Languages with legal status in India

There is no national language in the Republic of India.[4][5][6] However, article 343(1) of the Indian constitution specifically mentions that "The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals,"[6] while article 343(2) allowed for the continuation of English as an official language for another 15 years and 343(3) gave the parliament the power to provide for the use of English language after this period.[5] The clause 3 of the Official Languages Act, 1963 allows for the continued use of English language for official purposes of the Union government and for parliamentary business. Hence Indian English and Modern Standard Hindi are the Official Languages of the Government of India.[7]

Language region map of India
States and union territories of India by the most spoken languages, among which most are scheduled but some are not scheduled languages, like Ao of Nagaland, Khasi of Meghalaya, Ladakhi of Ladakh, Mizo of Mizoram and Nyishi of Arunachal Pradesh. Exceptionally, Mizo attains state level official language status, despite not being a scheduled language.[1][2][3][a]
Part of a series on
Constitutionally recognised languages of India
Category
22 Official Languages of the Indian Republic
Related

Hindi is the fastest growing language of India, followed by Kashmiri, Manipuri, and Gujarati.[8]

History edit

The official languages of British India before independence were English, Standard Urdu and later Modern Standard Hindi, with English being used for purposes at the central level.[9] The origins of official Hindi usage traces back to 1900, when MacDonnell issued an order, which allowed the “permissive — but not exclusive — use” of Devanagari for Hindustani language in the courts of North-Western Provinces.[10]

Following independence, the Constituent Assembly remained divided on the language issue, with some like R. V. Dulekar and Seth Govind Das favouring declaring Hindi written in Devanagari the national language of India immediately, while within the camp favouring Hindi there were divisions over whether the script of the language should be Devanagri or Roman, whether Hindustani with both Devanagri and Urdu scripts be retained, and whether the numerals should be international or Devanagri. Meanwhile, some like Frank Anthony, T A Ramalingam Chettiar, and Naziruddin Ahmad wanted to continue the usage of English, while Nehru although supporting the dropping of English as an official language in favour of Hindi/Hindustani cautioned against forcefully doing so in face of opposition in the South.[11][12] The Indian constitution, adopted in 1950; as a compromise, envisaged that English would be phased out in favour of Hindi, over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter.[13]

Plans to make Hindi the sole official language of the Republic were met with resistance in many parts of the country, especially in Tamil Nadu, which had a history of opposing imposition of the Hindi language dating back to 1937, when the Justice Party opposed the then Congress led Madras Government's decision to make Hindi compulsory in secondary schools.[14]

The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union. Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, that is, on 26 January 1965. The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non-Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially Dravidian-speaking states whose languages were not related to Hindi at all. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, 1963,[15]Commissioner Linguistic Minorities Archived 8 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine </ref>[16][17][18][19] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965.

In late 1964, an attempt was made to expressly provide for an end to the use of English, but it was met with protests from states and territories, including Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, West Bengal, Karnataka, Puducherry, Nagaland, Mizoram and Andhra Pradesh. Some of these protests also turned violent.[20] As a result, the proposal was dropped,[21][22] and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[15]: 3(5) 

The position was thus that the Union government continues to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes[15]: 3(1)  as a "subsidiary official language",[23] but is also required to prepare and execute a program to progressively increase its use of Hindi.[15]: 1) The exact extent to which, and the areas in which, the Union government uses Hindi and English, respectively, is determined by the provisions of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, the Official Languages Rules, 1976, and statutory instruments made by the Department of Official Language under these laws.

Department of Official Language was set up in June 1975 as an independent Department of the Ministry of Home Affairs.[24]

Scheduled languages of the Indian Constitution edit

The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India. At the time when the Constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission, and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi and English, the official languages of the Union. The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge." In addition, candidates sitting for an examination conducted for public service are entitled to use any of these languages as a medium to answer the paper.

