Amar Singh Thapa
Amar Singh Thapa distinguished as Badakaji Amar Singh Thapa[note 1](Nepali: बडाकाजी अमर सिंह थापा), or Amar Singh Thapa The Elder, (also spelled Ambar Simha) also known by the honorific name Bada Kaji ("Senior Kaji") or Budha Kaji ("The Old Kaji"), was a Gorkhali military general, governor and warlord in the Kingdom of Nepal. He was the overall commander of the Nepal Army in the conquest of Western Provinces and authoritative ruler of Kumaon, Garhwal and its West in the Kingdom of Nepal. He was referred by the King of Nepal to have been deployed as Mukhtiyar (equivalent to Prime Minister) of Western Provinces of Kumaon, Garhwal and its West. He is often hailed as Living Lion of Nepal (Nepali: ज्यूँदो बाघ; jyūm̐do bāgha) and was posthumously regarded as one of the national heroes of Nepal, who led the Anglo-Nepalese War for the Gorkhali Army.
Amar Singh Thapa
श्री बडाकाजी जर्नेल
अमर सिंह थापा
Portrait of Bada (Elder) Amar Singh Thapa
|Born||1751 A.D. (1808 B.S.)|
Sirhanchowk, Gorkha District
Gosain Kunda, Rasuwa District
|Relations||see Family of Amar Singh Thapa|
see Kunwar family
|Father||Bagh Bhim Singh Thapa|
|Awards||National heroes of Nepal (posthumous)|
|Nickname(s)||Living Lion of Nepal|
|Allegiance||Gorkha Kingdom, Nepal|
|Commands||Supreme Commander of Western front|
|Battles/wars||Anglo-Nepalese war, Battles of unification of Nepal, reinforced at 2nd Nepalese-Tibetan War|
Early life and familyEdit
He was grandson of Ranjai Singh [of Sirhanchowk] and son of Bhim Sen known as Umrao Bagh Bhim Singh Thapa[note 2], who commanded and died in the battle of Palanchowk in 1759 AD. He belonged to Bagale Thapa clan.
His family members were added to the Royal Court by Mukhtiyar of Nepal, Bhimsen Thapa, also a member of Bagale Thapa clan. His eldest son Ranadhoj Thapa was deputy to Mukhtiyar (Prime Minister) Bhimsen Thapa sharing the authority while other four sons namely – Bhaktabir Singh, Narsingh, Ramdas and Ranjore Singh, all of them were Kajis at some point. His youngest son Ranajor Singh Thapa fought with him in the Anglo-Nepalese War while his eldest son Ranadhoj Thapa, was vice to Mukhtiyar of Nepal. His grandson, young Surat Singh Thapa, was appointed to post of Kazi in 1832 A.D. to retaliate growing Darbar politics after which the government papers were jointly signed by Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa and Kazi Surath Singh. His two grandsons from eldest son Ranadhoj Thapa, namely – Ripu Mardan and Badal Singh, were both Kaji at some period. Thus, his family was another influential Bagale Thapa family in the Royal Court alongside the premier Bhimsen Thapa family.
Bada Amar Singh led many conquest battles of Western provinces in the Unification of Nepal. He was leading the conquest of Langur Gadhi in Gadhwal Region before the outbreak of second Sino-Nepalese War (1791–92 A.D.). He reinforced back to Nuwakot travelling around 1000 km in about a month, in defence of Nepalese forces during the second Sino-Nepalese War of 1791–92 A.D. In July 1804, he along with Kaji Dalbhanjan Pande informed the Company's in-charge Daroga about the orders of takeover of Butwal plains and continuation of honoring Palpa's former obligations from the King of Gorkha. After 1806, the territories of Palpa were kept under the military governorship of him and Kaji Dalbhanjan. They set up plans to establish the full Gorkhali authority over the lands by appointing officials and reviewing land grants. The general administration of the region was looked over and revenue collection was regulated by them. He dissolved the Maafi (rent-free) land grants to Jaisi Brahmins in Butwal area for continuation of payments to Gorkhali soldiers.
