The Kabul River (Pashto: د کابل سیند; Persian: دریای کابل), the classical Cophen //, is a 700-kilometre (430 mi) long river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pass. The Kabul River empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Path of the Kabul River 
|City||Kabul, Surobi, Jalalabad (Afghanistan);|
Peshawar, Charsadda, Nowshera (Pakistan)
|Source||Hindu Kush Mountains|
|• location||Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan|
|• elevation||2,400 m (7,900 ft)|
|Attock, Punjab, Pakistan|
|Length||700 km (430 mi)|
|Basin size||70,500 km2 (27,200 sq mi)|
|• left||Panjshir River, Alingar River, Kunar River, Swat River|
|• right||Logar River, Surkhab River, Bara River|
The Kabul River passes through the cities of Kabul, Surobi, and Jalalabad in Afghanistan before flowing into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan some 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of the Durand Line border crossing at Torkham. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the river passes through the cities of Peshawar, Charsadda, and Nowshera. In its upper reaches it is known as the Sarchashma.
The Kabul River is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows in the Hindu Kush Range. Its largest tributary is the Kunar River, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacie in Brughil valley in Chitral, Pakistan and after flowing south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.
The Kabul River is impounded by several dams. The Naghlu, Surobi, and Darunta dams are located in the Kabul and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan. The Warsak Dam is in the Valley of Peshawar in Pakistan, approximately 20 km northwest of the city of Peshawar.
Expedition of Alexander the Great into AsiaEdit
Since approximately March 2019, ten of thousands of gallons of untreated sewage from the Makroyan Waste Water Treatment Plant has been dumped into the Kabul River each month, reportedly causing gastrointestinal issues among the 3,000 families that live along the river.
In Avesta and SanskritEdit
- "One Land, Two Rules (9): Delivering public services in insurgency-affected Jalrez district of Wardak province". Afghan Analysts Network. 16 December 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian (1813). "A brief account of all the authors who have touched upon the history of Alexander". Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. Translated by Rooke, John (2nd ed.). J. Davis.
- Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing. ISBN 1-904341-56-X.
- Heckel, Waldemar (2003). The wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-96855-0.
- Arrian (2005). Romm, James S. (ed.). Alexander the Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius. Translated by Mensch, Pamela. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-727-7.
- Lawrence, J.P.; Babakarkhail, Zubair (September 12, 2020). "Sewage from US Embassy, NATO headquarters dumped into Kabul River due to aging infrastructure". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020.
- The History and Culture of the Indian People : The Vedic age. By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962 Page 247|quote=The Kubha is the modern Kabul river which flows into the Indus a little above Attock and receives at Prang the joint flow of its tributaries the Swat (Swastu) and Gauri
- Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India By John Muir page 352|quote='In the older parts of the Rigved the Indian people appear to be settled on the north western border of India, in the Punjab and even beyond the Punjab on the borders of the Kubha river the Kowpher in Kabul. The gradual diffusion of these people from this point towards the east, beyond the Saraswati and Hindustan as far as the Ganges, can be traced almost step by step in the later portions of the Vedic writings
- Bosworth, C.E. (1999). "Kabul". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
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