Chronology edit

Language[b] Speakers
(millions, 2011)[29]
Notes Year included Language family Writing system ISO 639 code
Assamese 15.3

Official language of Assam

1950 Indo-Aryan, Eastern Bengali–Assamese as
Bengali 97.2

Official language of West Bengal, Tripura and the Barak Valley region of Assam, additional official in Jharkhand[30]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Eastern Bengali–Assamese bn
Bodo 1.48

Official language of Bodoland, Assam.

2003 Tibeto-Burman Devanagari brx
Dogri 2.6

Official language in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir[31]

2003 Indo-Aryan, Northwestern Devanagari doi
Gujarati 55.5

Official language in Gujarat and additional official language of the neighbouring union district of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu[32]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Western Gujarati script gu
Hindi 528

Official language in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat,[33] Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Ladakh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand. An additional official language in West Bengal[34][35] Very widely spoken in Northern India, and, with English, one of the official languages of the Government of India.

1950 Indo-Aryan, Central Devanagari hi
Kannada 43.7

Official language of Karnataka

1950 Dravidian Kannada script kn
Kashmiri 6.8

Official language of Jammu and Kashmir[31]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Dardic Perso-Arabic script ks
Konkani 2.25

Official language of Goa[36][37]

1992 Indo-Aryan, Southern Devanagari gom
Maithili 13.6

Additional official language in the Mithila region of Jharkhand[38]

2003 Indo-Aryan, Eastern Devanagari mai
Malayalam 34.8

Official language of Kerala; additional official language in Puducherry and Lakshadweep

1950 Dravidian Malayalam script ml
Manipuri 1.8

Official language of Manipur

1992 Tibeto-Burman Meitei script mni
Marathi 83

Official language of Maharashtra; additional official language of Goa.

1950 Indo-Aryan, Southern Devanagari mr
Nepali 2.9

Official language of Sikkim. Additional official language in the Gorkhaland region of West Bengal.

1992 Indo-Aryan, Northern Devanagari ne
Odia 37.5

Official language of Odisha; additional official language in Jharkhand, West Bengal[39] The spelling Oriya was replaced by Odia by 96th Constitutional Amendment Act.[28]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Eastern Odia script or
Punjabi 33.1

Official language of Punjab; additional official language of Delhi, Haryana, West Bengal[34][35]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Northwestern Gurmukhi pa
Sanskrit 0.02

Classical and scriptural language of India, but not widely spoken, nor the language of any modern Indian community.[40] Additional official language of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

1950 Indo-Aryan Devanagari sa
Santali 7.6 Additional official language of Jharkhand, West Bengal[41] 2003 Austroasiatic Ol Chiki sat
Sindhi 2.7 Not the official language of any state, but spoken by nearly three million Indians, mainly in Gujarat, Maharashta, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh.[42] 1967 Indo-Aryan, Northwestern Perso-Arabic script or Devanagari[43] sd
Tamil 69

Official language of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.

1950 Dravidian Tamil script ta
Telugu 81.1

Official language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. An additional official language in Puducherry and West Bengal.

1950 Dravidian Telugu script te
Urdu 50.7

An official language of Jammu and Kashmir; an additional official language in Andhra Pradesh,[44] Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.[34][35]

1950 Indo-Aryan, Central Perso-Arabic script ur

Official languages of the Union edit

 
The front cover of a contemporary Indian passport, with the national emblem and inscriptions in the two official languages of Hindi and English.

