Uttar Pradesh [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] (listen)) (English Translation: Northern Province) is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most-populous state in India as well as the most-populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950, giving it the acronym UP. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts, with the capital being Lucknow. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and Yamuna, join at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad and flow further east as Ganges. Other prominent rivers are Gomti and Saryu. The forest cover in the state is 6.09% of the state's geographical area.
|Etymology: Uttar (meaning 'north') and Pradesh (meaning 'province or territory')|
Location of Uttar Pradesh in India
|Statehood||24 January 1950|
|• Body||Government of Uttar Pradesh|
|• Governor||Anandiben Patel|
|• Chief Minister||Yogi Adityanath (BJP)|
|• Deputy Chief Ministers||Keshav Prasad Maurya (BJP)|
Dinesh Sharma (BJP)
|• Parliamentary constituency||Rajya Sabha (31 seats)|
Lok Sabha (80 seats)
|• Total||240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi)|
|• Density||830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|• Total||₹17.94 lakh crore (US$250 billion)|
|• Per capita||₹70,418 (US$990)|
|• Additional official||Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||UP XX—XXXX|
|HDI (2018)||0.596 Medium · 35th|
|Sex ratio (2011)||912 ♀/1000 ♂|
The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and an international border with Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi), equal to 7.34% of the total area of India, and is the fourth-largest Indian state by area. Though long known for sugar production, the state's economy is now dominated by the services industry. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies. The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹17.94 lakh crore (US$250 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita NSDP of ₹70,000 (US$980). There is highest unemployment rate in Uttar Pradesh. The state ranks 35th among Indian states in human development index. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days. The state has two international airports, Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport (Lucknow) and Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport (Varanasi). Allahabad Junction is the headquarters of the North Central Railway and Gorakhpur Railway Station serves as the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway. The High Court of the state is located in Allahabad.
Inhabitants of the state are called either Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuri, Braji, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu. Uttar Pradesh was home to most of mainstream political entity that has existed in ancient and medieval India including Maurya Empire, Harsha Empire, Mughal Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Gupta Empire as well as many other empires. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were three major princely states in Uttar Pradesh- Ramgadi, Rampur and Benares. The state houses several holy Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres. Uttar Pradesh has three World Heritage sites and ranks first tourist destinations in India. Uttar Pradesh has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as Kushinagar, Kanpur, Ayodhya, Vrindavan, Mathura, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Jaunpur, Noida, Meerut, Bareilly, Faizabad, Aligarh, Agra, Jhansi, Rampur, Raebareli, Saharanpur, and Gorakhpur.
Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age.
Ancient and classical period
Out of the sixteen mahajanapadas (lit. 'great realms') or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India, seven fell entirely within the present-day boundaries of Uttar Pradesh. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was also located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to the Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh. The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC.
Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (AD 100–250), Gupta (350–600), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036) empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith. It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region. Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century.
Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).
Medieval and early modern period
In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture). In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. He was bestowed the title of Hemchandra Vikramaditya (title of Vikramāditya adopted from Vedic Period) at his formal coronation took place at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556. A month later, Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor Akbar's rule. Akbar ruled from Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire, in the mid-18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohilkhand to the Maratha forces led by Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty.
British India era
|Timeline of reorganisation & name changes of UP|
|1807||Ceded and Conquered Provinces|
|14 November 1834||Presidency of Agra|
|1 January 1836||North-Western Provinces|
|3 April 1858||Oudh taken under British control, Delhi taken away from NWP and merged into Punjab|
|1 April 1871||Ajmer, Merwara & Kekri made separate commissioner-ship|
|15 February 1877||Oudh added to North-Western Provinces|
|22 March 1902||Renamed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh|
|3 January 1921||Renamed United Provinces of British India|
|1 April 1937||Renamed United Provinces|
|1 April 1946||Self rule granted|
|15 August 1947||Part of independent India|
|24 January 1950||Renamed Uttar Pradesh|
|9 November 2000||Uttaranchal state, now known as Uttarakhand, created from part of Uttar Pradesh|
Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Although UP later became the fifth-largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.
Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India, which became known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857; Bengal regiment's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment, Mangal Pandey, is widely considered as its starting point. After the revolt failed, the British divided the most rebellious regions by reorganising their administrative boundaries, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh, which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.
In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the Aligarh Muslim University, Banaras Hindu University and Darul Uloom Deoband. Nationally known figures such as Ram Prasad Bismil and Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement.
After India's independence, the United Provinces were renamed "Uttar Pradesh" ("northern province"), preserving UP as the acronym, with the change coming into effect on 24 January 1950. The state has provided nine of India's prime ministers, including current Prime Minister Narendra Modi who is MP from Varanasi, which is more than any other state and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Despite its political influence since ancient times, its poor record in economic development and administration, poor governance, organised crime and corruption have kept it amongst India's backward states. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence. In Ayodhya in December 1992 the disputed Babri Mosque was demolished by radical Hindu activists, leading to widespread violence across India. In 2000, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of Uttarakhand.
Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 square kilometres (93,935 sq mi), is India's fourth-largest state in terms of land area and is roughly of same size as United Kingdom. It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. The larger Gangetic Plain region is in the north; it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai. The smaller Vindhya Range and plateau region is in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps. The sluggish rivers of the bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick undergrowth. The terai runs parallel to the bhabhar in a thin strip. The entire alluvial plain is divided into three sub-regions. The first in the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the central and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system. They suffer from waterlogging and large-scale user tracts. In addition, the area is fairly arid. The state has more than 32 large and small rivers; of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and Ghaghara are larger and of religious importance in Hinduism.
Cultivation is intensive. The valley areas have fertile and rich soil. There is intensive cultivation on terraced hill slopes, but irrigation facilities are deficient. The Siwalik Range which forms the southern foothills of the Himalayas, slopes down into a boulder bed called 'bhadhar'. The transitional belt running along the entire length of the state is called the terai and bhabhar area. It has rich forests, cutting across it are innumerable streams which swell into raging torrents during the monsoon.
Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September. Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0 °C and 50 °C in parts of the state coupled with dry hot winds called the Loo. The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. Primarily a summer phenomenon, the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian monsoon is the major bearer of rain in most parts of state. After summer it is the south-west monsoon which brings most of the rain here, while in winters rain due to the western disturbances and north-east monsoon also contribute small quantities towards the overall precipitation of the state.
|Climate data for Uttar Pradesh|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Average low °C (°F)||11.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0
|Average precipitation days||0.1||0.3||0.3||1.1||3.3||10.9||17.0||16.2||10.9||5.0||2.4||0.3||67.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||291.4||282.8||300.7||303.0||316.2||186.0||120.9||111.6||177.0||248.44||270.0||288.3||2,896.34|
|Average High and Low temperatures for various Uttar Pradesh Cities|
The rain in Uttar Pradesh can vary from an annual average of 170 cm in hilly areas to 84 cm in Western Uttar Pradesh. Given the concentration of most of this rainfall in the four months of the monsoon, excess rain can lead to floods and shortage to droughts. As such, these two phenomena, floods and droughts, commonly recur in the state. The climate of the Vindhya Range and plateau is subtropical with a mean annual rainfall between 1000 and 1200 mm, most of which comes during the monsoon. Typical summer months are from March to June, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 38 °C (86 to 100 °F). There is low relative humidity of around 20% and dust-laden winds blow throughout the season. In summers, hot winds called loo blow all across Uttar Pradesh.
Flora and fauna
|State animal||Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii)|
|State bird||Sarus crane Antigone antigone)|
|State tree||Ashoka (Saraca asoca)|
|State flower||Palash (Butea monosperma)|
|State sport||Field hockey|
The state has an abundance of natural resources. In 2011 the recorded forest area in the state was 16,583 km2 (6,403 sq mi) which is about 6.88% of the state's geographical area. In spite of rapid deforestation and poaching of wildlife, a diverse flora and fauna continue to exist in the state. Species in the state with respect to India, Uttar Pradesh is a habitat for 4.19% of all Algae, 6.40% of Fungi, 5.95 of Lichens, 2.93% of Bryophytes, 3.31% of Pteridophytes, 8.69% of Gymnosperms, 8.11% of Angiosperms. Several species of trees, large and small mammals, reptiles, and insects are found in the belt of temperate upper mountainous forests. Medicinal plants are found in the wild and are also grown in plantations. The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands support cattle. Moist deciduous trees grow in the upper Gangetic plain, especially along its riverbanks. This plain supports a wide variety of plants and animals. The Ganges and its tributaries are the habitat of large and small reptiles, amphibians, fresh-water fish, and crabs. Scrubland trees such as the Babool (Vachellia nilotica) and animals such as the Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) are found in the arid Vindhyas. Notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul, consider the tree to be sacred by Hindu and Jain ascetics as this is the tree under which Gautama Buddha is believed to have attained enlightenment.
Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in all parts of the plains. Since much sunlight reaches the ground, shrubs and grasses are also abundant. Large tracts of these forests have been cleared for cultivation. Tropical thorny forests, consisting of widely scattered thorny trees, mainly babool are mostly found in the southwestern parts of the state. These forests are confined to areas which have low annual rainfall (50–70 cm), a mean annual temperature of 25–27 °C and low humidity.
Uttar Pradesh is known for its extensive avifauna. The most common birds which are found in the state are doves, peafowl, junglefowl, black partridges, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, comb ducks, kingfishers, woodpeckers, snipes, and parrots. Bird sanctuaries in the state include Bakhira Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Chandra Prabha Sanctuary, Hastinapur Sanctuary, Kaimoor Sanctuary, and Okhla Sanctuary.
Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials. Among the wide variety of fishes, the most common ones are mahaseer and trout. Some animal species in Uttar Pradesh have gone extinct in recent years, while others, like the lion from the Gangetic Plain, the rhinoceros from the Terai region, Ganges river dolphin primarily found in the Ganges have become endangered. Many species are vulnerable to poaching despite regulation by the government.
Divisions, districts and cities
The following is a list of top districts from state of Uttar Pradesh by population, ranked in respect of all India.
|Rank (in India)||District||Population||Growth Rate (%)||Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)||Literacy Rate (%)|
|Million Plus Cities of Uttar Pradesh by population (2011 Census)|
Each district is governed by a District Magistrate, who is an Indian Administrative Service officer appointed Government of Uttar Pradesh and reports to Divisional Commissioner of the division in which his district falls. The Divisional Commissioner is an IAS officer of high seniority. Each district is divided into subdivisions, governed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate, and again into Blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities. These blocks consists of urban units viz. census towns and rural units called gram panchayat.
Uttar Pradesh has more metropolitan cities than any other state in India. The absolute urban population of the state is 44.4 million, which constitutes 11.8% of the total urban population of India, the second-highest of any state. According to the 2011 census, there are 15 urban agglomerations with a population greater than 500,000. There are 14 Municipal Corporations, while Noida and Greater Noida in Gautam Budh Nagar district are specially administered by statutory authorities under the Uttar Pradesh Industrial Development Act, 1976.
In 2011, state's cabinet ministers headed by the then Chief Minister Mayawati announced the separation of Uttar Pradesh into four different states of Purvanchal, Bundelkhand, Avadh Pradesh and Paschim Pradesh with twenty-eight, seven, twenty-three and seventeen districts, respectively, later the proposal was turned down when Akhilesh Yadav lead Samajwadi Party came to power in the 2012 election.
Uttar Pradesh has a large population and a high population growth rate. From 1991 to 2001 its population increased by over 26%. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India, with 199,581,477 people on 1 March 2011. The state contributes 16.16% of India's population. The population density is 828 people per square kilometre, making it one of the most densely populated states in the country. Uttar Pradesh has the largest scheduled caste population whereas scheduled tribes are less than 1 per cent of the total population.
The sex ratio in 2011, at 912 women to 1000 men, was lower than the national figure of 943. The state's 2001–2011 decennial growth rate (including Uttrakhand) was 20.09%, higher than the national rate of 17.64%. Uttar Pradesh has a large number of people living below the poverty line. As per World Bank document (released on 2016), the pace of poverty reduction in the state has been slower than the rest of the country. Estimates released by the Reserve Bank of India for the year 2011–12 revealed that Uttar Pradesh had 59 million people below the poverty line, the most for any state in India. The central and eastern districts in particular have very high levels of poverty. The state is also experiencing widening consumption inequality. As per the report of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (released on 7 January 2020), the state per capita income is below ₹8,000 (US$110) per annum.
As per 2011 census, Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India, is home to the highest numbers of both Hindus and Muslims. By religion, the population in 2011 was Hindus 79.73%, Muslims 19.26%, Sikhs 0.32%, Christians 0.18%, Jains 0.11%, Buddhists 0.10%, and Others 0.30%. The literacy rate of the state at the 2011 census was 67.7%, which was below the national average of 74%. The literacy rate for men is 79% and for women 59%. In 2001 the literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh stood at 56.27% overall, 67% for men and 43% for women.
Hindi is the official language of Uttar Pradesh and is spoken by the majority of the population (94.08%), although different regions have their own dialects. These include Awadhi spoken in the Awadh region of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bhojpuri spoken in the Bhojpuri region of eastern Uttar Pradesh, and Braj Bhasha spoken in the Braj region western Uttar Pradesh. Urdu is given the status of a second official language, spoken by 5.42% of the population. Other notable languages spoken in the state include Punjabi (0.25%) and Bengali (0.12%).
Government and administration
The state is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy. Uttar Pradesh is one of the seven states in India, where the state legislature is bicameral, comprising two houses: the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) and the Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council). The Legislative Assembly consists of 404 members who are elected for five-year terms. The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 100 members with one-third (33 members) retiring every two years. Since Uttar Pradesh sends the largest number of legislators to the national Parliament, it is often considered to be one of the most important states with respect to Indian politics. The state contributes 80 seats to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, Lok Sabha and 31 seats to the upper house of the Indian Parliament, Rajya Sabha.
Uttar Pradesh government is a democratically elected body in India with the Governor as its constitutional head and is appointed by the President of India for a five-year term. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The governor remains a ceremonial head of the state, while the Chief Minister and his council are responsible for day-to-day government functions. The council of ministers consists of Cabinet Ministers and Ministers of State (MoS). The Secretariat headed by the Chief Secretary assists the council of ministers. The Chief Secretary is also the administrative head of the government. Each government department is headed by a Minister, who is assisted by an Additional Chief Secretary or a Principal Secretary, who usually is an officer of Indian Administrative Service, the Additional Chief Secretary/Principal Secretary serve as the administrative head of the department they are assigned to. Each department also has officers of the rank of Secretary, Special Secretary, Joint Secretary etc. assisting the Minister and the Additional Chief Secretary/Principal Secretary. Rajendra Kumar Tiwari is the current Chief Secretary. Hitesh C. Awasthy is the current Director General of Police.
For purpose of administration, the state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts. Divisional Commissioner, an IAS officer is the head of administration on the divisional level. The administration in each district is headed by a District Magistrate, who is an IAS officer and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to state services. The Uttar Pradesh Police is headed by an IPS officer of the rank of Director general of police. There are 8 Police Zones, 18 Police Ranges and 75 police districts in the state. An IPS officer in the rank of Inspector General of Police heads the zones, whereas an IPS officer of the rank of Deputy inspector general of police heads the ranges. A Superintendent of Police, an IPS officer and assisted by the officers of the Uttar Pradesh Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district.
The judiciary in the state consists of the Allahabad High Court in Allahabad, the Lucknow Bench of Allahabad High Court, district courts and session courts in each district or Sessions Division, and lower courts at the tehsil level. The President of India appoints the chief justice of the High Court of the Uttar Pradesh judiciary on the advice of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India as well as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh. Other judges are appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Chief Justice of the High Court. Subordinate Judicial Service, categorised into two divisions viz. Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services and Uttar Pradesh higher judicial service is another vital part of the judiciary of Uttar Pradesh. While the Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services comprise the Civil Judges (Junior Division)/Judicial Magistrates and civil judges (Senior Division)/Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Uttar Pradesh higher judicial service comprises civil and sessions judges. The Subordinate judicial service (viz. The district court of Etawah and the district court of Kanpur Dehat) of the judiciary at Uttar Pradesh is controlled by the District Judge.
