Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13 November 1780 – 27 June 1839), popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab or "Lion of Punjab", was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. He survived smallpox in infancy but lost sight in his left eye. He fought his first battle alongside his father at age 10. After his father died, he fought several wars to expel the Afghans in his teenage years and was proclaimed as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at age 21. His empire grew in the Punjab region under his leadership through 1839.
|Maharaja of Punjab|
Maharaja of Lahore
Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of Punjab)
Sher-e-Hind (Lion of Hind)
Sarkar-i-Wallah (Head of State)
Sarkar Khalsaji (Head of State)
Lord of Five Rivers
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
|1st Maharaja of the Sikh Empire|
|Reign||12 April 1801 – 27 June 1839|
|Investiture||12 April 1801 at Lahore Fort|
|Successor||Maharaja Kharak Singh|
|Chief of Sukerchakia Misl|
|Reign||April 1792 – 11 April 1801|
13 November 1780
Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl, Sikh Confederacy (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)
|Died||27 June 1839 (aged 58)|
Lahore, Sikh Empire (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)
Cremated remains stored in the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Lahore
|Spouse||Maharani Mehtab Kaur |
Maharani Jind Kaur
|Issue||Maharaja Kharak Singh|
Maharaja Sher Singh
Maharaja Duleep Singh
|Father||Sardar Maha Singh|
Prior to his rise, the Punjab region had numerous warring misls (confederacies), twelve of which were under Sikh rulers and one Muslim. Ranjit Singh successfully absorbed and united the Sikh misls and took over other local kingdoms to create the Sikh Empire. He repeatedly defeated invasions by outside armies, particularly those arriving from Afghanistan, and established friendly relations with the British.
Ranjit Singh's reign introduced reforms, modernisation, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity. His Khalsa army and government included Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims and Europeans. His legacy includes a period of Sikh cultural and artistic renaissance, including the rebuilding of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar as well as other major gurudwaras, including Takht Sri Patna Sahib, Bihar and Hazur Sahib Nanded, Maharashtra under his sponsorship.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was succeeded by his son Maharaja Kharak Singh.
Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780, to Maha Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur – the daughter of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab (now in Pakistan). Several different clans have claimed Ranjit Singh as their own. His grand-daughters - the daughters of his son Duleep Singh - believed that their true ancestors belonged to the Sandhawalia family of Rajasansi. Ranjit Singh has been described as "Sansi" in some records, which has led to claims by some scholars that he belonged to the so-called low-caste Sansi tribe. According to other claims he may have belonged to a Jaat gotra named Sansi; the Sandhawalias, who claimed Rajput descent, belonged to the same gotra.
Ranjit Singh's birth name was Buddh Singh, after his ancestor who was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, a Khalsa, and whose descendants created the Sukerchakia misl before the birth of Ranjit Singh, which became the most powerful of many small Sikh kingdoms in northwestern Southern Asia in the wake of the disintegrating Mughal Empire. The child's name was changed to Ranjit (literally, "victor in battle") by his father to commemorate his army's victory over the Muslim Chatha chieftain Pir Muhammad.
Ranjit Singh contracted smallpox as an infant, which resulted in the loss of sight in his left eye and a pockmarked face. He was short in stature, never schooled, and did not learn to read or write anything beyond the Gurmukhi alphabet, however, he was trained at home in horse riding, musketry and other martial arts.
At age 12, his father died. He then inherited his father's Sukerchakia misl estates and was raised by his mother Raj Kaur, who, along with Lakhpat Rai, also managed the estates. The first attempt on his life was made when he was 13, by Hashmat Khan, but Ranjit Singh prevailed and killed the assailant instead. At age 18, his mother died and Lakhpat Rai was assassinated, and thereon he was helped by his mother-in-law from his first marriage.
In his teens, Ranjit Singh took to alcohol, a habit that intensified in the later decades of his life, according to the chronicles of his court historians and the Europeans who visited him. However, he neither smoked nor ate beef, and required all officials in his court, regardless of their religion, to adhere to these restrictions as part of their employment contract.
Ranjit Singh married many times, in various ceremonies, and had twenty wives. Some scholars note that the information on Ranjit Singh's marriages is unclear, and there is evidence that he had many mistresses. According to Khushwant Singh in an 1889 interview with the French journal Le Voltaire, his son Dalip (Duleep) Singh remarked, "I am the son of one of my father's forty-six wives".
At age 15, Ranjit Singh married his first wife Mehtab Kaur, the only daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur, and the granddaughter of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the founder of the Kanhaiya Misl. This marriage was pre-arranged in an attempt to reconcile warring Sikh misls, wherein Mahtab Kaur was betrothed to Ranjit Singh. However, the marriage failed, with Mehtab Kaur never forgiving the fact that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and she mainly lived with her mother after marriage. The separation became complete when Ranjit Singh married Datar Kaur of the Nakai Misl in 1798. Mehtab Kaur died in 1813.