Parliamentary proceedings and laws edit

The Indian constitution distinguishes the language to be used in Parliamentary proceedings, and the language in which laws are to be made. Parliamentary business, according to the Constitution, may be conducted in either Hindi or English. The use of English in parliamentary proceedings was to be phased out at the end of fifteen years unless Parliament chose to extend its use, which Parliament did through the Official Languages Act, 1963.[15]: 3(1b)  Also, the constitution permits a person who is unable to express themselves in either Hindi or English to, with the permission of the Speaker of the relevant House, address the House in their mother tongue.[45]

In contrast, the constitution requires the authoritative text of all laws, including Parliamentary enactments and statutory instruments, to be in English, until Parliament decides otherwise. Parliament has not exercised its power to so decide, instead merely requiring that all such laws and instruments, and all bills brought before it, also be translated into Hindi, though the English text remains authoritative.[15]: 5(1, 2))  The Official Languages Act, 1963 provides that the authoritative text of central acts, rules, regulations, etc., are published in Hindi as well in the official gazette by President of India.[46]

Judiciary edit

The constitution provides, and the Supreme Court of India has reiterated, that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and the High Courts shall be in English.[47] Parliament has the power to alter this by law but has not done so. However, in many high courts, there is, with consent from the president, allowance of the optional use of Hindi. Such proposals have been successful in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.[48]

Administration edit

The Official Language Act provides that the Union government shall use both Hindi and English in most administrative documents that are intended for the public, though the Union government is required by law to promote the use of Hindi.[15]: 3(3)  names, amongst others, resolutions, general orders, rules, notifications, administrative or other reports or press communiques issued by a government department, agency or corporation; administrative and other reports and official papers laid before a House or the Houses of Parliament; and contracts and agreements executed, and licences, permits, notices and forms of tender issued by or on behalf of the government (including government companies).</ref> The Official Languages Rules, in contrast, provide for a higher degree of use of Hindi in communications between offices of the central government (other than offices in Tamil Nadu, to which the rules do not apply).[15]: 1(ii)  Communications between different departments within the central government may be in English and Hindi (though the English text remains authoritative), although a translation into the other language must be provided if required. Communications within offices of the same department, however, must be in Hindi if the offices are in Hindi-speaking states, and in either Hindi or English otherwise with Hindi being used in proportion to the percentage of staff in the receiving office who have a working knowledge of Hindi.[15]: 4  Notes and memos in files may be in English and Hindi (though the English text remains authoritative), with the Government having a duty to provide a translation into the other language if required.[15]: 8 

Besides, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to a government officer or authority has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in India.

  • 12 out of the 22 scheduled languages are made available in the official website of the Indian Prime Minister's Office, namely Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Meitei (Manipuri), Odia, Punjabi, Tamil and Telugu, in addition to English.[49]
  • 15 out of the 22 scheduled languages are made available in the Press Information Bureau (PIB) by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India (GOI), namely Assamese, Bengali, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Meitei (Manipuri), Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu, in addition to English.[50][51]
  • 14 out of the 22 scheduled languages are selected by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) of the Government of India, to be made available in the conduction of the Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff examination across the country, namely Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Meitei (Manipuri), Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu, in addition to English.[52][53]

Implementation edit

Various steps have been taken by the Indian government to implement the use and familiarisation of Hindi extensively. Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha headquartered at Chennai was formed to spread Hindi in South Indian states. Regional Hindi implementation offices at Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bhopal, Delhi and Ghaziabad have been established to monitor the implementation of Hindi in Central government offices and PSUs.

Annual targets are set by the Department of Official Language regarding the amount of correspondence being carried out in Hindi. A Parliament Committee on Official Language constituted in 1976 periodically reviews the progress in the use of Hindi and submits a report to the President. The governmental body which makes policy decisions and established guidelines for the promotion of Hindi is the Kendriya Hindi Samiti (est. 1967). In every city that has more than ten central Government offices, a Town Official Language Implementation Committee is established and cash awards are given to government employees who write books in Hindi. All Central government offices and PSUs are to establish Hindi Cells for implementation of Hindi in their offices.[54]

In 2016, the government announced plans to promote Hindi in government offices in Southern and Northeast India.[55][56]

The Indian constitution does not specify the official languages to be used by the states for the conduct of their official functions and leaves each state free to, through its legislature, adopt Hindi or any language used in its territory as its official language or languages.[57] The language need not be one of those listed in the Eighth Schedule, and several states have adopted official languages which are not so listed. Examples include Kokborok in Tripura and Mizo in Mizoram.