He commanded the Gorkhali Army with Sardar Bhakti Thapa and Hasti Dal Shah in 1804 against Garhwal Kingdom due to the Garhwal's discontinuance of annual payments to Kingdom of Nepal. The army succeeded in annexing Garhwal to Nepalese territory extending the territory of Nepal up to the Sutlej river in the west. Bada Amar commanded his troops further to Kangra fort of King Sansar Chand. They rested on Jwalamukhi and ultimately captured the fort. King Sansar Chand aided by 1500 soldiers of Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh fought against forces of Amar Singh at Ganesh Valley and retreated back only to attack at the evening. Due to the attack in the evening, Gorkhali Army lost some positions and Bada Amar returned to Sutlej river as per agreement on 24 August 1809 AD. Bada Kaji Amar Singh advised Mukhtiyar (Chief Authority) of Nepal, Bhimsen Thapa, to avoid war with the British because he waged war in person and knew the hardships of war. He was one of the senior Bharadars to have opposed the Anglo-Nepalese War due to prevalence of weak administration in the western front suggesting a possible revolt from the general people of the newly conquered western front.
The appointment letter of two of three Subbas (governor) of one-third territories of Garhwal, Surabir Khatri and Ranabir Khatri on Ashadh Badi 2, 1862 V.S. (i.e. June 1805) explained the supreme authority Mukhtiyarship (premiership) of Amar Singh in the Western province:
You know at that time that Kaji Ambar Simha Thapa had been sent there in the capacity of Mukhtiyar.......Act in all matters according to the advice of Kaji Ambar Simha Thapa and remain faithful to us.....
Similarly, another appointment letter of Subba of one-third territories of Garhwal, Sardar Chandrabir Kunwar on Ashadh Badi 2, 1862 V.S. (i.e. June 1805), also instructed the governor to act according to the advice of Amar Singh. A British soldier commented to the independent authority of Bada Amar Singh in the western front before the Anglo-Nepalese war:
Further to the westward lies the valley of the Dhoon, and the territory of Sue-na-Ghur; and further still, the more recent conquests, stretching to the village, in which Umar Sing, a chief of uncommon talents, commanded, and indeed, exercised an authority almost independent.
When the Kathmandu Durbar solicited Nepalese chiefs' opinions about a possible war with the British, Amar Singh Thapa was not alone in his opposition, declaring that –
They will not rest satisfied without establishing their own power and authority, and will unite with the hill rajas, whom we have dispossessed. We have hitherto but hunted deer; if we engage in this war, we must prepare to fight tigers.
He was against the measures adopted in Butwal and Sheeoraj, which he declared to have originated in the selfish views of persons, who scrupled not to involve the nation in war to gratify their personal avarice.
The British columns led by British Generals Rollo Gillespie and David Ochterlony in the Western front faced the defence under the command of Bada Amar Singh. During the first campaign of Anglo-Nepalese War, Badakaji Amar Singh commanded Nepalese army facing columns under Major-General Rollo Gillespie and Colonel David Ochterlony in the Western Front (Kumaon-Gadhwal axis).
He commanded Gorkhali forces to defend the town of Srinagar from The third division army under Major-General Gillespie coming from western side. His son Ranjore Singh Thapa was holding forces at Nahan, the chief town of Sirmaur.
During the second campaign, he was serving as sector commander of Sindhuli Gadhi and eastern front facing heavy casualties from the assault of Colonel Kelly and Colonel O'Hollorah under Main Operational commander David Ochterlony. His son Ranjore reached Sindhuli Gadhi to defend the fort. The British couldn't reach Sindhuli Gadhi and felt back.
Amar Singh was a religious personality who built many Hindu temples across Nepal and India. The original Gangotri Temple at Uttarakhand was built by him, which is part of Chhota Char Dham pilgrimage circuit. Jayanti Mata Temple near the Kangra Fort, Himachal Pradesh, was also built by him. He built the oldest temple in the Mithila city Janakpur, Nepal, the Sri Ram Temple. After establishment of full Gorkha authority over Palpa and adjacent Terai, he built the Amar Narayan temple at Tansen in the hills above Butwal in 1807.
Bada Kaji Amar Singh is often hailed as Living Lion of Nepal due to his fighting prowess, greater leadership and patriotism. A popular patriotic quote in the Nepalese history is attributed to him:
Ma Bagh ko Damaru hu, malai sino khane Kukur nasamjha. Translation: I am cub of tiger, don't mistake me with a carcass-eating dog.