His second marriage was to, Datar Kaur (Born Raj Kaur) the youngest daughter of Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, and sister of Sardar Gyan Singh Nakai. Their engagement was set by Datar Kaur's eldest brother, Sardar Bhagwan Singh in 1784, to gain a political ally. Ranjit Singh to consolidate his position further made offers to the Nakai chief, Sardar Gyan Singh and the couple married in 1798. In 1801, she became the mother of Ranjit Singh's son and heir apparent, Kharak Singh. As Raj Kaur also being the name of Ranjit Singh's mother, she took the name of Datar Kaur because according to Punjabi Tradition, one cannot have the same name as the elders of the family. Datar Kaur took interest in political affairs, and is said to have advised her husband in important stately matters. She even accompanied her son, Kharak Singh when he was sent out on an expedition to Multan in 1818. Throughout her life she remained Ranjit Singh's favorite and he fondly addressed her as Mai Nakain. Like his first marriage, the second marriage brought him a strategic military alliance. His second wife died on 20 June 1818.
Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat (a misl north of Lahore, not to be confused the state of Gujarat). After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them via the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur had a son Multana Singh in 1819, and Daya Kaur had two sons Kashmira Singh and Pashaura Singh in 1821.
His other wives include Moran Sarkar in 1802, Chand Kaur in 1815, Lakshmi in 1820, Mehatab Kaur in 1822, Saman Kaur in 1832, as well as Guddan, Banso, Gulbahar, Gulab, Ram Devi, Rani, Bannat, Har and Danno before his final marriage to Jind Kaur.
Jind Kaur was the final spouse of Ranjit Singh. Her father, Manna Singh Aulakh, extolled her virtues to Ranjit Singh, who was concerned about the frail health of his only heir, Kharak Singh. The Maharaja married her in 1835 by 'sending his arrow and sword to her village'. On 6 September 1838 she gave birth to Duleep Singh, who became the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.
Punishment by the Akal Takht
In 1802, Ranjit Singh married Moran Sarkar, a Muslim nautch girl. This action, and other non-Sikh activities of the Maharaja, upset orthodox Sikhs, including the Nihangs, whose leader Akali Phula Singh was the Jathedar of the Akal Takht. When Ranjit Singh visited Amritsar, he was called outside the Akal Takht, where he was made to apologise for his mistakes. Akali Phula Singh took Ranjit Singh to a tamarind tree in front of the Akal Takht and prepared to punish him by flogging. Then Akali Phula Singh asked the nearby Sikh pilgrims whether they approved of Ranjit Singh's apology. The pilgrims responded with Sat Sri Akal and Ranjit Singh was released and forgiven.
Ranjit Singh had eight sons. His eldest and favorite was Maharaja Kharak Singh was the eldest from his second wife, Datar Kaur.
His first wife, Mehtab Kaur gave birth to Ishar Singh, who died at the age of two, and, after her separation from Ranjit Singh, to the twins Tara Singh and Sher Singh. Although there are rumors that the children were actually of a servant in the household of Sada Kaur. Henry Edward Fane, the nephew and aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief, India, General Sir Henry Fane, who spent several days in Ranjit Singh's company, reported, "Though reported to be the Maha Rajah's son, Sher Sing's father has never thoroughly acknowledged him, though his mother always insisted on his being so. A brother of Shere, by the same mother, has been even worse treated than himself, not being permitted to appear at court, and no office given him, either of profit or honour." Five Years in India, Volume 1 Henry Edward Fane, London, 1842
The two widows he took under his protection and married procured Multana Singh, Kashmira Singh and Pashaura Singh. These sons are also said to be biologically born to servants but procured by the queens and presented to and accepted by Ranjit Singh.
In the 1830s, Ranjit Singh suffered from numerous health complications as well as a stroke, which some historical records attribute to alcoholism and a failing liver. He died in his sleep on 27 June 1839. Four of his Hindu wives, and seven Hindu concubines with royal titles committed sati by voluntarily placing themselves onto his funeral pyre as an act of devotion.
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire fell apart and declined in its ability to tax or govern most of the Indian subcontinent. In the northwestern region, particularly the Punjab, the creation of the Khalsa community of Sikh warriors by Guru Gobind Singh accelerated the decay and fragmentation of the Mughal power in the region. Raiding Afghans attacked the Indus river valleys but met resistance from both organised armies of the Khalsa Sikhs as well as irregular Khalsa militias based in villages. The Sikhs had appointed their own zamindars, replacing the previous Muslim revenue collectors, which provided resources to feed and strengthen the warriors aligned with Sikh interests. Meanwhile, colonial traders and the East India Company had begun operations in India on its eastern and western coasts.