Legislature and administration edit

The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker's permission. The authoritative text of all laws must be in English unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.

The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to any officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.

Besides, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State's population desires its use. Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.

State judiciary edit

States have significantly less freedom in relation to determining the language in which judicial proceedings in their respective High Courts will be conducted. The constitution gives the power to authorise the use of Hindi, or the state's official language in proceedings of the High Court to the Governor, rather than the state legislature and requires the Governor to obtain the consent of the President of India, who in these matters acts on the advice of the Government of India. The Official Languages Act gives the Governor a similar power, subject to similar conditions, in relation to the language in which the High Court's judgments will be delivered.[15]: 3(3) 

Four states—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan[58] have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language, which, for all of them, was Hindi. However, the only non-Hindi state to seek a similar power—Tamil Nadu, which sought the right to conduct proceedings in Tamil in the Madras High Court—had its application rejected by the central government earlier, which said it was advised to do so by the Supreme Court.[59] In 2006, the law ministry said that it would not object to Tamil Nadu state's desire to conduct Madras High Court proceedings in Tamil.[60][61][62][63][64] In 2010, the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court allowed lawyers to argue cases in Tamil.[65]

Demands for additional official languages edit

At present, as per the Ministry of Home Affairs,[66] there are demands for inclusion of 38 more languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. These are:

Official status in states and territories edit

Official languages of States edit

In addition to official languages, a few states also designate official scripts.

State Official language(s) Additional official language(s) Mandated scripts
Andhra Pradesh Telugu[67] English,[68] Urdu[44]
Arunachal Pradesh English[69]
Assam[70] Assamese and Bodo Bengali in three districts of Barak Valley[71] Bodo is officially written in the Devanagari script.
Bihar Hindi[72] Urdu[72]
Chhattisgarh[73] Hindi[74] Chhattisgarhi Devanagari
Goa Konkani, English[75] Marathi[76]: 27 [77]
Gujarat Gujarati, Hindi[78]
Haryana[79] Hindi English,[76] Punjabi[80] Hindi should be written in Devanagari.

Punjabi should be written in Gurmukhi.

Himachal Pradesh[81] Hindi Sanskrit[82] Both Hindi and Sanskrit are written in Devanagari.
Jharkhand Hindi[69] Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[41][83]
Karnataka Kannada
Kerala Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh[84] Hindi
Maharashtra[85] Marathi Devanagari
Manipur[86] Manipuri English Meetei mayek
Meghalaya English[87] Khasi and Garo[88] (associate official in districts)
Mizoram Mizo, English[89]
Nagaland English
Odisha Odia[90] English
Punjab Punjabi[76] Gurmukhi
Rajasthan Hindi
Sikkim English, Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha[76][91] Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang[76]
Tamil Nadu Tamil English
Telangana Telugu Urdu[92][93]
Tripura Bengali, English, Kokborok[94][95][96]
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Urdu[97]
Uttarakhand Hindi Sanskrit
West Bengal Bengali, English[76][98] Nepali in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions;[76]
Urdu, Hindi, Odia, Santali, Punjabi, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi, Kudmali/Kurmali, Kurukh and Telugu in blocks, divisions or districts with population greater than 10 per cent[34][35][99][100]

Official languages of Union Territories edit

Union territory Official language(s)[76] Additional official language(s)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Hindi,[101] English
Chandigarh English[102]
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Hindi,[103][104] English Gujarati
Delhi Hindi, English[69] Urdu, Punjabi[105]
Lakshadweep English[106][107] Hindi,[106] Malayalam[107]
Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, English[108]
Ladakh Hindi, English
Puducherry Tamil, Telugu (in Yanam), Malayalam (in Mahe)[c][109][110] English, French[111]

Union–state and interstate communication communication rules edit

 
In places like railway stations, signboards are usually written in three languages - the state language (here Odia) and the two official languages Hindi and English.