Politics in Uttar Pradesh has been dominated by four political parties, the Samajwadi Party, the Bahujan Samaj Party, the Indian National Congress, and the Bharatiya Janata Party. Politicians from Uttar Pradesh have played prominent roles in Union Government of India with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister. Uttar Pradesh has been called India's under-achiever because it has provided India with eight prime ministers while remaining a poor state.
According to the National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC), Uttar Pradesh tops the list of states of fake encounters and custodial deaths. In 2014, the state recorded 365 judicial deaths out of a total 1,530 deaths recorded in the country. NHRC further said, of the over 30,000 murders registered in the country in 2016, Uttar Pradesh had 4,889 cases. A data from Minister of Home Affairs (MHA) avers, Bareilly recorded the highest number of custodial death at 25, followed by Agra (21), Allahabad (19) and Varanasi (9). National Crime Records Bureau (2011) data says, Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of crimes among any state in India, but due to its high population, the actual per capita crime rate is low. Uttar Pradesh also continues to top the list of states with maximum communal violence incidents. An analysis of Ministers of State of Home Affairs states (2014), 23% of all incidents of communal violence in India took place in Uttar Pradesh. According to a research assembled by State Bank of India, Uttar Pradesh failed to improve its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking over a period of 27 years (1990-2017). Based on sub-national human development index data for Indian states from 1990 to 2017, the report also stated that the value of human development index in Uttar Pradesh has steadily increased over time from 0.39 in 1990 to 0.59 in 2017. The Uttar Pradesh Police, governed by the Department of Home, is the largest police force in the world.
Uttar Pradesh also reported the highest number of deaths—23,219—due to road and rail accidents in 2015, according to NCRB data. This included 8,109 deaths due to careless driving. Between 2006 and 2010, the state has been hit with three terrorist attacks, including explosions in a landmark holy place, a court and a temple. The 2006 Varanasi bombings were a series of bombings that occurred across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi on 7 March 2006. At least 28 people were killed and as many as 101 others were injured.
In the afternoon of 23 November 2007, within a span of 25 minutes, six consecutive serial blasts occurred in the Lucknow, Varanasi, and Faizabad courts, in which 28 people were killed and several others injured. The blasts came a week after the Uttar Pradesh police and central security agencies busted Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists who had planned to abduct Rahul Gandhi. The Indian Mujahideen has claimed responsibility for these blasts in an email sent to TV stations five minutes before the blast. Another blast occurred on 7 December 2010, the blast occurred at Sheetla Ghat in Varanasi in which more than 38 people were killed and several others injured.
|Net State Domestic Product at Factor Cost at Current Prices (2011–12 Base)|
|Year||Net State Domestic Product|
|2017–18||₹1,446,000 crore (US$200 billion) (est.)|
Agriculture is the leading occupation in Uttar Pradesh and play vital role in the economic development of the state. In terms of net state domestic product (NSDP), Uttar Pradesh is the second-largest economy in India after Maharashtra, with an estimated gross state domestic product of ₹14.89 lakh crore (US$210 billion), and hence contributes 8.406% of India. According to the report generated by India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), in 2014–15, Uttar Pradesh has accounted for 19% share in the country's total food grain output. The state has experienced a high rate of economic growth in the past few years. Food grain production in the state in 2014–15 stood at 47,773.4 thousand tonnes. Wheat is the state's principal food crop and sugarcane is the main commercial crop particularly in Western Uttar Pradesh. About 70% of India's sugar comes from Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop as the state is country's largest producer of sugar. As per the report generated by Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA), total sugarcane production in India was estimated to be 28.3 million tonnes in the fiscal ending September 2015 which includes 10.47 million tonnes from Maharashtra and 7.35 million tonnes from Uttar Pradesh
State industries are localised in the Kanpur region, the fertile purvanchal lands and the Noida region. The Mughalsarai is home to a number of major locomotive plants. Major manufacturing products include engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches, and wagons. Meerut is the sports capital of India and also a jewellery hub. More small-scale industrial units are situated in Uttar Pradesh than in any other state, with 12 per cent of over 2.3 million units. With 359 manufacturing clusters, cement is the top sector of SMEs in UP.
The Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation (UPFC) was established in the year 1954 under the SFCs Act of 1951 mainly to develop small- and medium-scale industries in the state. The UPFC also provides working capital to existing units with a sound track record and to new units under a single window scheme. In July 2012, due to financial constraints and directions from the state government, lending activities have been suspended except for State Government Schemes. The state has reported total private investment worth over Rs. 25,081 crores during the years of 2012 and 2016. According to a recent report of World Bank on Ease of Doing Business in India, Uttar Pradesh was ranked among the top 10 states and first among Northern states.
According to the Uttar Pradesh Budget Documents (2019–20), Uttar Pradesh’s debt burden is 29.8 per cent of the GSDP. The state's total financial debt stood at ₹2,000 billion (US$28 billion) in 2011. Uttar Pradesh has not been able to witness double digit economic growth despite consistent attempts over the years. The GSDP is estimated to have grown 7 per cent in 2017-18 and 6.5 per cent in 2018-2019 which is about 10 per cent of India’s GDP. According to a survey conducted by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), Uttar Pradesh's unemployment rate increased 11.4 percentage points, rising to 21.5 per cent in April 2020. Uttar Pradesh has largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state. The 2011 census data on migration shows that nearly 14.4 million (14.7%) people had migrated out of Uttar Pradesh. Marriage was cited as the pre-dominant reason for migration among females. Among males the most important reason for migration was Work / Employment.
In 2009–10, the tertiary sector of the economy (service industries) was the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of the state, contributing 44.8% of the state domestic product compared to 44% from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, and tourism) and 11.2% from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing). MSME sector is the second-largest employment generator in Uttar Pradesh, the first being agriculture and employs over 9.2 million people across the state. Under the leadership of Akhilesh Yadav, Uttar Pradesh has exceeded 11 five-year plan targets and has established several Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and generated 650,000 employment opportunities across the state. During the 11th five-year plan (2007–2012), the average gross state domestic product (GSDP) growth rate was 7.28%, lower than 15.5%, the average for all states of the country. The state's per capita GSDP was ₹29,417 (US$410), lower than the national per capita GSDP of ₹60,972 (US$850). Labour efficiency is higher at an index of 26 than the national average of 25. Textiles and sugar refining, both long-standing industries in Uttar Pradesh, employ a significant proportion of the state’s total factory labour. The economy also benefits from the state's tourism industry. The state’s exports include footwear, leather goods, and sporting gear.
The state is attracting foreign direct investment which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields; Noida, Kanpur and Lucknow are becoming major hubs for the information technology (IT) industry and house the headquarters of most of the major corporate, media and financial institutions. Sonebhadra, a district in eastern Uttar Pradesh, has large-scale industries. Its southern region is known as the Energy Capital of India. In May 2013 Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of mobile subscribers in the country, a total of 121.60 million mobile phone connections out of 861.66 million in India, according to the telecom regulator, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). In November 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development selected sixty one cities of Uttar Pradesh for a comprehensive development program known as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT). A package of ₹260 billion (US$3.6 billion) was declared for the cities to develop service level improvement plan (SLIP), a plan for better functioning of the local urban bodies in the cities.
The state has the largest railway network in the country but in relative terms has only sixth-highest railway density despite its plain topography and largest population. As of 2011, there were 8,546 km (5,310 mi) of rail in the state. Allahabad is the headquarters of the North Central Railway and Gorakhpur is the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway. Other than Zonal Headquarters of Allahabad and Gorakhpur, Lucknow and Moradabad serve as divisional Headquarters of the Northern Railway Division. Lucknow Swarna Shatabdi Express, the second fastest shatabdi train, connects the Indian capital of New Delhi to Lucknow. This was the first train in India to get the new German LHB coaches. The railway stations of Allahabad Junction, Lucknow NR, Kanpur Central, Varanasi Junction, Agra Cantt, Gorakhpur Junction, Mathura Junction included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations.