By the second half of the 18th century, the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent (now Pakistan and parts of north India) were a collection of fourteen small warring regions. Of the fourteen, twelve were Sikh-controlled misls (confederacies), one named Kasur (near Lahore) was Muslim controlled, and one in the southeast was led by an Englishman named George Thomas. This region constituted the fertile and productive valleys of the five rivers – Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Bias and Sutlej. The Sikh misls were all under the control of the Khalsa fraternity of Sikh warriors, but they were not united and constantly warred with each other over revenue collection, disagreements, and local priorities; however, in the event of external invasion such as from the Muslim armies of Ahmed Shah Abdali from Afghanistan, they would usually unite.
Towards the end of 18th century, the five most powerful misls were those of Sukkarchakkia, Kanhayas, Nakkais, Ahluwalias and Bhangi Sikhs. Ranjit Singh belonged to the first, and through marriage had a reliable alliance with Kanhayas and Nakkais. Among the smaller misls, some such as the Phulkias misl had switched loyalties in the late 18th century and supported the Afghan army invasion against their Khalsa brethren. The Kasur region, ruled by Muslim, always supported the Afghan invasion forces and joined them in plundering Sikh misls during the war.
Rise to fame, early conquests
Ranjit Singh's fame grew in 1797, at age 17, when the Afghan Muslim ruler Shah Zaman, of the Ahmad Shah Abdali dynasty, attempted to annex Panjab region into his control through his general Shahanchi Khan and 12,000 soldiers. The battle was fought in the territory that fell in Ranjit Singh controlled misl, whose regional knowledge and warrior expertise helped resist the invading army. This victory gained him recognition. In 1798, the Afghan ruler sent in another army, which Ranjit Singh did not resist. He let them enter Lahore, then encircled them with his army, blocked off all food and supplies, burnt all crops and food sources that could have supported the Afghan army. Much of the Afghan army retreated back to Afghanistan.
In 1799, Raja Ranjit Singh's army of 25,000 Khalsa, supported by another 25,000 Khalsa led by his mother-in-law Rani Sada Kaur of Kanhaiya misl, in a joint operation attacked the region controlled by Bhangi Sikhs centered around Lahore. The rulers escaped, marking Lahore as the first major conquest of Ranjit Singh. The Sufi Muslim and Hindu population of Lahore welcomed the rule of Ranjit Singh. In 1800, the ruler of Jammu region ceded control of his region to Ranjit Singh.
In 1801, Ranjit Singh proclaimed himself as the "Maharaja of Punjab", and agreed to a formal investiture ceremony, which was carried out by Baba Sahib Singh Bedi - a descendant of Guru Nanak. On the day of his coronation, prayers were performed across mosques, temples and gurudwaras in his territories for his long life. Ranjit Singh called his rule as "Sarkar Khalsa", and his court as "Darbar Khalsa". He ordered new coins to be issued in the name of Guru Nanak named the "NanakShahi" ("of the Emperor Nanak").
In 1802 Ranjit Singh, aged 22, took Amritsar from the Bhangi Sikh misl, paid homage at the Harmandir Sahib temple, which had previously been attacked and desecrated by the invading Afghan army, and announced that he would renovate and rebuild it with marble and gold.
On 1 January 1806, Ranjit Singh signed a treaty with the British officials of the East India Company, in which he agreed that his Sikh forces would not attempt to expand south of the Sutlej river, and the Company agreed that it would not attempt to militarily cross the Sutlej river into the Sikh territory.
In 1807, Ranjit Singh's forces attacked the Muslim ruled Kasur and, after a month of fierce fighting in the Battle of Kasur defeated the Afghan chief Qutb-ud-Din, thus expanding his empire northwest towards Afghanistan. He took Multan in 1818, and the whole Bari Doab came under his rule with that conquest. In 1819, he successfully defeated the Afghan Sunni Muslim rulers and annexed Srinagar and Kashmir, stretching his rule into the north and the Jhelum valley, beyond the foothills of the Himalayas.
The most significant encounters between the Sikhs in the command of the Maharaja and the Afghans were in 1813, 1823, 1834 and in 1837. In 1813, Ranjit Singh's general Dewan Mokham Chand led the Sikh forces against the Afghan forces of Shah Mahmud led by Dost Mohammad Khan. The Afghans lost their stronghold at Attock in that battle.
In 1813–14, Ranjit Singh's first attempt to expand into Kashmir was foiled by Afghan forces led by General Azim Khan, due to a heavy downpour, the spread of cholera, and poor food supply to his troops.
In 1818, Darbar's forces led by Misr Dewan Chand occupied Multan, killing Muzaffar Khan and defeating his forces, leading to the end of Afghan influence in the Punjab.
