilwali, A., & Pant, P. (1987). The Garhwal Himalayas, ramparts of heaven. New Delhi: Lustre Press.
- "Mindrolling Monastery". lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Dalai Lama Consecrates Stupa at Mindroling Monastery". Voice of America Tibetan. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Places in Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal)". lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Celebrating Uttarakhand Sthapna Diwas! Ten best cities of Uttarakhand one must visit" (Travel). Humari Baat. Humari Baat. 11 November 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Bisht, Harshwanti (1994). Tourism in Garhwal Himalaya : with special reference to mountaineering and trekking in Uttarkashi and Chamoli Districts. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co. pp. 41, 43. ISBN 9788173870064. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016.
- "Destination for Adventure Sports". mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "UTET". Uttarakhand. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Primary schools in Uttarakhand as of 30 September 2010" (PDF) (in Hindi). Government of Uttarakhand. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Enrollment of (General) Children in Primary School" (PDF). Government of Uttarakhand. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Status of teachers (districtwise) as of 30 September 2010" (PDF). Government of Uttarakhand. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India : Latest news, India, Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal, Uttarakhand, J&K, sports, cricket". Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Rivett-Carnac, J. H. (1879). Archaeological Notes On Ancient Sculpturings On Rocks In Kumaon, India. Calcutta : G.H. Rouse.
- Upreti, Ganga Dutt (1894). Proverbs & folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal. Lodiana Mission Press.
- Oakley, E. Sherman (1905). Holy Himalaya: The Religion, Traditions and Scenery of Himalayan Province (Kumaon and Garwhal). Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, London.
- Raja Rudradeva of Kumaon; (Edited with English Translation by Haraprasada Shastri) (1910). Syanika Shastra: A Book on Hawking. Asiatic Society, Calcutta.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Handa, Umachand (2002). History of Uttaranchal. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-134-5.
- Husain, Z. (1995). Uttarakhand Movement: The Politics of Identity and Frustration, A Psycho-Analytical Study of the Separate State Movement, 1815–1995. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot. ISBN 81-85897-17-4
- Sharma, D. (1989). Tibeto-Himalayan languages of Uttarakhand. Studies in Tibeto-Himalayan languages, 3. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-171-4
- Phonia, Kedar Singh (1987). Uttarakhand: The Land of Jungles, Temples and Snows. New Delhi, India: Lancer Books.
- Mukhopadhyaya, R. (1987). Uttarakhand Movement: A Sociological Analysis. Centre for Himalayan Studies special lecture, 8. Raja Rammohunpur, Distt. Darjeeling: University of North Bengal.
- Thapliyal, Uma Prasad (2005). Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Perspectives. B. R. Pub. Corp., ISBN 81-7646-463-5.
- Negi, Vijaypal Singh, Jawaharnagar, P.O. Agastyamuni, Distt. Rudraprayag, The Great Himalayas 1998,