The state has a large, multimodal transportation system with the largest road network in the country. The state is well connected to its nine neighbouring states and almost all other parts of India through the national highways (NH). It boasts 42 national highways, with a total length of 4,942 km (9.6% of the total NH length in India). The Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation was established in 1972 to provide economical, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the state with connecting services to adjoining states and boasts as being the only State Transport Corporation that runs in profit in the entire nation. All cities are connected to state highways, and all district headquarters are being connected with four lane roads which carry traffic between major centres within the state. One of them is Agra Lucknow Expressway, which is a 302 km (188 mi) controlled-access highway constructed by Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority (UPEIDA) to reduce vehicular traffic in previously congested roads. This expressway is country's largest Greenfield Expressway which reduced the travel time between Lucknow and Agra from 6 hours to 3.30 hours. Other district roads and village roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major district roads provide a secondary function of linking between main roads and rural roads. Uttar Pradesh has the highest road density in India, (1,027 km per 1000 km2) and the largest surfaced urban-road network in the country (50,721 km).
The state has two international airports located in Lucknow (Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport) and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport in Varanasi. and four domestic airports located at Agra, Allahabad, Gorakhpur and Kanpur. The Lucknow Airport is the second-busiest airport in North India after the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. The state has also proposed creating the Taj International Airport at Kurikupa near Hirangaon, Tundla in Firozabad district. Two more international airports have been proposed to be built at Kushinagar and Jewar, Greater Noida. The Lucknow Metro has been operational since 9 March 2019. The capital cities are witnessing a swift rise in the number of immigrants and this has called for the transformation of public modes of transport.
Traditional sports, now played mostly as a pastime, include wrestling, swimming, kabaddi, and track-sports or water-sports played according to local traditional rules and without modern equipment. Some sports are designed to display martial skills such as using a sword or 'Pata' (stick). Due to lack of organised patronage and requisite facilities, these sports survive mostly as individuals' hobbies or local competitive events. Among modern sports, field hockey is popular and Uttar Pradesh has produced some of the finest players in India, including Dhyan Chand and, more recently, Nitin Kumar and Lalit Kumar Upadhyay.
Recently, cricket has become more popular than field hockey. Uttar Pradesh won its first Ranji Trophy tournament in February 2006, beating Bengal in the final. It can also boast of routinely having three or four players on the national side. Green Park Stadium in Kanpur, the only internationally recognised cricket stadium in the state, has witnessed some of India's most famous victories. Uttar Pradesh Cricket Association (UPCA) has headquarters in Kanpur. An International Cricket Stadium with a capacity of 50,000 spectators, is being set up in the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. Greater Noida Cricket Stadium is another newly built international cricket stadium with a capacity of around 20,000 spectators.
The Buddh International Circuit hosted India's inaugural F1 Grand Prix race on 30 October 2011. The 5.14-kilometre-long (3.19-mile) circuit was designed by German architect and racetrack designer Herman Tilke to compete with other world-class race circuits. However, races were only held three times before being cancelled due to falling attendance and lack of government support. The government of Uttar Pradesh considered Formula One to be entertainment and not a sport, and thus imposed taxes on the event and participants.
Uttar Pradesh has a long tradition of education, although historically it was primarily confined to the elite class and religious schools. Sanskrit-based learning formed the major part of education from the Vedic to the Gupta periods. As cultures travelled through the region they brought their bodies of knowledge with them, adding Pali, Persian and Arabic scholarship to the community. These formed the core of Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education until the rise of British colonialism. The present schools-to-university system of education owes its inception and development in the state (as in the rest of the country) to foreign Christian missionaries and the British colonial administration. Schools in the state are either managed by the government or by private trusts. Hindi is used as a medium of instruction in most of the schools except those affiliated to the CBSE or the Council for ICSE boards. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for two years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education or a central board. Students choose from one of three streams, namely liberal arts, commerce, or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs. Some Uttar Pradesh schools, for example Delhi Public School (Noida), La Martinière Girls' College (Lucknow), and Step by Step School (Noida) have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.
Uttar Pradesh has more than 45 universities, including 5 central universities, 28 state universities, 8 deemed universities, 2 IITs in Varanasi and Kanpur, AIIMS Gorakhpur and AIIMS Rae Bareli, 1 IIM in Lucknow, 1 NIT in Allahabad, 2 IIITs, 1 National Law University in Lucknow and several polytechnics, engineering colleges and industrial training institutes. Prestigious institutes like the Aligarh Muslim University, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), the Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (Allahabad), Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad), Indian Institute of Information Technology (Lucknow), University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kanpur, King George's Medical University, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University and the Harcourt Butler Technical University are known worldwide for their quality education and research in their respective fields. The presence of such institutions provides the students of the state with ample opportunities for higher education.
The Integral University, a state level institution, was established by the Uttar Pradesh Government to provide education in different technical, applied science, and other disciplines. The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was founded as an autonomous organisation by the national ministry of culture. Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Handicapped University is the only university established exclusively for the disabled in the world. A large number of Indian scholars are educated at different universities in Uttar Pradesh. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in the geographic area of the state include Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Motilal Nehru, Harish Chandra and Indira Gandhi.
Uttar Pradesh ranks first in domestic tourist arrivals among all states of India with more than 71 million, owing to its rich and varied topography, vibrant culture, festivals, monuments, ancient places of worship, and viharas. Uttar Pradesh is also home to three World Heritage Sites: the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri. Uttar Pradesh is a favoured tourist destination in India due to the location of Taj Mahal, nearly 69 lakhs (6.9 million) people visited the Taj Mahal in 2018-19, up an 6% from the previous year when the number stood at 64 lakhs (6.4 million). The monument earned almost ₹78 crore (US$11 million) in ticket sales in 2018-19. The state's tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy, growing at the rate of 21.60%.
Religious tourism plays significant role in Uttar Pradesh tourism as the state has some of the holiest Hindu shrines. Varanasi a major religious hub, is the holiest of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) in Hinduism and Jainism. Domestic tourist most commonly visit for religious purposes while foreign tourist visit for ghats along river Ganges. Vrindavan is considered to be a holy place for Vaisnavism. Owing to the belief as the birthplace of Rama, Ayodhya (Awadh) has been regarded as one of the seven most important pilgrimage sites. Dwarka is one of the Chardhams, four sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites. Millions gather at Allahabad to take part in the Magh Mela festival on the banks of the Ganges. This festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbh Mela, where over 10 million Hindu pilgrims congregate in one of the largest gatherings of people in the world. Vindhyachal is a Hindu pilgrimage site having the temple of Vindhyavasini.
Buddhist attractions in Uttar Pradesh include stupas and monasteries. The historically important towns of Sarnath where Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon after his enlightenment and died at Kushinagar; both are important pilgrimage sites for Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artefacts with national significance. At a distance of 80 km from Varanasi, Ghazipur is famous not only for its Ghats on the Ganges but also for the tomb of Lord Cornwallis, the 18th-century Governor of East India Company ruled Bengal Presidency. The tomb is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. The state has one National Park and 25 Wildlife Sanctuaries. Okhla Bird Sanctuary known as a haven for over 300 bird species out of which 160 bird species are migratory, travelling from Tibet, Europe & Siberia and Patna Bird Sanctuary sanctuary in Etah district, is a major tourist attraction.
Uttar Pradesh has a large public as well as private healthcare infrastructure. Although an extensive network of public and private sector healthcare providers has been built, the available health infrastructure is inadequate to meet the demand for health services in the state. In 15 years to 2012–13, the population of Uttar Pradesh increased by more than 25 per cent. The public health centres, which are the frontline of the government's health care system, decreased by 8 per cent. Smaller sub-centres, the first point of public contact, increased by no more than 2 per cent over the 25 years to 2015, a period when the population grew by more than 51 per cent. The state is also facing challenges such as a shortage of healthcare professionals, increasing cost of healthcare, the mushrooming of private healthcare and a lack of planning. As on 2017, number of government hospital in rural and urban areas of Uttar Pradesh are 4442 (39104 beds) and 193 (37156 beds) respectively.