In July 1818, an army from the Punjab defeated Jabbar Khan, a younger brother of governor of Kashmir Azim Khan, and acquired Kashmir, along with a yearly revenue of Rs seventy lacs. Dewan Moti Ram was appointed governor of Kashmir.
In November 1819, Dost Mohammed accepted the sovereignty of the Maharaja over Peshawar, along with a revenue payment of Rs one lac a year. The Maharaja specifically ordered his forces not to harass or molest any civilian. In 1820 and 1821, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hazara and Mankera, with huge tracts of land between Jhelum and Indus, Singh Sagar Daob, were also annexed. The victories of Kashmir, Peshwar and Multan were celebrated by naming three newborns after them. Prince Kashmira Singh, Peshaura Singh and Prince Multana Singh were born to Daya Kaur and Ratan Kaur, wives of Ranjit Singh.
In 1834, Mohammed Azim Khan once again marched towards Peshawar with an army of 25,000 Khattak and Yasufzai tribesmen in the name of jihad, to fight against infidels. The Maharaja defeated the forces. Yar Mohammad was pardoned and was reinvested as governor of Peshawar with an annual revenue of Rs one lac ten thousand to Lahore Darbar.
On 25 November 1838, the two most powerful armies on the Indian subcontinent assembled in a grand review at Ferozepore as Ranjit Singh, the Maharajah of the Punjab brought out the Dal Khalsa to march alongside the sepoy troops of the East India Company and the British troops in India. In 1838, he agreed to a treaty with the British viceroy Lord Auckland to restore Shah Shoja to the Afghan throne in Kabul. In pursuance of this agreement, the British army of the Indus entered Afghanistan from the south, while Ranjit Singh’s troops went through the Khyber Pass and took part in the victory parade in Kabul.
Geography of the Sikh Empire
The Sikh Empire, also known as the Sikh Raj and Sarkar-a-Khalsa, was in the Punjab region, the name of which means "the land of the five rivers". The five rivers are the Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum, all of which are tributaries of the river Indus.
The geographical reach of the Sikh Empire under Singh included all lands north of Sutlej river, and south of the high valleys of the northwestern Himalayas. The major towns at time included Srinagar, Attock, Peshawar, Bannu, Rawalpindi, Jammu, Gujrat, Sialkot, Kangra, Amritsar, Lahore and Multan.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh allowed men from different religions and races to serve in his army and his government in various positions of authority. His army included a few Europeans, such as Jean-François Allard, but he did not employ British people, who were attempting to create a colony in the Indian subcontinent. Despite not employing them, he did maintain a diplomatic channel with the British; in 1828, he sent gifts to George IV and in 1831, he sent a mission to Simla to confer with the British Governor General, William Bentinck; while in 1838, he cooperated with them in removing the hostile Islamic Sultan in Afghanistan.
As consistent with many Punjabis of that time, Ranjit Singh was a secular king and followed the Sikh path. His policies were based on respect for all communities, Hindu, Sikh and Muslim. A devoted Sikh, Ranjit Singh restored and built historic Sikh Gurdwaras – most famously, the Harmandir Sahib, and used to celebrate his victories by offering thanks at the Harmandar. He also joined the Hindus in their temples, prohibited cow slaughter out of respect for Hindu sentiments, and visited Sufi mosques and holy places. He ordered his soldiers to neither loot nor molest civilians.
He built several Gurdwaras, Hindu Temples and even mosques and one in particular was Mai Moran Masjid which he built for his beloved muslim wife Moran Sarkar. The Sikhs led by Singh never razed places of worship to the ground belonging to the enemy. However, he did convert Muslim mosques into other uses. For example, Ranjit Singh's army desecrated Lahore's Badshahi Mosque and converted it into an ammunition store, and horse stables. Lahore's Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) was converted into "Moti Mandir" (Pearl Temple) by the Sikh army, and Sonehri Mosque were converted into a Sikh Gurdwara, but upon the request of Sufi Fakir (Satar Shah Bukhari), Ranjit Singh restored the latter back to a mosque. Lahore's Begum Shahi Mosque was also used as a gunpowder factory, earning it the nickname Barudkhana Wali Masjid, or "Gunpowder Mosque."
Singh's sovereignty was accepted by Afghan and Punjabi Muslims, who fought under his banner against the Afghan forces of Nadir Shah and later of Azim Khan. His court was ecumenical in composition: his prime minister, Dhian Singh, was a Dogra; his foreign minister, Fakir Azizuddin, was a Muslim; and his finance minister, Dina Nath, was a Brahmin. Artillery commanders such as Mian Ghausa were also Muslims. There were no forced conversions in his time. His wives Bibi Mohran, Gilbahar Begum retained their faith and so did his Hindu wives.
