Battle of AttockEdit
This war started with the Battle of Attock, also known as the Battle of Chuch or the Battle of Haidru, this was the first significant victory of the Sikh Empire over Afghans. In the aftermath of this battle, Sikhs had seized the control of Attock District. After his defeat at Attock, Fatteh Khan Barakzai, the vizier of Kabul, fought off an attempt by Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, the ruler of Persia, and his son Ali Mirza to capture the Durrani province of Herat.
Battle of MultanEdit
The Battle of Multan was the 2nd battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars, which the Sikhs had also won. This started in March 1818 and ended 2 June 1818. This battle ended the Durrani influence in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region, and led to Sikhs holding the city of Peshawar.
Battle of ShopianEdit
The Battle of Shopian was different from the first two battles, due to it taking place in the Kashmir region, more specifically Shopian. This was the 3rd battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars and the 3rd Sikh victory. This battle included the 1819 Kashmir expedition, which led to Kashmir being annexed to the Sikh Empire. After taking Srinagar, the Sikh army faced no major opposition in conquering Kashmir. The Sikh Empire had controlled all of Kashmir.
Battle of NowsheraEdit
The Battle of Nowshera wasn't fought by the Durranis, but by a Pashtun force with support of the Durranis. This was the 4th battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars and 4th Sikh victory. After this, the Sikhs again came in possession of Peshawar, along with the whole Khyber Pass. With this victory, Maharaja Ranjit Singh planned to eventually push further west and take the Afghan capital of Kabul itself, which he failed.
Battle of JamrudEdit
The Battle of Jamrud was the 5th and foremost battle within the Afghan–Sikh wars. The Afghans had been losing their territories to Sikhs over the preceding years due to conflicts against Persia, and had seen their territory shrink with the loss of the Punjab region, Multan, Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The loss of Peshawar was the most important as the inhabitants of the region included fellow Pashtuns and the city was the considered the second capital of Afghans, so they set to reclaim it.
The result of the battle is disputed amongst historians. Some contend the failure of the Afghans to take the fort as a victory for the Sikhs. Whereas, some simply state an Afghan victory, while another source states an Afghan victory due to the killing of Sikh leader Hari Singh Nalwa. James Norris, Professor of Political Science at Texas A&M International University, states neither side could claim victory.
- Jaques 2006, p. 81
- Chopra 1928, p. 26
- Chopra 1928, p. 26
- Ganda Singh (1986) Maharaja Ranjit Singh: First Death Centenary Memorial. Nirmal Publishers
- The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View, by Byron Farwell Published by W.W. Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-04770-9, ISBN 978-0-393-04770-7.
- Bikrama Jit Hasrat, Life and times of Ranjit Singh, 137;"The doubtful Sikh victory at Jamrud in 1837 had made it clear to Ranjit Singh that policy of hatred and repression in the northwestern frontier so far pursued had failed in its objective."
Paddy Docherty, The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion (Faber and Faber, 2007), 186–187.
India and the North-West Frontier: The First Afghan War, Edward Ingram, Great Powers and Little Wars: The Limits of Power, ed. A. Hamish Ion and Elizabeth Jane Errington, (Praeger Publishers, 1993), 44; "The second was Peshawar, which controlled the entry to the Khyber Pass and had been seized in 1834 by Ranjit Singh from Dost Mohammed, Who tried in 1837 to get it back but lost his chance at the Battle of Jamrud."
- Jeffery J. Roberts, The Origins of Conflict in Afghanistan, 4;"In 1837 Dost's son, Akbar Khan, led an Afghan army to victory at Jamrud. Akbar, however, did not follow up his success with an advance to Peshawar, and the city remained in Sikh hands."
Zalmay Ahmad Gulzad, The history of the delimitation of the Durand Line development of the Afghan State (1838-1898), (University of Wisconsin--Madison), 62;"1837 they fought a pitched battle at Jamrud in which the Afghan forces were victorious."
Frank Clements, Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia, (ABC-CLIO, 2003), 74; "He also defeated the Sikhs at the Battle of Jamrud in 1837 and took on himself the title of "Commander of the Faithful."
- Gurbachan Singh Nayyar, The Campaigns of General Hari Singh Nalwa, (Punjabi University, 1995), 57.
- James A. Norris, First Afghan War: 1838-42, (Cambridge University Press), 109;"At the battle of Jamrud neither side could honestly claim a victory, but the Sikhs suffered severely at the hands of the Afghan horsemen, and they lost one of their king's favorite generals, Hari Singh."