King of Nepal

The King of Nepal (traditionally known as the Mahārājdhirāja i.e. Great King of Kings; it can also be translated as "Sovereign Emperor" (Nepali: श्री ५ महाराजधिराज)) was Nepal's head of state and monarch from 1768 to 2008. He served as the head of the Nepalese monarchy—Shah Dynasty. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly.[1] The subnational monarchies in Mustang, Bajhang, Salyan, and Jajarkot were also abolished in October.[2]

Mahārājdhirāja of Nepal
Coat of arms of Nepal (1962–2008).svg
Royal Coat of arms (before 2006)
Details
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchMahārājdhirāja Prithvi Narayan Shah
Last monarchMahārājdhirāja Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Formation25 September 1768
Abolition28 May 2008
ResidenceNarayanhiti Palace, Kathmandu, Nepal
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Mahārājdhirāja Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah

HistoryEdit

The Kingdom of Nepal was founded on 25 September 1768 by Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king who succeeded in unifying the kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur into a single state under his Shah dynasty. The Kingdom of Nepal was de jure an absolute monarchy for most of its history. However, from 1846 until the Revolution of 1951, the country was de facto ruled by the hereditary Prime Ministers from the Rana dynasty, reducing the role of the Shah monarch to that of a figurehead. In November 1990, after the Jana Andolan movement, the new Constitution was adopted and the country became a constitutional monarchy.

On 13 February 1996, the Nepalese Civil War was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), with the aim of overthrowing the kingdom and establishing a "People's Republic". On 1 February 2005, as the security situation deteriorated in the civil war, King Gyanendra declared a state of emergency, suspended the Constitution and assumed direct control over the country.[3] On 24 April 2006, after the Loktantra Andolan movement, the king agreed to give up absolute power and to reinstate the dissolved House of Representatives.[4][5] On 21 November 2006, the Civil War ended with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord.[6] On 15 January 2007, the King was suspended from exercising his duties by the newly formed interim legislature. Finally, on 28 May 2008, the kingdom was officially abolished by the 1st Constituent Assembly and Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was declared.[7] The subnational monarchies in Mustang, Bajhang, Salyan, and Jajarkot were also abolished in October 2008.[8]

Nepalese royal massacreEdit

On 1 June 2001, most of the royal family was murdered by crown prince Dipendra.[9] Immediately after the massacre, Dipendra was proclaimed king while in a coma, but he died on 4 June 2001, after a three-day reign.[10] His uncle, Prince Gyanendra, was appointed regent for the three days, then ascended the throne himself after Dipendra died.

NoteEdit

Prithvi Narayan Shah was the first ruler of "unified" Nepal. However, prior to 1768, the modern-day Nepal consisted of various small kingdoms, among which Shah Kings continued to rule in a few of them (notably in Gorkha). So the actual history of the Shah dynasty dates much before Prithvi Narayan Shah.[11]

Royal StandardEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  2. ^ "Abolishment of subnational monarchies". Archived from the original on 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  3. ^ Staff writer (2005-02-01). "Nepal's king declares emergency". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  4. ^ Sengupta, Somini (25 April 2006). "In a Retreat, Nepal's King Says He Will Reinstate Parliament". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Full text: King Gyanendra's speech". BBC. 24 April 2006. Archived from the original on 22 December 2006. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Peace deal ends Nepal's civil war". BBC News. 21 November 2006. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  7. ^ "Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  8. ^ "Abolishment of subnational monarchies". Archived from the original on 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2020-08-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Nepal mourns slain king". BBC News. 2 June 2001. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  11. ^ "The History of Nepal". Archived from the original on 2009-08-16.