The army under Ranjit Singh was not limited to the Sikh community. The soldiers and troop officers included Sikhs, but also included Hindus, Muslims and Europeans. Hindu Brahmins and people of all creeds and castes served his army, while the composition in his government also reflected a religious diversity. His army included Polish, Russian, Spanish, Prussian and French officers. In 1835, as his relationship with the British warmed up, he hired a British officer named Foulkes.
However, the Khalsa army of Ranjit Singh reflected regional population, and as he grew his army, he dramatically increased the Rajput and Jat Sikhs who became the predominant members of his army. In the Doaba region his army was composed of the Jat Sikhs, in Jammu and northern Indian hills it was Hindu Rajputs, while relatively more Muslims served his army in the Jhelum river area closer to Afghanistan than other major Panjab rivers.
Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganised responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasise steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
While Ranjit Singh introduced reforms in terms of training and equipment of his military, he failed to reform the old Jagirs (Ijra) system of Mughal middlemen. The Jagirs system of state revenue collection involved certain individuals with political connections or inheritance promising a tribute (nazarana) to the ruler and thereby gaining administrative control over certain villages, with the right to force collect customs, excise and land tax at inconsistent and subjective rates from the peasants and merchants; they would keep a part of collected revenue and deliver the promised tribute value to the state. These Jagirs maintained independent armed militia to extort taxes from the peasants and merchants, and the militia prone to violence. This system of inconsistent taxation with arbitrary extortion by militia, continued the Mughal tradition of ill treatment of peasants and merchants throughout the Sikh Empire, and is evidenced by the complaints filed to Ranjit Singh by East India Company officials attempting to trade within different parts of the Sikh Empire.
According to historical records, states Sunit Singh, Ranjit Singh's reforms focused on military that would allow new conquests, but not towards taxation system to end abuse, nor about introducing uniform laws in his state or improving internal trade and empowering the peasants and merchants. This failure to reform the Jagirs-based taxation system and economy, in part led to a succession power struggle and a series of threats, internal divisions among Sikhs, major assassinations and coups in the Sikh Empire in the years immediately after the death of Ranjit Singh; an easy annexation of the remains of the Sikh Empire into British India followed, with the colonial officials offering the Jagirs better terms and the right to keep the system intact.
Ranjit Singh ensured that Panjab manufactured and was self-sufficient in all weapons, equipment and munitions his army needed. His government invested in infrastructure in the 1800s and thereafter, established raw materials mines, cannon foundries, gunpowder and arm factories. Some of these operations were owned by the state, others operated by private Sikh operatives.
However, Ranjit Singh did not make major investments in other infrastructure such as irrigation canals to improve the productivity of land and roads. The prosperity in his Empire, in contrast to the Mughal-Sikh wars era, largely came from the improvement in the security situation, reduction in violence, reopened trade routes and greater freedom to conduct commerce.
The mid 19th-century Muslim historians, such as Shahamat Ali who experienced the Sikh Empire first hand, presented a different view on Ranjit Singh's Empire and governance. According to Ali, Ranjit Singh's government was despotic, and he was a mean monarch in contrast to the Mughals. The initial momentum for the Empire building in these accounts is stated to be Ranjit Singh led Khalsa army's "insatiable appetite for plunder", their desire for "fresh cities to pillage", and entirely eliminating the Mughal era "revenue intercepting intermediaries between the peasant-cultivator and the treasury".
According to Ishtiaq Ahmed, Ranjit Singh's rule led to further persecution of Muslims in Kashmir, expanding the previously selective persecution of Shia Muslims and Hindus by Afghan Sunni Muslim rulers between 1752 and 1819 before Kashmir became part of his Sikh Empire. Bikramjit Hasrat describes Ranjit Singh as a "benevolent despot".
The Muslim accounts of Ranjit Singh's rule were questioned by Sikh historians of the same era. For example, Ratan Singh Bhangu in 1841 wrote that these accounts were not accurate, and according to Anne Murphy, he remarked, "when would a Musalman praise the Sikhs?" In contrast, the colonial era British military officer Hugh Pearse in 1898 criticised Ranjit Singh's rule, as one founded on "violence, treachery and blood". Sohan Seetal disagrees with this account and states that Ranjit Singh had encouraged his army to respond with a "tit for tat" against the enemy, violence for violence, blood for blood, plunder for plunder.
Singh made his empire and the Sikhs a strong political force, for which he is deeply admired and revered in Sikhism. After his death, empire failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire began to decline. The British and Sikh Empire fought two Anglo Sikh wars with the second ending the reign of Sikh Empire. Sikhism itself did not decline.