The language of communications between different states or between the union government and a state or a person in a state, is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, except for communications involving Tamil Nadu, which are governed by the by the Official Languages Rules. Communication between states which have Hindi as an official language must be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state where Hindi is an official language and one where it is not Hindi and must be in English, or, in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).[15]

Communication between the union and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is generally in Hindi, except in certain cases. Communication with a second category of states "Region B", which do not have Hindi as an official language but have elected to communicate with the union in Hindi is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in Hindi and English.[15]: 3(2))  Communication with all other states "Region C", and with people living in them, is in English.[15]: 3(3)) 

Region A: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Communications from the Union are in Hindi.

Region B: Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab. Communications from the Union are in Hindi and English.

Region C: Others. Communications from the Union are in English only.

Arts and Literature edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Some languages may be over- or underrepresented as the census data used is at the state-level. For example, while Urdu has 52 million speakers (2001), in no state is it a majority as the language itself is primarily limited to Indian Muslims yet has more native speakers than Gujarati.
  2. ^ Includes variants and dialects
  3. ^ See Official languages of Puducherry
  4. ^ In certain years, films of languages other than the scheduled languages also get eligible.[112]

References edit

  1. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 84–89. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  2. ^ "Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution | Department of Official Language | Ministry of Home Affairs | GoI". rajbhasha.gov.in. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  4. ^ PTI (25 January 2010). "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  6. ^ a b "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE POLICY OF THE UNION | Department of Official Language | Ministry of Home Affairs | GoI". rajbhasha.nic.in. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  7. ^ "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963". rajbhasha.nic.in. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  8. ^ R, Aishwaryaa (6 June 2019). "What census data reveals about use of Indian languages". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
    Pallapothu, Sravan (28 June 2018). "Hindi Added 100Mn Speakers In A Decade; Kashmiri 2nd Fast Growing Language". Indiaspend.com. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
    IndiaSpend (2 July 2018). "Hindi fastest growing language in India, finds 100 million new speakers". Business Standard. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
    Mishra, Mayank; Aggarwal, Piyush (11 April 2022). "Hindi grew rapidly in non-Hindi states even without official mandate". India Today. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  9. ^ Mollin, Sandra (2006). Euro-English: assessing variety status. Gunter Narr Verlag. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-8233-6250-0.
  10. ^ Rai, Alok (2001). Hindi Nationalism (tracks for the Times). Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1979-4.
  11. ^ "Hindi Diwas, and the history of the debate over Hindi's status". The Indian Express. 14 September 2022. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  12. ^ "Hindi Diwas: How Constituent Assembly decided on Hindi as the official, and not national, language of India". The Indian Express. 14 September 2023. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  13. ^ Kanchan Chandra, "Ethnic Bargains, Group Instability, and Social Choice Theory", Politics and Society 29, 3: 337–62.
  14. ^ Ramakrishnan, T. (17 October 2022). "Explained | Hindi imposition and its discontents". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "The Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) – Rules 1976 (As Amended, 1987) – Section 3(3)". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  16. ^ Language in India Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow 2 April 2002 www.languageinindia.com accessed 4 August 2020
  17. ^ "THE SCHEDULED LANGUAGES ACT, 1963". Archived from the original on 1 June 2009.
  18. ^ "The Union: Official Language". www.india.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  19. ^ Committee of Parliament on Official Language report www.rajbhasha.gov.in Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Hardgrave, Robert L. (August 1965). "The Riots in Tamilnadu: Problems and Prospects of India's Language Crisis". Asian Survey (University of California Press)
