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Garhwal Kingdom (Garhwali: गढ़वाळ रजौड़ा; Hindi: गढ़वाल राज्य; Sanskrit: गढ़वाल राज्य), was an independent kingdom in the current north-western Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, India, founded in 823 AD by Kanakpal, the progenitor of the Panwar Garhwali Rajput dynasty that ruled over the kingdom uninterrupted till 1803.[1][2]

Garhwal Kingdom
गढ़वाळ रजौड़ा  (Garhwali)
गढ़वाल राज्य  (Hindi)
गढ़वाल राज्य  (Sanskrit)
Absolute monarchy

Katyuri dynasty (6th-11th Century)
Chand dynasty (12th-15th Century)

Shah dynasty (14th-18th Century)
Princely state Shah dynasty (1815–1949)

823–1949
Flag
Flag
Tehri Garhwal State in a Map of the United Provinces from The Imperial Gazetteer of India
Capital Devalgarh 1500-1519
Srinagar 1519-1804
Tehri 1815-1862
Pratapnagar 1862-1890
Kirtinagar 1890-1925
Narendranagar 1925-1949
Languages Garhwali
Sanskrit
Hindi
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
Maharaja
 •  888 Kanakpal
 •  1684–1716 (peak) Fateh Shah
 •  1946–1949 (last) Manabendra Shah
History
 •  Established 823
 •  Disestablished 1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Gurjara-Pratihara
Union of India
Today part of Tehri Garhwal district, Uttarakhand, India

The kingdom was divided into two parts during the British Raj, namely: the princely state of Garhwal and the Garhwal District of British India. During this period, the princely state of Garhwal was one of the States of the Punjab Hills which became part of the Punjab Hill States Agency although it was not under the Punjab Province administration. The princely state of Garhwal or Independent Garhwal consisted of the present day Tehri Garhwal district and most of the Uttarkashi district. This former state acceded to the Union of India in August 1949.

Contents

HistoryEdit

AncientEdit

 
Garhwal Himalaya

Traditionally the region finds mention in various Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand being home to the Garhwali people. Garhwal kingdom was dominated by Kshatriyas. The Kuninda Kingdom also flourished around 2nd century BC. Later this region came under the rule of Katyuri Kings, who ruled unified Kumaon and Garhwal regions from Katyur Valley, Baijnath, Uttarakhand, starting 6th century AD and eventually fading by the 11th century AD, when they were replaced by Chand Kings in Kumaon, while Garhwal was fragmented into several small principalities.[3][4] Huen Tsang, the Chinese traveller, who visited the region around 629 AD, mentions a kingdom of Brahampura in the region.[5]

Based on the testimony of inscriptions (the earliest dating back to the 4th century AD), literary accounts, and local traditions it may be suggested that Far Western Nepal and Uttarakhand formed one single polity for centuries under the Katyuri Kings. Therefore, both regions inherit a shared past or collective memory. The Bhārata/Jāgara of Maulā alias Jiyā Rānī, a Katyūrī princess, as narrated in Doti (Now Part Of Nepal) and Uttarakhand (India) is an example of this common heritage.

In the book of Rahul Sanskrityayan, Garwahl (Allahabad 1953) it is written that, " The kings of Kumaon-Garwahl were called, "Kedare Khasamandale" which means Kedar region as the residence of Khasa people.

The royal dynasty of Garhwal starts from Kanakpal. Garhwal Kingdom was founded in 823 AD,[1] when Kanakpal, the prince of Malwa, on his visit to the Badrinath Temple, met Raja Bhanu Pratap, the ruler of Chandpur Garh one of the 52 Garhs of Garhwal. Raja Bhanu Pratap had no sons. The King married his only daughter to the prince and subsequently handed over his kingdom, the fortress town. Kanakpal and his descendants of Panwar dynasty, gradually conquered all the independent fortresses (Garhs) belonging to its 52 small chieftains, and ruled the whole of Garhwal Kingdom for the next 915 years, up to 1804 AD.[6][7]

MedievalEdit

In 1358, the 37th ruler, Ajay Pal, brought all the minor principalities for the Garhwal region, under his own rule, and founded the Garhwal kingdom, with Devalgarh as its capital, which he later shifted to Srinagar.[8] Balbhadra Shah (r. 1575–1591), was the first Raja of Garhwal to use the title Shah. The capital was shifted to Srinagar, Uttarakhand by Mahipat Shah who ascended to the throne in 1622, and further consolidated his rule over most parts of Garhwal, though he died early in 1631, though his seven-year-old son, Prithvi Shah ascended to the throne after him, the Kingdom was ruled by Mahipat Shah's wife, Rani Karnavati for many years to come, during which she successfully defended the kingdom against invaders and repelled an attack of Mughal army led by Najabat Khan in 1640, and in time received the nickname of 'Nakti Rani' as she used to chop off the noses of any invader to the kingdom, as the Mughal invaders of the period realised.[9] Monuments erected by her still exist in Dehradun district at Nawada.[10]