Clive Dewey has argued that the decline of the empire after Singh's death owes much to the jagir-based economic and taxation system which he inherited from the Mughals and retained. After his death, a fight to control the tax spoils emerged, leading to a power struggle among the nobles and his family from different wives. This struggle ended with a rapid series of palace coups and assassinations of his descendants, and eventually the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British.
Singh is remembered for uniting Sikhs and founding the prosperous Sikh Empire. He is also remembered for his conquests and building a well-trained, self-sufficient Khalsa army to protect the empire. He amassed considerable wealth, including gaining the possession of the Koh-i-Noor diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan, which he left to Jagannath Temple in Puri, Odisha in 1839.
Perhaps Singh's most lasting legacy was the restoration and expansion of the Harmandir Sahib, the most revered Gurudwara of the Sikhs, which is now known popularly as the "Golden Temple". Much of the present decoration at the Harmandir Sahib, in the form of gilding and marblework, was introduced under the patronage of Singh, who also sponsored protective walls and water supply system to strengthen security and operations related to the temple. He also directed construction of two of the most sacred Sikh temples, being the birthplace and place of assassination of Guru Gobind Singh - Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, respectively - whom he much admired.
Memorials and museums
- Samadhi of Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan, marks the place where Singh was cremated, and four of his queens and seven concubines committed sati.
- On 20 August 2003, a 22-foot-tall bronze statue of Singh was installed in the Parliament of India.
- A museum at Ram Bagh in Amritsar contains objects related to Singh, including arms and armour, paintings, coins, manuscripts, and jewellery. Singh had spent much time at the palace in which it is situated, where a garden was laid out in 1818
- On 27 June 2019 on Thursday evening, a life sized statue of the Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh was unveiled at the Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan at the Mai Jinda’s Haveli. The nine feet tall statue, made of cold bronze, shows the regal Sikh emperor sitting on a horse, sword in hand, complete in Sikh attire. The statue marks his 180th death anniversary
In 1783, Ranjit Singh established a crafts colony of Thatheras near Amritsar and encouraged skilled metal crafters from Kashmir to settle in Jandiala Guru. In the year 2014, this traditional craft of making brass and copper products got enlisted on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. The Government of Punjab is now working under Project Virasat to revive this craft.
In popular culture
- In 2010, a TV series titled Maharaja Ranjit Singh aired on DD National based on his life which was produced by Raj Babbar's, Babbar Films Private Limited. He was portrayed by Ejlal Ali Khan
- The Sikh Army 1799–1849 By Ian Heath, Michael Perry(Page 3), "...and in April 1801 Ranjit Singh proclaimed himself Sarkar-i-wala or head of state...
- A history of the Sikhs by Kushwant Singh, Volume I(Page 195)
- S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak (2007). "1-Political Condition". In S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak (ed.). Studies in Contemporary Indian History – Punjab Through the Ages Volume 2. Sarup & Sons, New Delhi. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1.
- Kushwant Singh. "RANJIT SINGH (1780–1839)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Ranjit Singh Encyclopædia Britannica, Khushwant Singh (2015)
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, (Edition: Volume V22, Date: 1910-1911), Page 892.
- Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 113–124. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 65–68.
- Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.
- Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. pp. 143–147. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.
- Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.
- Kerry Brown (2002). Sikh Art and Literature. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-134-63136-0.
- Kuldip Singh Sidhu (December 1994). Ranjit Singh's Khalsa Raj and Attariwala sardars. National Book Shop. p. 9. ISBN 978-81-7116-165-2.
- Anita Anand (2015). Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-1-4088-3546-3.
- "Two, Ranjit Singh who seemingly got “total ascendancy” in Punjab was not a Jat but a Sansi...", Sangat Singh, MCLEOD AND FENECH AS SCHOLARS ON SIKHISM AND MARTYRDOM, Presented in International Sikh conferences 2000 , www.globalsikhstudies.net
- The Sansis of Punjab; a Gypsy and De-notified Tribe of Rajput Origin, Maharaja Ranjit Singh- The Most Glorious Sansi, pp 13, By Sher Singh, 1926-, Published by , 1965, Original from the University of Michigan
- W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
Ranjit Singh was a Sansi and this identity has led some to claim that his caste affiliation was with the low-caste Sansi tribe of the same name. A much more likely theory is that he belonged to the Jat got that used the same name.
- Harvinder Singh Bhatti (2012). "Sansi". In Birinder Pal Singh (ed.). 'Criminal' Tribes of Punjab. Taylor & Francis. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-136-51786-0.
Ibbetson and Rose and later, Bedi, had clarified that the Sansis should not be confused with a Jat (Jutt) clan named Sansi to which perhaps Maharaja Ranjit also belonged [...] Raja Sansi a village 7 miles from Amritsar is the ancestral home of the Sindhanwalia family which claims Rajput descent and belongs to this got
- Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–34, 15–16. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 6, 253–254. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Ben Macintyre (2008). The Man Who Would Be King: The First American in Afghanistan. Macmillan. pp. 154–157. ISBN 978-1-4668-0379-4.