  21. ^ "The force of words", Time, 19 February 1965, archived from the original on 14 October 2007, retrieved 5 June 2007
  22. ^ Forrester, Duncan B. (Spring–Summer 1966), "The Madras Anti-Hindi Agitation, 1965: Political Protest and its Effects on Language Policy in India", Pacific Affairs, 39 (1/2): 19–36, doi:10.2307/2755179, JSTOR 2755179
  23. ^ Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27 April 1960 archived from www.rajbhasha.gov.in, accessed 4 August 2020
  24. ^ "Functions of Department | Department of Official Language | Ministry of Home Affairs | GoI". rajbhasha.gov.in. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Constitutional provisions relating to Eighth Schedule" (PDF). Ministry Of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  26. ^ "The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967". Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  27. ^ "The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992| National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  28. ^ a b "Orissa becomes 'Odisha', Oriya is 'Odia'". The Indian Express. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  29. ^ "Statement 1 – Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues – 2011" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2018.
  30. ^ "Jharkhand's 11 second languages will create new jobs: But also enrich national culture | BiharDays". Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  31. ^ a b Das, Ananya (2 September 2020). "Cabinet approves Bill to include Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi as official languages in Jammu and Kashmir". Zee News. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  32. ^ "The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987" (PDF). indiacode.nic.in. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  33. ^ "The Gujarat Official Languages Act, 1960" (PDF). indiacode.nic.in. 1961. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d "Multi-lingual Bengal". The Telegraph. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018.
  35. ^ a b c d Roy, Anirban (28 February 2018). "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to list of official languages in". India Today.
  36. ^ "The Origins of the Konkani Language". www.kamat.com. 15 January 2016.
  37. ^ "Indian Languages: Konkani Language". iloveindia.com. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  38. ^ "झारखंड : रघुवर कैबिनेट से मगही, भोजपुरी, मैथिली व अंगिका को द्वितीय भाषा का दर्जा" [Jharkhand: Second language status to Magahi, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Angika from Raghuvar cabinet]. prabhatkhabar.com. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  39. ^ "Oriya gets its due in neighbouring state- Orissa- IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 4 September 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  40. ^ "Where are the Sanskrit speakers?". The Hindu. 9 August 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  41. ^ a b "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". The Avenue Mail. 21 March 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  42. ^ "Census Tables". Census of India. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  43. ^ Iyengar, Arvind; Parchani, Sundri (2021). "Like Community, Like Language: Seventy-Five Years of Sindhi in Post-Partition India". Journal of Sindhi Studies. 1: 1–32. doi:10.1163/26670925-bja10002. S2CID 246551773. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  44. ^ a b "Urdu second official language in Andhra Pradesh". Deccan Chronicle. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  45. ^ Article 120(1) first proviso
  46. ^ "Official Language Act : Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India".
  47. ^ "Court language is English, says Supreme Court – The Economic Times". The Economic Times. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  48. ^ "Use of Hindi Language in Courts". Business Standard India. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  49. ^ "PMINDIA Multilingual Website now available in 13 languages Assamese and Manipuri versions of Prime Minister's Official Website launched". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  50. ^ "PIB press releases in Manipuri : 25th nov15 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". e-pao.net. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  51. ^ Press, Imphal Free (24 November 2015). "PIB website has news in regional languages now – KanglaOnline". Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  52. ^ "Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh lauds SSC for deciding to conduct the Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff examination 2022 in 13 regional languages in addition to Hindi and English for the first time". www.pib.gov.in. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  53. ^ "হিন্দি অমসুং ইংলিসকী মথক্তা অহানবা ওইনা লম-লমগী লোন ১৩দা মল্তি-তাস্কিং(নন-তেক্নিকেল) স্তাফ এজামিনেসন ২০২২ পাংথোক্নবা ৱারেপ লৌখিবগীদমক য়ুনিয়ন মিনিস্তর দোক্তর জিতেন্দ্র সিংহনা এস.এস.সি থাগৎখ্রে". pib.gov.in (in Manipuri). Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  54. ^ "Official Language – Constitutional/Statutory Provisions". Government of India. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007.