A newborn in Uttar Pradesh is expected to live four years fewer than in the neighbouring state of Bihar, five years fewer than in Haryana and seven years fewer than in Himachal Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh contributed to the largest share of almost all communicable and noncommunicable disease deaths, including 48 per cent of all typhoid deaths (2014); 17 per cent of cancer deaths and 18 per cent of tuberculosis deaths (2015). Uttar Pradesh’s maternal mortality ratio is higher than the national average at 258 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (2017), with 62 per cent of pregnant women unable to access minimum ante-natal care. Around 42 per cent of pregnant women, more than 1.5 million, deliver babies at home. About two-thirds (61 per cent) of childbirths at home in Uttar Pradesh are unsafe. State has the highest child mortality indicators, from the neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) to the under-five mortality rate of 64 children who die per 1,000 live births before five years of age, 35 die within a month of birth, and 50 do not complete a year of life. A third of the rural population in the state has been deprived of primary healthcare infrastructure, according to the norms of the Indian Public Health Standards.
Language and literature
Several texts and hymns of the Vedic literature were composed in Uttar Pradesh. Renowned Indian writers who have resided in Uttar Pradesh were Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas, who wrote much of his Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. The festival of Guru Purnima is dedicated to Sage Vyasa, and also known as Vyasa Purnima as it is the day which is believed to be his birthday and also the day he divided the Vedas. There is a long literary and folk Hindi-language tradition in the state. In the 19th and 20th century, Hindi literature was modernised by authors such as Jaishankar Prasad, Maithili Sharan Gupt, Munshi Premchand, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Babu Gulabrai, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Agyeya', Rahul Sankrityayan, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Dharamvir Bharati, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Dushyant Kumar, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Acharya Kuber Nath Rai, Bharatendu Harishchandra, Kamleshwar Prasad Saxena, Shivmangal Singh Suman, Mahadevi Varma, and Vibhuti Narain Rai.
The state is sometimes called the 'Hindi heartland of India'. Hindi became the language of state administration with the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act of 1951. A 1989 amendment to the act added Urdu, as an additional language of the state. Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central, and Eastern zones of the Hindi Belt, the major Hindi languages of the state being Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Braj Bhasha, Kannauji and Hindustani.
Music and dance
With each and every district of Uttar Pradesh having its unique music and tradition. Traditional folk music in Uttar Pradesh has been categorised in three different ways including music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers and music performed by custom. The popular folk music of Uttar Pradesh includes sohar which is sung to celebrate birth of a child. Kajari sung during the rainy season. Ghazal, Thumri and Qawwali which is a form of Sufi poetry is popular in the Awadh region. Rasiya (especially popular in Braj), which celebrate the divine love of Radha and Krishna. Khayal is a form of semi-classical singing which comes from the courts of Awadh. Other forms of music are Biraha, Chaiti, Alha and Sawani.
Kathak, a classical dance form, owes its origin to the state of Uttar Pradesh. The dance form is connected to classical Hindustani music where the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by either Tabla or Pakhawaj. Ramlila is one of the oldest dramatic folk dance which depicts the life of Lord Rama and is mainly performed during the Vijayadashami festival. Svanga is a dance drama of semi-historical tales and ballads. Traditional dance and musical styles are taught at the Bhatkhande Music Institute University in Lucknow, named after the musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Four of the six schools of this dance form, Lucknow gharana, Ajrara gharana, Farukhabad gharana and Benares gharana, are situated in Uttar Pradesh.
Fairs and festivals
Diwali (celebrated between mid-October and mid-December) and Rama Navami are popular festivals in Uttar Pradesh. Kumbh Mela, organised in the month of Maagha (February—March), is a major festival held every twelve years in rotation at Allahabad on the river Ganges. Lath mar Holi is a local celebration of the Hindu festival of Holi. It takes place well before the actual Holi in the town of Barsana near Mathura. Taj Mahotsav, held annually at Agra, is a colourful display of the culture of the Braj area. Ganga Mahotsav festival of Kartik Poornima celebrated fifteen days after Diwali. Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, is a major Hindu and Buddhist festival, while Christmas is celebrated by the minority Christian population. Other festivals are Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adhaa/Bakreed, Vijayadashami, Makar Sankranti, Vasant Panchami, Ayudha Puja, Janmashtami, Sardhana Christian Fair, Maha Shivaratri, Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, Ayurved Jhansi Mahotsav, Bārah Wafāṭ, Chhath puja, Lucknow Mahotsav, Moharram, Kabob and Hanuman Jayanti.
A typical day-to-day traditional vegetarian meal of Uttar Pradesh, like any other North Indian thali, consists of roti (flatbread), chawal, dal, sabji, raita and papad. On festive occasions, usually 'tava' (flat pan for roti) is considered inauspicious, and instead fried foods are consumed. A typical festive thali consists of Puri, Kachauri, sabji, pulav, papad, raita, salad and desserts (such as sewai or Kheer). Lassi (yogurt-based) and chaach (traditional buttermilk) are most favoured drink in Uttar Pradesh.
Many communities have their own particular style of cuisines, such as the Jains, Kayasths and Muslims. There are also certain sub-regional delicacies. Awadhi cuisine is world-famous for dishes such as kebab, biryani, keema and nihari. Sweets occupy an important place in the Hindu diet and are eaten at social ceremonies. People make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including khurchan, peda, gulabjamun, petha, makkhan malai, and chamcham. The chaat in Lucknow and Banarasi Paan is known across India for its flavour and ingredients.
Awadhi cuisine is from the city of Lucknow. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Central Asia, Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad; and the city is known for Nawabi foods. The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today. Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs (shish kebab or shashlik), kormas, biryani, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis, and warqi parathas. The richness of Awadh cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron.
Mughlai cuisine is a style of cooking developed in the Indian subcontinent by the imperial kitchens of the Mughal Empire. It represents the cooking styles used in North India, especially Uttar Pradesh. The cuisine is strongly influenced by the cuisine of Central Asia, and has in turn strongly similarities to the regional cuisines of Kashmir and the Punjab region. The tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices.
The people of Uttar Pradesh dress in a variety of traditional and Western styles. Traditional styles of dress include colourful draped garments – such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men – and tailored clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama for men. Men often sport head-gear like topi or pagri. Sherwani is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions. European-style trousers and shirts are also common among the men.
A number of newspapers and periodicals are published in Hindi, English, and Urdu. The Pioneer was founded in Allahabad in 1865 by George Allen. Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Rajasthan Patrika and Hindustan Dainik have a wide circulation, with local editions published from several important cities. Major English language newspapers which are published and sold in large numbers are The Telegraph, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Statesman, The Indian Express, and Asian Age. Some prominent financial dailies like The Economic Times, Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Nepali, Gujarati, Odia, Urdu, and Punjabi are also read by a select readership.
Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Hindi, English, Bengali, Nepali and international channels via cable. Hindi 24-hour television news channels are NDTV India, DD News, Zee News, Aaj Tak, News18 India, and ABP News. All India Radio is a public radio station. There are 32 private FM stations available in major cities like Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, and Noida. Cell phone providers include Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Reliance Jio, Reliance Communications, Telenor, Aircel,Tata Indicom, Idea Cellular, and Tata DoCoMo. Broadband internet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL and by private companies. Dial-up access is provided throughout the state by BSNL and other providers.
- "United Province, UP was notified in Union gazette on January 24, 1950". The New Indian Express. 2 May 2017. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh District". up.gov.in. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "List of districts in Uttar Pradesh". archive.india.gov.in. Government of India. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- PTI (20 July 2019). "Anandiben Patel made UP governor, Lal ji Tandon to replace her in Madhya Pradesh". India Today. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- "The Governor of Uttar Pradesh". uplegisassembly.gov.in. Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "Social Demography" (PDF). Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Statistics of Uttar Pradesh". up.gov.in. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "MOSPI Net State Domestic Product, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 49–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Kopf, Dan; Varathan, Preeti (11 October 2017). "If Uttar Pradesh were a country". Quartz India. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "Unemployment in Uttar Pradesh increased 11.4 pct points, rose to 21.5% in Apr 2020: CMIE Survey". Mint (newspaper). HT Media. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- "President's Rule in Uttar Pradesh". uplegisassembly.gov.in. Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- Virendra N. Misra, Peter Bellwood (1985). Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory: proceedings of the international symposium held at Poona. p. 69. ISBN 90-04-07512-7. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Bridget Allchin, Frank Raymond Allchin (29 July 1982). The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-521-28550-X. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal Sankalia; Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo; Madhukar Keshav Dhavalikar (1985). Studies in Indian Archaeology: Professor H.D. Sankalia Felicitation Volume. Popular Prakashan. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-86132-088-2. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017.