Next important ruler was Fateh Shah, remained the King of Garhwal from 1684 to 1716, and is most known for taking part in the Battle of Bhangani on 18 September 1688, where combined forces of many Rajas of the Shivalik Hills (Pahari rajas) fought with Gobind Singh's army. During his reign, Sikh Guru and the ex-communicated eldest son of Har Rai, Ram Rai settled here, upon recommendations of Aurangzeb, which eventually led to the establishment of modern town of Dehradun. Fateh Shah died in 1716, and his son Upendra Shah died within a year of ascending to the throne in 1717, subsequently Pradip Shah ascended and his ruled led to rising fortunes of the Kingdom, this in turn attracted invaders, like Najib-ud-daula Governor of Saharanpur, who invaded in 1757 along with his Rohilla Army and captured Dehradun.[11] However, in 1770, the Garhwali forces defeated the Rohillas and retrieved possession of the Dun region. [2].

Lalit Shah invaded and conquered Kumaon, expelling the ruling Chands and placing his own younger son on the throne. This move led to the other Garhwal princes quarrelling with each other and playing into the hands of the expanding Gorkha state and the Kingdom of Nepal, prompting them to invade Kumaon and then take control of most of the hill country, expelling or subduing most of the rajas. [12]

The descendants had ruled over Garhwal in an uninterrupted line till 1803 at the time of attack by the Gorkha Kingdom. Garhwali forces suffered heavy defeat, and Pradyuman Shah first escaped from Srinagar to Dehradun and then to Saharanpur to organise forces, but was eventually killed in the Battle of Khurbura (Dehradun) in January 1804 while his brother, Pritam Shah, was taken in captivity to Nepal by the Gorkhas.

Several causes are attributed to this defeat. Garhwal was perpetually in political turmoil since the time of Raja Jai Krit Shah and this was sapping the vitality of the kingdom. Nature also played havoc in the form of a famine before the Gorkha onslaught from 1795-1795. Garhwal had not yet recovered from the famine when a devastating earthquake struck the region.

Twelve Year Gorkha Occupation (Gorkhyali)Edit

The Garhwal kings went into exile in British territory as the Gorkhas began their 12 years rule over Garhwal region. The Mukhtiyar (prime minister) of Nepal, Bhimsen Thapa imposed a general restriction on human trafficking in Garhwal, Sirmur and other areas in 1812 A.D.[13] Anti-bribery regulations was issued against regional governors and declared it illegal to give or take any form of bribes or gifts from people.[14] He established Hulak (postal) system through relay of porters up to Yamuna river in Garhwal. Regulations issued on July 1809 states:

In areas west of Bheri river and east of Jamuna river, make an estimate of the amount required for payment to Hulaki porters employed for the transport of mail on the basis of sum sanctioned in the previous order and the sum required according to arrangements made this year for different areas and submit a report accordingly.[15]

The Gorkhas ruled Garhwal with an iron fist. The taxation policy of the Gorakhas was said to be very draconian. Many new taxes were introduced in the period. Punishment was decided according to the income of the Family. People were auctioned in case of not paying punishment or taxes. When a person or family was unable to pay taxes decided by local Gorkha representative his land was auctioned along with family members. If any person/family members were not purchased as slaves in auction, such people were sent to Bhimgoda near Har Ki Paidi, Haridwar for selling.

The Gorkhas are said to have established a slave market at Das Bazar in Haridwar. British writer Captain F.V. Raper has written an eye-witness account of it – ' There was a Gorakha post at the root of the way to the wharf of the Hari-Ki-Pari , where slaves used to be displayed , for the purpose of selling them . These unfortunate men – women numbered about two lakh , having age from three to thirty years .'

It is said that the Gorkha Governor of Kumaon, Bam Shah stopped sale of slaves in Kumaon. However,  Hasti Dal Chautariya the Gorkha Governor of Garhwal did not stop slave trading in Garhwal.