  55. ^ PTI (9 June 2016). "Centre to promote the use of Hindi in South India, Northeast:Jitendra Singh". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 June 2016. In response to this several NGO and political parties have started agitation and some have even resorted to violent protests in the Darjeeling for separate statehood, which started in after the official statement in a press meet by Central parliamentary affairs minister. The monster himself hails from South India and many party leader of the government has felt like an insult to the mother language. The TANA has stated "It's high time the North should learn the lessons from the past and should try not to stir the broth"
    The ADMK leader has said in New Delhi "It's a shame to see my neighboring state leader hailing from Telugu state speaking against his own mother tongue.
    The Dravida Samrakshana Samiti Head has said " it's a direct assault on our culture and is an insult for saying the minister hailing from South India
  56. ^ "Govt to promote use of Hindi in routine conversation, NE – Times of India". The Times of India. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  57. ^ Constitution of India, Article 345
  58. ^ "Language in Courts – a bridge or a barrier?".
  59. ^ Special Correspondent (12 March 2007), "Karunanidhi stands firm on Tamil in High Court", The Hindu, p. 1, archived from the original on 13 March 2007
  60. ^ The Hindu: Tamil Nadu / Thanjavur News: No objection to Tamil as court language: A.P. Shah 2006/12/03 www.hindu.com, accessed 4 August 2020
  61. ^ "Silobreaker: Make Tamil the language of Madras High Court: Karu". Archived from the original on 30 December 2008.
  62. ^ The Hindu: Tamil Nadu News: Karunanidhi hopeful of Centre's announcement 2008/04/21 www.hindu.com, accessed 4 August 2020
  63. ^ "indianexpress.com". Archived from the original on 25 April 2008.
  64. ^ Tamil Nadu government press release www.tn.gov.in, archives, accessed 4 August 2020
  65. ^ "Advocate argues in Tamil in High Court". The New Indian Express. 23 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  66. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  67. ^ "Languages". APOnline. 2002. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  68. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966". www.courtkutchehry.com. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  69. ^ a b c "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  70. ^ "The Assam Official Language Act, 1960". India Code. Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  71. ^ ANI (10 September 2014). "Assam government withdraws Assamese as official language in Barak Valley, restores Bengali". DNA India. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  72. ^ a b "The Bihar Official Language Act, 1950" (PDF). National Commission for Linguistic Minorities. 29 November 1950. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  73. ^ "The Chhattisgarh Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2007" (PDF). indiacode.nic.in. 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  74. ^ The National Commission for Linguistic Minorities, 1950 (ibid) makes no mention of Chhattisgarhi as an additional state language, despite the 2007 notification of the State Govt, presumably because Chhattisgarhi is considered as a dialect of Hindi.
  75. ^ "The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987" (PDF). U.T. Administration of Daman & Diu. 19 December 1987. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  77. ^ Kurzon, Dennis (2004). "3. The Konkani-Marathi Controversy : 2000-01 version". Where East Looks West: Success in English in Goa and on the Konkan Coast. Multilingual Matters. pp. 42–58. ISBN 978-1-85359-673-5. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Dated, but gives a good overview of the controversy to give Marathi full "official status".
  78. ^ Benedikter, Thomas (2009). Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-643-10231-7.
  79. ^ "The Haryana Official Language Act, 1969". India Code. Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  80. ^ "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015.
  81. ^ "The Himachal Pradesh Official Language Act, 1975". India Code. Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.
  82. ^ Pratibha Chauhan (17 February 2019). "Bill to make Sanskrit second official language of HP passed". The Tribune. Shimla. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  83. ^ "Jharkhand notifies Bhumij as second state language". The Avenue Mail. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  84. ^ "Language and Literature", Official website of Government of Madhya Pradesh, Government of Madhya Pradesh, archived from the original on 29 September 2007, retrieved 16 July 2007