- Confidence limits for the age are 85 (±11) and 72 (±8) thousand years ago.
- Gibling, Sinha; Sinha, Roy; Roy, Tandon; Tandon, Jain; Jain, M (2008). "Quaternary fluvial and eolian deposits on the Belan river, India: paleoclimatic setting of Paleolithic to Neolithic archeological sites over the past 85,000 years". Quaternary Science Reviews. 27 (3–4): 391. Bibcode:2008QSRv...27..391G. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.11.001.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (2000). God-apes and Fossil Men. University of Michigan Press. p. 263. ISBN 0-472-11013-6. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Bridget Allchin, Frank Raymond Allchin (1982). The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-521-28550-X. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Misra, V N (November 2001). "Prehistoric human colonization of India" (PDF). Journal of Biosciences. Indian Academy of Sciences. 26 (4 Supp): 491–531. doi:10.1007/bf02704749. PMID 11779962. S2CID 26248907. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh - History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
A systematic history of India and the area of Uttar Pradesh dates to the end of the 7th century BCE, when 16 mahajanapadas (great states) in northern India were contending for supremacy. Of those, seven fell entirely within the present-day boundaries of Uttar Pradesh.
- Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History And Civilization. New Age International. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- William Buck (1 January 2000). Ramayana. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1720-3. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Richard White (8 November 2010). The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00562-4. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Marshall Cavendish Corporation (September 2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 331–335. ISBN 978-0-7614-7631-3. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Pran Nath Chopra (1 December 2003). A Comprehensive History of Ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 196. ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- The History of India by Kenneth Pletcher p.102
- The City in South Asia by James Heitzman p.37
- Singh, Pradyuman. Bihar General Knowledge Digest. ISBN 9789352667697.
- * Srivastava, Ashirvadi Lal (1929). The Sultanate of Delhi 711-1526 A D. Shiva Lal Agarwala & Company. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Islam; Bosworth (1 January 1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. pp. 269–291. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
- Annemarie Schimmel (5 February 2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-185-3. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Babur (Emperor of Hindustan); Dilip Hiro (1 March 2006). Babur Nama: Journal of Emperor Babur. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-400149-1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Carlos Ramirez-Faria (1 January 2007). Concise Encyclopeida of World History. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 171. ISBN 978-81-269-0775-5. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Stronge, Susan (16 October 2012). Mughal Hindustan is renowned for its opulence. London: The Arts of the Sikh Kingdoms (V&A 1999). p. 255. ISBN 9788174366962. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Ashvini Agrawal (1 January 1983). Studies in Mughal History. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–46. ISBN 978-81-208-2326-6. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Fergus Nicoll, Shah Jahan: The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Emperor (2009)
- Mayaram, Shail (2003). Against history, against state: counterperspectives from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
- "Uttar Pradesh Day: How the state was born 67 years back". 3 May 2017. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- Gyanesh Kudaisya (1994). Region, nation, "heartland": Uttar Pradesh in India's body-politic. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 126–376. ISBN 978-3-8258-2097-8.
- K. Sivaramakrishnan (3 December 1999). Modern Forests: Statemaking and Environmental Change in Colonial Eastern India. Stanford University Press. pp. 240–276. ISBN 978-0-8047-4556-7. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Ashutosh Joshi (1 January 2008). Town Planning Regeneration of Cities. New India Publishing. p. 237. ISBN 978-8189422820. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018.
- Rudrangshu Mukherjee (1 June 2005). Mangal Pandey: brave martyr or accidental hero?. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-303256-4. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (India); D.L. Drake-Brockman (1934). District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: supp.D.Pilibhit District. Supdt., Government Press, United Provinces. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Dilip K. Chakrabarti (1 June 1997). Colonial Indology: sociopolitics of the ancient Indian past. Michigan: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 257. ISBN 978-81-215-0750-9. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Bernard S. Cohn (19 August 1996). Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-691-00043-5. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Clare M. Wilkinson-Weber (1 January 1999). Embroidering Lives: Women's Work and Skill in the Lucknow Embroidery Industry. SUNY Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7914-4087-2.
- Mathur, Prakash Narain. "A History of the Lucknow Bench Of The Allahabad High Court" (PDF). Allahabad High Court. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- K. Balasankaran Nair (1 January 2004). Law of Contempt of Court in India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 320. ISBN 978-81-269-0359-7. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Śekhara, Bandyopādhyāya (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. p. 407. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2.
- Bandyopādhyāya, Śekhara (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. p. 406. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2.
- Bankim Chandra Chatterji (15 January 2006). Anandamath. Orient Paperbacks. p. 168. ISBN 978-81-222-0130-7. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh – States and Union Territories". Know India: National Portal of India. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "Uttar Pradesh". What is India. 22 August 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- "Uttar Pradesh introduces new transfer policy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Communal violence". Business Standard. Ananda Publishers. Kotak Mahindra Bank. 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- communal violence, in uttar pradesh. "Communal conflicts in state". Tehalka. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- J. C. Aggarwal; S. P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. Concept Publishing Company of India. p. 391. ISBN 978-81-7022-572-0. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017.
- "Most critical factors". Uttar Pradesh climate department. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh Geography". Uttar Pradesh State Profile. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "The larger Gangetic Plain" (PDF). Gecafs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Gangetic Plains and Vindhya Hills and plateau". Zee news. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Anwar, Shakeel (16 August 2018). "List of major canals and dams in Uttar Pradesh". Dainik Jagran. Jagran Prakashan Limited. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- "Indo - African Journal for Resource Management" (PDF). Indo - African Journal for Resource Management and Planning. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- Anwar, Shakeel. "The Great Plains of India". Jagran Josh. Dainik Jagran. Jagran Prakashan Private Limited. Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- R P Meena. Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020. New Era Publication. p. 6. GGKEY:XTXLJ8SQZFE.
- "Rivers of Uttar Pradesh". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "The Glossary of Meteorology". Allen Press Inc. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Potential Creation and Utilisation". Irrigation department U.P. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Purports to define every important meteorological term likely to be found in the literature today". Allen Press, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Vir Singh (1998). Mountain Ecosystems: A Scenario of Unsustainability. Indus Publishing. pp. 102–264. ISBN 978-81-7387-081-1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Upkar Prakashan – Editorial Board (2008). Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-81-7482-408-0. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Climate change impacts". Uttar Pradesh climate department. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Climate". Uttar Prades:Land. Suni System (P) Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Irrigation Department Uttar Pradesh. "Average rainfall pattern of Uttar Pradesh". Irrigation Department Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Sethi, Nitin (13 February 2007). "Met dept blames it on 'western disturbance'". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Local Weather Report". Local Weather Report and Forecast Department. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Lucknow". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Kanpur". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Ghaziabad". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Allahabaad". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Agra". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Varanasi". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Gorakhpur". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast for Bareilly". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "State Animal, Bird, Tree and Flower". Panna Tiger Reserve. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Music & Dance". uptourism.gov.in. Uttar Pradesh Tourism. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation". Forest department uttar pradesh. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Forest and tree resources in states and union territories: Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). India state of forest report 2009. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Floral and Faunal Diversity of Uttar Pradesh". Uttar Pradesh State Biodiversity Board. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- "Aegyptica". Bsienvis.nic.in. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "Bird Sanctuary". U.P tourism. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Sanctuary Park in U.P". U.P tourism. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Few patches of natural forest". State government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- The Forests and biodiversity, in UP are important in many ways. "Miscellaneous Statistics". Ministry of Environment and Forests. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Conservation of the Avifauna" (PDF). Dudhwa National Park. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Major wildlife sanctuaries and reserves of Uttar Pradesh". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Bakhira Bird Sanctuary". upforest.gov.in. UP Forest and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary". National Chambal Sanctuary. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary And Picnic Spots". uptourism.gov.in. Uttar Pradesh Tourism. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Hastinapur Wild Life Sanctuary". upforest.gov.in. P Forest and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Kaimoor Wild Life Sanctuary". upforest.gov.in. Forest and Wildlife Department Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Inside Okhla Bird Sanctuary". upforest.gov.in. UP Forest and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- S. K. Agarwal (1998). Environment Biotechnology. APH Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-313-0294-1. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Processing of manuscripts of Fauna" (PDF). Indian Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "State division of Uttar Pradesh". Government of India. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Indian Districts by population". 2011 Census of India. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Panchayati Raj Act, 1947" (PDF). Department of Panchayati Raj, Government of Uttar Pradesh. 1947. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Panchayati Raj Act, 1947 – Chapter 6- The Nyaya Panchayat" (PDF). Department of Panchayati Raj, Government of Uttar Pradesh. 1947. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Panels to draft development plans for 13 cities". The Indian Express. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "The area and density of metropolitan cities" (PDF). The Ministry of Urban Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Provisional population totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Census of India 2011. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- "Provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011 : Uttar Pradesh". Census of India 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959" (PDF). 1959. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959" (PDF). Uttar Pradesh State Election Commission. 1959. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "U.P. INDUSTRIAL AREA DEVELOPMENT ACT – 1976 (U.P. Act Number 6, of 1976)" (PDF). Noida Authority Online. 1976. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "U.P. INDUSTRIAL AREA DEVELOPMENT ACT – 1976 (U.P. Act Number 6, of 1976)" (PDF). Greater Noida Authority. 1976. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Khan, Atiq (16 November 2011). "Maya splits U.P. poll scene wide open". The Hindu. Lucknow. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "The density of population in U.P." Environment and Related Issues Department U.P. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Provisional population totals" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Kaul, Sudesh. "Indigenous Peoples Policy Framework" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "Decennil growth of population by census" (PDF). Census of India (2011). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- "Decennial growth rate and density for 2011 at a glance for Uttar Pradesh and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011". Census of India(2011). Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- "The state with large no. of peoples living below poverty line". Government of India. Press Information Bureau. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh Poverty, Growth & Inequality" (PDF). World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2011-12" (PDF). Planning Commission. Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Singh, Hemant (7 April 2020). "Per Capita Income of Indian States 2019-20". Dainik Jagran. Jagran Josh. Jagran Prakashan Limited. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- Number, Religion. "U.P religions by numbers". The Hindu (26 August 2015). N. Ravi. The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "Muslim population grew faster: Census". Archived from the original on 27 August 2015.