Translated by Arjun Bhadra Khanal
The letter from the central government of Nepal held the praises of Kaji Amar Singh in the letters to other civil and military officers including provincial governors:
Kaji Ambar Simha Thapa is old and mature, and also true to his salt. Act according to his advice.
The village of Amaragadhi in western Nepal is named for him. There is a Khukuri sword named after him called Amar Singh Thapa Khukuri. This Khukuri is modeled on the real Khukuri used by him. The real Khukuri used by Amar Singh is archived at National Museum of Nepal and is more curvy in nature than other traditional Khukuris.
Letter sent to PM Bhimsen Thapa and Kazi Ranadhoj Thapa by (Pvt. seal L to R) Bakhat Singh Sardar, Dalbhanjan Pande (Pande Kazi), Ranabir Singh Thapa, Kaji Narsingh Thapa (Elder Amar Singh Thapa's third son) and sundry captains
Gangotri Temple was built by Bada Amar Singh
Jayanti Mata Temple near Kangra Fort was built by Bada Amar Singh
- Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa was distinguished from Kaji Amar Singh Thapa (sanu), Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa's father, by terms Bada and Sanu meaning elder and younger.
- His father's name was Bhim Singh Thapa with personal title of Bagh (meaning: Tiger) in the administrative office of Umarao as per government gazettes while many historians as Kumar Pradhan wrote alternatively as Bhim Sen Thapa, the same name of Mukhtiyar of Nepal.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 26.
- Regmi 1987, p. 46.
- Regmi 1975, p. 162.
- "National Heroes / Personalities / Luminaries of Nepal". ImNepal.com. 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 195.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 28.
- Hamal 1995, p. 191.
- Whelpton 1991, p. 21.
- Regmi 1975, p. 178.
- Prinsep 1825, p. 94.
- "Cover with the seal of Amar Singh Thapa". Bilder-aus-nepal.de. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 148.
- Michael 2014, p. 166.
- Michael 2014, p. 51.
- Stiller 1973, p. 228.
- Acharya 2012, pp. 83–87.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-10-15. Retrieved 2017-10-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Acharya 2012, pp. 103–117.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 50.
- Regmi 1987, p. 48.
- Srinagar, Uttarakhand
- Amar Singh Thapa
- Anon 1816, p. 426.
- Prinsep 1825, p. 460.
- Prinsep 1825, pp. 79-80.
- Anon 1816, p. 427.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2017-10-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Mishra, K. C. (1996). Pilgrimage centres and tradition in Nepal. In: D. P. Dubey (ed) Rays and Ways of Indian Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
- "Amar Singh Thapa, Badakaji". 500px.com.
- Acharya, Baburam (2012), Acharya, Shri Krishna (ed.), Janaral Bhimsen Thapa : Yinko Utthan Tatha Pattan (in Nepali), Kathmandu: Education Book House, p. 228, ISBN 9789937241748
- Anon (1816). "An Account of the War in Nepal; Contained in a Letter from an Officer on the Staff of the Bengal Army". Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany (Vol 1. May 1816): 425–429. OCLC 1514448.
- Hamal, Lakshman B. (1995), Military history of Nepal, Sharda Pustak Mandir
- Michael, Bernardo A. (2014), Statemaking and Territory in South Asia: Lessons from the Anglo–Gorkha War (1814–1816), Anthem Press, ISBN 9781783083220
- Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, p. 278, ISBN 9788180698132
- Prinsep, Henry Thoby (1825). History of the Political and Military Transactions in India During the Administration of the Marquess of Hastings, 1813–1823. 1. London: Kingsbury, Parbury & Allen. OCLC 152785969.
- Regmi, Mahesh Chandra (April 1987), "Garhwal Appointment, A.D. 1805" (PDF), Regmi Research Series, 19 (4): 46–48
- Regmi, D.R. (1975), Modern Nepal:Expansion: climax and fall, Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, ISBN 0883864916
- Stiller, Ludwig F. (1973), The rise of the House of Gorkha: a study in the unification of Nepal, 1768–1816, Manjusri Publication House, p. 390
- Whelpton, John (1991), Kings, soldiers, and priests: Nepalese politics and the rise of Jang Bahadur Rana, 1830–1857, Manohar Publications
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Amar Singh Thapa|