  85. ^ "The Maharashtra Local Authorities Official Language Act, 2022". India Code. Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  86. ^ "Manipur Official Language (Amendment )Act 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in. Directorate of Printing & Stationery, Government of Manipur. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  87. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 – June 2004, p. para 25.5, archived from the original on 8 October 2007, retrieved 16 July 2007
  88. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 – June 2005, p. para 25.1, archived from the original on 10 April 2009, retrieved 16 July 2007 On 21 March 2006, the Chief Minister of Meghalaya stated in the State Assembly that a notification to this effect had been issued. Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, Budget session: Starred Questions and Answers – Tuesday, the 21st March 2006., retrieved 16 July 2007.
  89. ^ "Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, North East India". mdoner.gov.in. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  90. ^ "Oriya to be official language in Orissa – Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. 2 January 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  91. ^ "1977 Sikkim government gazette" (PDF). sikkim.gov.in. Governor of Sikkim. p. 188. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  92. ^ "Urdu is Telangana's second official language". The Indian Express. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  93. ^ "Urdu is second official language in Telangana as state passes Bill". The News Minute. 17 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  94. ^ "Bengali and Kokborok are the state/official language, English, Hindi, Manipuri and Chakma are other languages". Tripura Official government website. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  95. ^ Tripura Official Language Act, 1964 www.lawsofindia.org
  96. ^ "Laws of India : The Tripura Official Language Act, 1964". lawsofindia.blinkvisa.com. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  97. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 – June 2005, pp. paras 6.1–6.2, archived from the original on 10 April 2009, retrieved 16 July 2007
  98. ^ "Fact and Figures". www.wb.gov.in. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  99. ^ Shiv Sahay Singh (2 March 2017). "Revitalising a language". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  100. ^ "West Bengal shows 'Mamata' to Telugus". Hans India. 24 December 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  101. ^ "Most Spoken Language In Andaman And Nicobar Islands : Here's All You Need To Know". IndiaTimes. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  102. ^ "Languages in Chandigarh". Chandigarh City.
  103. ^ "Administration of Dedra and Nagar Haveli, U.T. (Official Language Department) Secretariat Citizens charter-2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  104. ^ "Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu – Culture and Tradition". RitiRiwaz. 7 April 2020.
  105. ^ Urdu and Punjabi are the two secondary official languages of Delhi under the Delhi Official Language Bill, 2000 "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi", The Times of India, 25 June 2003, archived from the original on 11 August 2011, retrieved 17 July 2007
  106. ^ a b "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). 16 July 2014. p. 153. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  107. ^ a b Thomas Benedikter (2009). Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 134. ISBN 978-3-643-10231-7.
  108. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  109. ^ There are three primary languages used for official purposes – Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. Only, English is recognised for official use as per the official language policy. The official language policy of the union territory states that the Tamil language should be the primary language used for all or any of the official purposes of the union territory. In the case of Mahe and Yanam, Malayalam and Telugu, respectively, may be used instead of or in conjunction with Tamil. The English language may also be used for official purposes. (ACT 28, Gazetteer, Pondicherry Vol. 1, P. II)Multilingualism and second language acquisition and learning in Pondicherry
  110. ^ Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Puducherry, General Information on Pondicherry, archived from the original on 28 September 2007, retrieved 6 June 2007
  111. ^ Steinberg, S.; Paxton, J. (28 December 2016). The Statesman's Year-Book 1969-70: The one-volume Encyclopaedia of all nations. McMillan St Martin Press. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-230-27098-5. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  112. ^ NEWS, NE NOW (22 July 2022). "68th National Film Awards: Here is the list of winners". NORTHEAST NOW. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  113. ^ a b c d Malik, Ravindra; ARSu, Team. HARYANA GK: HARYANA AT THE START OF 2021. MyARSu. p. 158.
  114. ^ "Jnanpith Award | Indian literary award | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 March 2023.

External links edit