Defeat of the Gorkhas and Split of Garhwal KingdomEdit

The occupation of the kingdom by the Gorkhas went unopposed from 1803 to 1814 until a series of encroachments by the Gorkhas on British territory led to the Anglo-Nepalese War in 1814. Sudarshan Shah, son and heir of the defeated ruler of the Kingdom of Garhwal who was in exile in British territory saw his chance and entered into an alliance with the British in 1812. When the expected war erupted, he joined forces with them in the conquest of the hill territories. At wars end on 21 April 1815, as a result of the Treaty of Sugauli, the British annexed half of the Kingdom of Garhwal (Pauri Garhwal) and converted the other half (Tehri Garhwal) into a subsidiary princely state. [16]

Formation of the princely state of GarhwalEdit

 
Royal Palace at Narendra Nagar

Sudarshan Shah, the heir to the Kingdom of Garhwal received approximately half his ancestral territories, limited to western Garhwal region and received recognition as Raja of a new princely state of Garhwal. [17] The British established their rule over the eastern half of the Garhwal region, which lies east of Alaknanda and Mandakini river, which was later on known as British Garhwal and Dun of Dehradun, along with Kumaon, which was merged with British India as a result of the Treaty of Sugauli. The former Kumaon Kingdom was joined with the eastern half of the Garhwal region and was governed as a chief-commissionership, also known as the Kumaon Province, on the non-regulation system.[18]

Since the capital Srinagar was now part of the British Garhwal, a new capital was established at Tehri, giving the name of Tehri state (popularly known as Teri Garhwal).[19]

Sudarshan Shah died in 1859, and was succeeded by Bhawani Shah, who in turn was succeeded by Pratap Shah in 1872.[7][20] The kingdom had an area of 4,180 square miles (10,800 km2), and a population of 268,885 in 1901. The ruler was given the title of Raja, but after 1913, he was honoured with the title of Maharaja. The King was entitled to an 11 gun salute and had a privy purse of 300.000 Rupees. In 1919, Maharaja Narendra Shah shifted the capital from Tehri to a new town, which was named after him, Narendra Nagar.[21]

India's independenceEdit

During the Quit India Movement people from this region actively worked for the independence of India. Ultimately, when the country was declared independent in 1947, the inhabitants of Tehri Riyasat (Garhwal State) started their movement to free themselves from the clutches of the Maharaja Narendra Shah (Panwar).

Due to this movement, the situation became out of his control and it was difficult for him to rule over the region. Consequently, the 60th king of Panwar Vansh, Manvendra Shah, the last ruling Maharaja of the Garhwal Kingdom (1946–1949), accepted the sovereignty of the Union of India. Tehri Riyasat was merged into the Garhwal District of United Provinces (later renamed to Uttar Pradesh) and was given the status of a new district, the Tehri garhwal district. Subsequently, on 24 February 1960, the state government separated one of its tehsils which was given the status of a separate district named Uttarkashi. It is currently part of the Garhwal Division of the Uttarakhand state of India which was carved out of Uttar Pradesh in 2000. Former royal palace of the Maharaja of Tehri Garhwal at Narendranagar, now houses the Ananda–In the Himalayas spa, estb. 2000.[22]

Flag of GarhwalEdit

The flag of Garhwal was known as Badrinath ji Ki Pataka or Garuda-Dhwaj. It was been in use since pre-1803 as a symbol of Garhwal State; and continued to be used from 1803-1949 as the symbol of princely state of Garhwal, (a.k.a. Tehri Garhwal / Garhwal Raj). Post 1949, this flag is the symbol of Royal family and Badrinath Jyu. The colour scheme is two equal stripes of White (top) and Green (bottom) horizontally placed and the symbol used was Garuda (The celestial vehicle of Lord Vishnu). White stands for purity, peace, tranquillity with snow as an additional meaning for Himalayan state. Green stands for agriculture, greenery, prosperity and progress. According to Filcher11 (1984), the colours represent the snow of the Himalaya and the forests of the state. In the centre the crest of the coat of arms is placed - An Eagle with expanded wings (Garuda) is the vehicle of Lord Badrinath/ Vishnu with emphasis on Garhwal being God’s own abode.

"As Garuda is where Lord Vishnu is, it celebrates association of Garhwal with Lord Vishnu. As Lord Himself has a role sustaining the world, the state of Garhwal is sustained by support of God. It is in a pose with expanded wings which shows readiness and preparation to soar high. Thus it gives a meaning of divinity, majesty and ambitious preparedness with readiness to embark on great undertakings."

This verse was used with special fervour in Garhwal due to the Flag being Garuda-Dhwaj. The verse was used by ruler of princely state himself while bidding farewell to state forces[23].