- Anita Anand (2015). Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-63286-081-1.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 300–301 footnote 35. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Mahitab Kaur (d, 1813)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Raj Kaur (d, 1838)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Vincent Arthur Smith (1920). The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911. Oxford University Press. pp. 690–693.
- Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Daya Kaur, Rani (d. 1843) and Ratan Kaur, Rani". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Hasrat, B. J. "Jind Kaur, Maharani (1817–1863)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Singh, Kartar (1975). Stories from Sikh History: Book-VII. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 160.
- "Articles on named sons of Ranjit Singh". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief: Harbans Singh. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Fane, Henry Edward (1842). Five Years in India, Volume 1, Chapter VII, page 120. Henry Colburn. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- E. Dalhousie Login (1916). "Lady Login's Recollections, Chapter VII, page 85". Smith, Elder & Co, London. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Kartar Singh Duggal (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
- Altekar, Anant S. (1956). The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization: From Prehistoric Times to the Present Day. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 132. ISBN 978-8120803244.
- Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (15 March 2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-84885-321-8.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 18, 177. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Anita Anand (2015). Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-63286-081-1.
- Ishtiaq Ahmed (1998). State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-85567-578-0.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 113–116. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 120–124. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
- Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 227–231, 246. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Kaushik Roy; Peter Lorge (2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-1-317-58710-1.
- Perry, James Arrogant Armies, Edison: CastleBooks, 2005 pp. 109–10.
- Kenneth Pletcher (2010). The History of India. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 9781615302017.
- Ganda Singh. "KHALSA". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.
- Marshall 2005, p. 116.
- Kartar Singh Duggal (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
- Kuiper, Kathleen (2010). The culture of India. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 136. ISBN 978-1615301492.
- Henry Thoby Prinsep (2011). Origin of the Sikh Power in the Punjab, and Political Life of Muha-Raja Runjeet Singh. Cambridge University Press. pp. 152–161. ISBN 978-1-108-02872-1.
- Matthew Atmore Sherring (1868). The Sacred City of the Hindus: An Account of Benares in Ancient and Modern Times. Trübner & co. p. 51.
- Madhuri Desai (2007). Resurrecting Banaras: Urban Space, Architecture and Religious Boundaries. ISBN 978-0-549-52839-5.
- Duggal, K.S. (1993). Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign. Abhinav Pubns. ISBN 8170172446.
- McLeod, W. H. (1976). The evolution of the Sikh community : five essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-826529-8. OCLC 2140005.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Hari Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs, Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd (2001) ISBN 8121505402
- K.S. Duggal, Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign, Abhinav Publications (1989) ISBN 81-7017-244-6
- Sidhwa, Bapsi (2005). City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143031666. Retrieved 7 January 2017., Quote: In Lahore, just as he had grasped its historic citadel and put it to his own hardy use or desecrated the Badshahi Mosque and converted it into a functional ammuniation store..."
- Amin, Mohamed; Willetts, Duncan; Farrow, Brendan (1988). Lahore. Ferozsons. p. 95. ISBN 9789690006943.
- Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Printed at the New Imperial Press. p. 125.
- Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Printed at the New Imperial Press. pp. 221–223, 339.
- "Maryam Zamani Mosque". Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 19: 97. 1996.
- Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 56, 67.
- Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.
- Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.
- Singh, Khushwant (2008). Ranjit Singh: Maharaja of the Punjab. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-143-06543-2.
- Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 83–85.
- Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–65. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- Kate Brittlebank (2008). Tall Tales and True: India, Historiography and British Imperial Imaginings. Monash University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-876924-61-4.
- J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–119. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Clive Dewey (1991). D. A. Low (ed.). Political Inheritance of Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 263–265. ISBN 978-1-349-11556-3.
- Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- Nicola Mooney (2011). Rural Nostalgias and Transnational Dreams: Identity and Modernity Among Jat Sikhs. University of Toronto Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-8020-9257-1.
- Major, Andrew J. (1991). "The Punjabi Chieftains and the Transition from Sikh to British Rule". In DA Low (ed.). The Political Inheritance of Pakistan. Springer, Cambridge University Commonwealth Series. pp. 53–85. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-11556-3_3. ISBN 978-1-349-11558-7.
- Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- Christopher Alan Bayly (1996). Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-66360-1.
- Chitralekha Zutshi (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5.
- Bikramajit Hasrat (1977). Life and Times of Ranjit Singh: A Saga of Benevolent Despotism. V.V. Research Institute. pp. 83, 198. OCLC 6303625.
- Anne Murphy (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 121–126. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.