- C1 – Population by religious community, Uttar Pradesh. Archived 27 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Census India 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "Uttar Pradesh Profile" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- "A comparison of the literacy rates" (PDF). censusmp.gov.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- "Literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh". Census of India 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Parishad structure". Legislative Bodies of India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha structure". Legislative Bodies of India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Four other states seen as barometer of support for federal government. "Legislative elections in Uttar Pradesh". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "Statewise List". 18.104.22.168. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Rajya Sabha". Rajya Sabha. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Verinder Grover (1989). Legislative Council in State Legislatures. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 37–255. ISBN 978-81-7100-193-4. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Composition of Rajya Sabha" (PDF). Rajya Sabha. New Delhi: Rajya Sabha Secretariat. pp. 24–25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Role of The Governor". upgovernor.gov.in. Raj Bhavan Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "CONSTITUTIONAL SETUP". Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 4.3–4.5. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- —"Anoop [sic] Chandra Pandey takes charge as chief secretary". Hindustan Times. HT correspondent. Lucknow. 1 July 2018. ISSN 0972-0243. OCLC 231696742. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018 – via PressReader.CS1 maint: others (link)
—"Anup Chandra Pandey took over as the new Chief Secretary of UP". The Pioneer. Lucknow: Chandan Mitra. Pioneer News Service. 1 July 2018. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
—"Anup Chandra Pandey takes charge as new Chief Secretary of UP". United News of India. Lucknow. United News of India. 30 June 2018. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- —Bajpai, Namita (23 January 2018). "O P Singh takes charge as Uttar Pradesh's new DGP; bats for professional policing". The New Indian Express. Lucknow. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
—"O P Singh takes charge as Uttar Pradesh DGP". The Times of India. Lucknow. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
—"23 days after appointment, OP Singh finally takes charge as UP DGP". Daily News and Analysis. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th ed.). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 563–572. ISBN 9788125019886.
- Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 26–129. ISBN 978-8170993810.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 5.1–5.2. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- "Role and Functions of Divisional Commissioner". Your Article Library. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Contact Details of Commissioners and District Magistrates of U.P." Department of Home and Confidential, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- जिलाधिकारी/मंडलायुक्त की सूची [List of District Magistrates and Divisional Commissioners]. Department of Appointments and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 10 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th ed.). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 573–597. ISBN 9788125019886.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 6.1–6.6. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 50–124. ISBN 978-8170993810.
- "Powers of District Magistrate in India". Important India. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh judiciary". Maps of India. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- "The Uttar Pradesh Judicial Service Rules, 2001" (PDF). Allahabad High Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Bind, Basini Prasad. "The History and Role of Subordinate Civil Judiciary in Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). Allahabad High Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Subordinate Civil Judiciary in Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). Allahabad High Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- "UP: the nerve centre of politics". Zee news. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Shafi, Alam. "The strength of Armed Police in Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Sarda, Kanu (19 August 2018). "In Custody: Six died daily in four months". The New Indian Express. Express Publications (Madurai) Limited D. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- Sandhu, Kamaljit Kaur (14 May 2018). "More bad news for Yogi Adityanath as data show UP tops crime chart". India Today. Living Media India Limited. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- Rao, Phalguni. "NHRC registered 1,782 fake encounter cases between 2000-2017; Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for 44.55%". Firstpost. Network 18. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- Pervez Iqbal Siddiqui (30 October 2011). "UP tops in crime, low on 'criminality'". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- "Uttar Pradesh tops the list of communal violence hit states in 2017: Govt". The Economic Times. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- Sharma, Neeta (14 March 2018). "Communal Violence Goes Up In Country, Uttar Pradesh Still Tops List". NDTV. New Delhi Television Limited. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX ACROSS INDIAN STATES: IS THE GLASS STILL HALF EMPTY?" (PDF). State Bank of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- Chauhan, Saurabh. "UP fails to improve human development index ranking in 27 years". Hindustan Times. HT Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "Uttar Pradesh Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "India Human Development Report report raps Gujarat, praises UP and Bihar". The Times of India. 22 October 2011. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "General Information". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Highlight of criminal statistics" (PDF). Ministry of statics and program implementation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Accidental Deaths in India" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- Chauhan, Arvind (7 January 2017). "At 23,219, UP reports highest number of road, rail accident". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. The Times Group. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- "An accident reported every two hours in UP: Fatal accidents in the state". Archived from the original on 5 May 2017.
- "A powerful bomb placed in". Zee news. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Sankat Mochan Hanuman temple blast". 'Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh blasts, RDX use confirmed". Web India. 25 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Varanasi blast". NDTV. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Swami, Praveen (25 November 2007). "Uttar Pradesh bombings mark new phase". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Swami, Praveen (26 December 2007). "Wiretap warning on Uttar Pradesh bombings went in vain". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Massive terror attacks". The Sunday Indian. 25 November 2011. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Chronology of recent terror attacks". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- "GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY (crore Rs) UTTAR PRADESH" (PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- Khullar, Vatsal (20 February 2018). "Uttar Pradesh Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "The state profile" (PDF). PHD Chember. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh: A Rainbow Land" (PDF). ibef.org. India Brand Equity Foundation. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- "Industrial policy of Uttar Pradesh". Lex Universe. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Indian sugar mills association". indiansugar.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Malini Goyal (9 June 2013). "SMEs employ close to 40% of India's workforce, but contribute only 17% to GDP". The Economic TImes. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- IT park, Infrastructure and (4 January 2016). "Noida-Greater Noida's world class infrastructure to be highlighted in UP Pravasi Diwas". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Details of financing & limits of accommodation" (PDF). UPFC India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "A statement of the categories of documents that are held by the Corporation" (PDF). Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "The budget allocated to each of its agency" (PDF). UPFC India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Rawat, Virendra Singh. "Private investment under Akhilesh government more than doubles". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "10. Uttar Pradesh – World Bank Survey: India's top 10 states on the ease of doing business ranking – The Economic Times". Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Raghuvanshi, Umesh (23 October 2019). "Finance commission asks Uttar Pradesh to bring down its debt burden". Hindustan Times. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- "State slipping into debt burden". The Times of India. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Jha, Abhishek; Kawoosa, Vijdan Mohammad (26 July 2019). "What the 2011 census data on migration tells us". Hindustan Times. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- Edwin, Tina (30 July 2019). "Migrants seem to prefer neighbouring States for livelihood". Business Line. The Hindu Group. Kasturi and Sons Limited. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- "Census of India 2001 - Data Highlights" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- "Investment climate of a state" (PDF). IBEF organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Service sector over the present crisis". The Economic Times. 14 March 2009. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Only 5 states exceed 11th Plan growth targets: Govt: Ruled by CNBC TV18 News". CNBC TV18-MoneyControl Post. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013.