Rulers of GarhwalEdit

Mola Ram the 18th century painter, poet, historian and diplomat of Garhwal wrote the historical work Garharajavansh ka Itihas (History of the Garhwal royal dynasty) which is the only source of information about several Garhwal rulers.[23]

Rulers of Garhwal - Panwar clan of Garhwali Rajputs
No. Name Reign No. Name Reign No. Name Reign
1 Kanak Pal 688 - 699 21 Vikram Pal 1116 - 1131 41 Vijay Pal 1426 - 1437
2 Shyam Pal 699 - 725 22 Vichitr Pal 1131 - 1140 42 Sahaj Pal 1437 - 1473
3 Pandu Pal 725 - 756 23 Hans Pal 1141 - 1152 43 Baadar Shah 1473 - 1498
4 Abhigat Pal 756 - 780 24 Son Pal 1152 - 1159 44 Man Shah 1498 - 1518
5 Saugat Pal 781 - 800 25 Kaadil Pal 1159 - 1164 45 Shyam Shah 1518 - 1527
6 Ratan Pal 800 - 849 26 Kam Dev Pal 1172 - 1179 46 Mahipat Shah 1527 - 1552
7 Saali Pal 850 - 857 27 Sulakshan Dev 1179 - 1197 47 Prithvi Shah 1552 - 1614
8 Vidhi Pal 858 - 877 28 Lakhan Dev 1197 - 1220 48 Medni Shah 1614 - 1660
9 Madan Pal 788 - 894 29 Anand Pal 1220 - 1241 49 Fateh Shah 1660 - 1708
10 Bhakti Pal 895 - 919 30 Purv Dev 1241 - 1260 50 Upendra Shah 1708 - 1709
11 Jay Chand Pal 920- 948 31 Abhay Dev 1260 - 1267 51 Pradeep Shah 1709 - 1772
12 Prithvee Pal 949 - 971 32 Jayram Dev 1267 - 1290 52 Lalit Shah 1772 - 1780
13 Medni Sen Pal 973- 995 33 Aasal Dev 1290- 1299 53 Jayakrit Shah 1780 - 1786
14 Agasti Pal 995- 1014 34 Jagat Pal 1299 - 1311 54 Pradyumna Shah 1786 - 1804
15 Surati Pal 1015 - 1036 35 Jeet Pal 1311 - 1330 55 Sudarshan Shah 1815 -1859
16 Jay Pal 1037 - 1055 36 Anant Pal 1330 - 1358 56 Bhawani Shah 1859 - 1871
17 Anant Pal 1056 - 1072 37 Ajay Pal 1358 - 1389 57 Pratap Shah 1871 - 1886
18 Anand Pal 1072 - 1083 38 Kalyan Shah 1389 - 1398 58 Keerti Shah 1886 - 1913
19 Vibhog Pal 1084 - 1101 39 Sundar Pal 1398 - 1413 59 Narendra Shah 1913 - 1946
20 Suvayaanu Pal 1102 - 1115 40 Hans Dev Pal 1413 - 1426 60 Manavendra Shah 1946 - 1949

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Kingdom that Mughals could never win". The Tribune. February 22, 2016. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  2. ^ International Cyclopaedia: A Library of Universal Knowledge, Volume 6. Dodd, Mead & Company. 1885. p. 451. 
  3. ^ History Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Pauri Garhwal district.
  4. ^ Rawat|Page 15-16.
  5. ^ Garhwal District – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909, v. 12, p. 165.
  6. ^ [1] Tehri Garhwal official website.
  7. ^ a b   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Garhwal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 466. 
  8. ^ History Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Uttarkashi district website.
  9. ^ Karnavati Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective, by Ajay S. Rawat. Published by Indus Publishing, 2002. ISBN 81-7387-136-1. Page 43-44.
  10. ^ Dehradun district The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909 v. 11, p. 212.
  11. ^ Dehradun District – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 213.
  12. ^ "TEHRI GARHWAL". www.royalark.net. Retrieved 2018-05-31. 
  13. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 33.
  14. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 182.
  15. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 31.
  16. ^ Bose, Saikat (Jun-2015). Boot, Hooves and Wheels: And the Social Dynamics behind South Asian Warfare. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  17. ^ "TEHRI GARHWAL". www.royalark.net. Retrieved 2018-05-31. 
  18. ^ Robert Montgomery Martin, History of the Possessions of the Honourable East India Company, Volume 1, pg. 107
  19. ^ Tehri – History New Tehri Official website.
  20. ^ Tehri Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.
  21. ^ History Narendranagar
  22. ^ Himalayan Spa for Sybarites By CELIA W. DUGGER. New York Times. 30 July 2000.
  23. ^ a b Bansal, Avinash Kumar Singh | Aadhar. "Himotsav | Uniting Culture". himotsav.co.in. Retrieved 2018-06-05. 

Further readingEdit

  • Tehri Garhwal State Constitution: As Enacted by H.H. Maharaja Manabendra Shah Under the Rajagyan Dated 27 May 1946, by Tehri Garhwal (Princely State), Tehri Garhwal (Princely State. Published by Mafasilite Print. Works, 1946.

External linksEdit