- Gardner, Alexander (1898). "Chapter XII". Memoirs of Alexander Gardner – Colonel of Artillery in the Service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. William Blackwood & Sons. p. 211.
- Sohan Singh Seetal (1971). Rise of the Sikh Power and Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. Dhanpat Rai. p. 56. OCLC 6917931. (note: the original book has 667 pages; the open access version of the same book released by Lahore Publishers on archive.com has deleted about 500 pages of this book; see the original)
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 207–208. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 208–216. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Ian Heath (2005). The Sikh Army 1799–1849. Bloomsbury. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1-84176-777-2.
- The Real Ranjit Singh; by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 January 2001, 2nd ed.
- Isabel Burton (2012). Arabia, Egypt, India: A Narrative of Travel. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-108-04642-8.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
- ‘Sati’ choice before Maharaja Ranjit’s Ranis, The Tribune, Jun 28, 2015
- The Sikh Empire - Places & Architecture
- Singh, Ranjit (20 August 2003). "Parliament to get six more portraits, two statues". Times of India. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum, Amritsar". Punjab Museums. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "Statue of Ranjit Singh unveiled on his 180th death anniversary". 28 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making from Punjab gets inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, UNESCO, 2014". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- "UNESCO - Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab, India". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- 24 Jun, Yudhvir Rana | TNN | Updated; 2018; Ist, 11:15. "Jandiala utensils: Age-old craft of thatheras to get new life | Chandigarh News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 July 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Jacques, Tony (2006). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-first Century. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
- Heath, Ian (2005). The Sikh Army 1799–1849. Oxford: Osprey Publishing (UK). ISBN 1-84176-777-8.
- Lafont, Jean-Marie Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-19-566111-7
- Marshall, Julie G. (2005), Britain and Tibet 1765–1947: a select annotated bibliography of British relations with Tibet and the Himalayan states including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan (Revised and Updated to 2003 ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-33647-5
- Sandhawalia, Preminder Singh Noblemen and Kinsmen: history of a Sikh family. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1999 ISBN 81-215-0914-9
- Waheeduddin, Fakir Syed The Real Ranjit Singh; 2nd ed. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1981 ISBN 81-7380-778-7 (First ed. published 1965 Pakistan).
- Griffin, Sir Lepel Henry (1909). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. The National Archives: Civil and Military Gazette Press. ISBN 978-8175365155. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Umdat Ut Tawarikh by Sohan Lal Suri, Published by Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar .
- The Real Ranjit Singh by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 January 2001, 2nd ed. First ed. published 1965 Pakistan.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh: First Death Centenary Memorial, by St. Nihal Singh. Published by Languages Dept., Punjab, 1970.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his times, by J. S. Grewal, Indu Banga. Published by Dept. of History, Guru Nanak Dev University, 1980.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Harbans Singh. Published by Sterling, 1980.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by K. K. Khullar. Published by Hem Publishers, 1980.
- The reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh: structure of power, economy and society, by J. S. Grewal. Published by Punjab Historical Studies Dept., Punjabi University, 1981.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, as patron of the arts, by Ranjit Singh. Published by Marg Publications, 1981.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Politics, Society, and Economy, by Fauja Singh, A. C. Arora. Published by Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, 1984.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his Times, by Bhagat Singh. Published by Sehgal Publishers Service, 1990. ISBN 81-85477-01-9.
- History of the Punjab: Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Shri Ram Bakshi. Published by Anmol Publications, 1991.
- The Historical Study of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Times, by Kirpal Singh. Published by National Book Shop, 1994. ISBN 81-7116-163-4.
- An Eyewitness account of the fall of Sikh empire: memories of Alexander Gardner, by Alexander Haughton Campbell Gardner, Baldev Singh Baddan, Hugh Wodehouse Pearse. Published by National Book Shop, 1999. ISBN 81-7116-231-2.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms, by Kartar Singh Duggal. Published by Abhinav Publications, 2001. ISBN 81-7017-410-4.
- Fauj-i-khas Maharaja Ranjit Singh and His French Officers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Guru Nanak Dev University, 2002. ISBN 81-7770-048-0.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Mohinder Singh, Rishi Singh, Sondeep Shankar, National Institute of Panjab Studies (India). Published by UBS Publishers' Distributors with National Institute of Panjab Studies, 2002. ISBN 81-7476-372-4,.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-566111-7.
- The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar, by Amarinder Singh. Published by Roli Books, 2010.
- Glory of Sikhism, by R. M. Chopra, Sanbun Publishers, 2001. Chapter on "Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh".
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ranjit Singh|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sikh Empire.|
- Ranjit Singh profile from sikh-history.com
- Ranjit Singh
- Foreign officers in Ranjit Singh's Court
- Detailed article on Ranjit Singh's Army
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
| Leader of the Sukerchakia Misl
| Maharaja of the Sikh Empire