- "RBI releases Study on State Finances 2009-10". Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation" (PDF). Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation Govt. Of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Cite journal requires
- "Small scale industries and other small trades" (PDF). Ministry of Small Scale Industries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2008.
- "Western part of the coalfield". Northern Coalfields Limited. Archived from the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- Report by, TRAI. "Monthly press release" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. TRAI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "UP, TN have most cell-phone users in India: TRAI". Business Line. 5 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "UP has most cell phone users in India: TRAI". The Indian Express. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Uttar Pradesh top in mobile penetration". 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Map of Cities covered under AMRUT". Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- "Uttar Pradesh size - Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)" (PDF). Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- "total railway route length uttar pradesh". Northern Railways Lucknow Division. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "North Central Railway-The Allahabad Division". Indian Railways Portal CMS Team. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "the Portal of Indian Railways". Indian Railways. Archived from the original on 11 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Equipment arrives for integrated security system". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Lucknow New Delhi Shatabdi Express". The Times of India. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Introducing the Railway Budget 2011-12" (PDF). Indian Railways. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Investment Promotion & Infrastructure Development Cell. "Road" (PDF). Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Road network" (PDF). India Brand Equity Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Welcome :: U.P. Expressways Industrial Development Authority". upeida.in. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "India's Longest Agra-Lucknow Expressway – 20 Facts to Know". 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Roads in India are divided into the categories, For the purpose of management and administration. "One of the largest road networks in the Country" (PDF). Department of Industrial policy and promotion. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Pervasive road network of Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). Planning commission, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "contributing to economic growth and prosperity of the nation". Airports Authority of India. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "UP to seek DGCA nod for Taj airport". Hindustan Times. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Hindustan Times e-Paper". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Kushinagar international airport to get ready for take-off". Virendra Singh Rawat. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014.
- Mishra, Mihir (24 June 2017). "Jewar to be second airport in Delhi NCR". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "Lucknow Metro Rail Right on Track". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Mohan Rao (6 January 2005). From Population Control To Reproductive Health: Malthusian Arithmetic. Sage Publications. pp. 244–246. ISBN 978-0-7619-3269-7. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Indian Hockey Player". stick2hockey. Archived from the original on 14 November 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Hapless victim of a TV sting, this hockey player is now a rising star". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh win Ranji Trophy". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- "UP to get one more cricket stadium by 2011". First Published:PTI, Friday, 27 November 2009, 21:26. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- "The Buddh International Circuit (BIC), which played host to India's first Formula One Grand Prix". CNN-IBN. 18 November 2011. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Philosophy behind the Buddh International Circuit" (PDF). Jaypee Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- "Why India's Formula 1 Grand Prix is under threat". BBC News. 24 October 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2013.
- "Islamic religious schools". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2003.
- "British colonial administration system in state education system". State Education Board. Archived from the original on 21 April 2003. Retrieved 25 April 2003.
- "Uttar Pradesh Facts & Figures". Uttar Pradesh education department. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- "India's Best Schools, 2014". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
- "List of universities". Education info India. Archived from the original on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "List of Universities in Uttar Pradesh". Education department of U.P. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Kanpur schools welcome IIT Council formula". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Official Website of IIM Lucknow". IIM Lucknow. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "IIM-Lucknow sends country's first team to global agribusiness meet". The Times of India. 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- "IIM Lucknow students shine at International Agri-biz symposium in Shanghai". MBA Universe. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- "The Integral University Lucknow state level institution". Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Ragini, Dikshit (10 July 2007). "चित्रकूट: दुनिया का प्रथम विकलांग विश्वविद्यालय" [Chitrakuta: The world's first handicapped university] (in Hindi). Jansatta Express.
- Upkar Prakashan – Editorial Board (1 September 2010). Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. pp. 46–287. ISBN 978-81-7482-408-0. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Siddiqui, Masood H.; Tripathi, Shalini N. (2011). "Performance of Tourist Centres in Uttar Pradesh: An Evaluation Using Data Envelopment Analysis" (PDF). ASCI Journal of Management. Administrative Staff College of India. 40 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Taj Mahal, Tourists at. "Tourists up at Taj Mahal". The Economic Times. The Times Group. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "Year-wise Tourist Statistics". Uttar Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Kama MacLean (29 August 2008). Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533894-2. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Hindus gather for the Kumbh Mela at the Ganges in India and Maha Shivaratri in Allahabad". The Daily Telegraph. London. 12 February 2010. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- "SARNATH GENERAL INFORMATION". Tourism department of Varanasi. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Sanjeev Joon. Complete Guide for SSC. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-07-070645-3. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Anand, Manjaree (1 July 2014). "Health status and health care services in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: A comparative study". Indian Journal of Public Health. 58 (3): 174–9. doi:10.4103/0019-557X.138624. ISSN 0019-557X. PMID 25116823.
- "Annual Health Survey 2012–13 Fact Sheet – Uttar Pradesh" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- Perappadan, Bindu Shajan (11 May 2019). "India facing critical shortage of healthcare providers: WHO". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "Hospitals in the Country". Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
- "Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) (Per 100000 Live Births)". NITI Aayog. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Rao, Menaka (8 February 2017). "Uttar Pradesh has a free ambulance service for pregnant women but substandard hospitals". Scroll.in. Scroll Media Inc, USA. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- "State of Urban Health in Uttar Pradesh- Urban Health Resource Center" (PDF). Urban Health Resource Centre. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Estimates of mortality indicators" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- "Rural Health Statistics 2014–15" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- Jahan, Bibi Ishrat. "Public Private Partnership in Uttar Pradesh Health Care Delivery System- UPHSDP as an Initiative" (PDF). Centre for Inquiry into Health and Allied Themes. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- Awakening Indians to India. Chinmaya Mission. 2008. p. 167. ISBN 978-81-7597-434-0. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Three indian children to attend J8 summit in Rome.:. newkerala.com Online News". New kerala. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". U.P assembly. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Ethnologue report for language code: bfy". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "North Indian: Kathak" (PDF). Dance style loacator. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Bhatkhande music institute". Uttar Pradesh Education Department. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Lucknow gharana, developed with Kathak". Hindustani classical music. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Benaras Gharana, traditional style and way of teaching and performing Indian classical music". Benares music academy. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Kumbh Mela – India". Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012 – via YouTube.
- "The Braj Holi: Legend in real life". Hindustan Times. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "The glorious traditions and mythological legacy". Department of tourism U.P. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Yummy: 29 Scrumptious Thalis From 29 States Of India". itimes. The Times Group. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
- "Banarasi paan or tobacco". The Times of India. 28 April 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- Mukherjee, Soma (2001). Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions. ISBN 9788121207607. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Costumes of Uttar Pradesh". Indify. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Style statement for fashionistas in state". Post Jagran. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Das Gupta, Uma (1977). "The Indian Press 1870–1880: A Small World of Journalism". Modern Asian Studies. 11 (2): 213–235. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00015092. JSTOR 311549.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Radio Stations in Uttar Pradesh, India". Asiawaves. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Indian FM Stations Statewise". Bharatiya mobile. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Uttar Pradesh (East)". India cellular phone industry. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Internet Service Provider". Data Infocom Limited. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- Official Website of Government of Uttar Pradesh
- Official Website of Department of Home of Government of Uttar Pradesh
- Official Website of Department of Tourism of Government of Uttar Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Uttar Pradesh RERA Uttar Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh at Curlie
- Geographic data related to Uttar Pradesh at OpenStreetMap