Meitei language

Meitei (/ˈmt/; ꯃꯩꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ; মৈতৈলোন্),[7] also known as Manipuri (/ˌmænɪˈpʊəri/, /mʌ-/; ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯂꯣꯟ; মণিপুরী লোন্),[8] is a Tibeto-Burman language of northeast India. It is spoken by around 1.8 million people, predominantly in the state of Manipur, but also by smaller communities in the rest of the country and in parts of neighbouring Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is native to the Meitei people, and within Manipur, it serves as an official language and a lingua franca. It was used as a court language in the historic Manipur Kingdom and is presently included among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Manipuri (Meiteilon, Meetei, Meeteilon)
Meitei language written in Meitei script.svg
"Meiteilon" written in Meitei script
Native toManipur, Assam and Tripura
RegionIndia, Bangladesh and Myanmar
EthnicityMeitei people
Native speakers
1.8 million (2003–2011)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byDirectorate of Language Planning and Implementation (DLPI),
Government of Manipur
Development body
Language codes
ISO 639-2mni
ISO 639-3Either:
mni – Manipuri
omp – Old Manipuri
Glottologmani1292  Manipuri
Meitei language distribution.png
  Regions where Meitei is native, majority, official and educational language
  Regions where Meitei is indigenous and educational language but not official
  Regions where Meitei is not indigenous and official but educational
  Regions where Meitei is considered indigenous but not official and educational
  Regions with significant Meitei speaking minorities
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Language event(s)
Meitei language movements for
Scheduled language statusMeitei scheduled language movement (successful)
Indian classical language statusMeitei classical language movement (ongoing in Manipur)
Associate official language statusMeitei associate official language movement (ongoing in Assam)
Linguistic purismMeitei linguistic purism movement (ongoing in Manipur)
Part of a series on
Different scripts of different languages of India.svg
Constitutionally recognised languages of India
22 Official Languages of the Indian Republic

Assamese  · Bengali  · Bodo  · Dogri  · Gujarati
Hindi  · Kannada  · Kashmiri  · Konkani  · Maithili
Malayalam  · Marathi  · Meitei (Manipuri)  · Nepali
Odia  · Punjabi  · Sanskrit  · Santali  · Sindhi
Tamil  · Telugu  · Urdu


Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India
Official Languages Commission
Classical Languages of India
List of languages by number of native speakers in India

icon Asia portal

flag India portal
icon Language portal
icon Politics portal

Meitei language is a tonal language whose exact classification within Sino-Tibetan remains unclear. It has lexical resemblances to Kuki and Tangkhul.[9]

Meitei language is the most widely spoken Sino-Tibetan language of India and the most spoken indigenous language of northeast India after Assamese and Bengali.[10][11] There are 1.76 million Meitei speakers in India according to the 2011 census. The majority of these, or 1.52 million, are found in the state of Manipur, where they represent just over half of its population. There are smaller communities in neighbouring Indian states, such as Assam (168,000), Tripura (24,000), Nagaland (9,500), and elsewhere in the country (37,500).[12] Additionally, there are around 200,000 L2 speakers.[citation needed] The language is also spoken by smaller groups in neighbouring Myanmar[13] and Bangladesh.[1] Meitei is not endangered: its status has been assessed as safe in Ethnologue (where it is assigned to EGIDS level 2 "provincial language"),[1] but is considered vulnerable in UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[14]

Geographical distributionEdit


Areas where there is significant population of Meitei speakers (Manipuris) in Bangladesh

The population of Meitei speakers (Manipuris) are found in four districts, namely Sylhet District, Moulvibazar District, Sunamganj District and Habiganj District of the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh. In early times, there were Meitei speaking population in Dhaka, Mymensingh and Comilla also.[15]

Sylhet districtEdit

There are thirteen villages in Sylhet District, which are Amborkhana (Nongthombam Leikai in Meitei language), Nayabazar, Shibgonj, Goaipara, Kewapara, Sagordighirpar (Pukhri Mapan in Meitei language), Baghbari, Laladighipar (Sapam Leikai in Meitei language), Lamabazar (Leichom Leikai in Meitei language), Doxingach, Rajbari (Konung Leikai in Meitei language), Brojonath Tila (Meitei people refer to it as Brajanath Leikai but earlier it was known as Narasingh Tila) and Noyabazar (Sylhet P.S.) among others.[15]

Mouluvibazar districtEdit

Moulvibazar District has twenty-eight Meitei populated settlements, which are Photiguli, Goalbari, Naldhari, Boroiloli (Kulaura P.S.), Ramnagar, Khaspur, Balishira (Shrimongol P.S.), Gouranagar, Puthadhor, Chotodhamai, Patharia, Gourangabil (Borolekha P.S.), Madhobpur, Chaiciri (Nongthombam Leikai in Meitei language), Homerjan, Majhergaon, Shangaon (Hamom Khul in Meitei language), Haqtiarkhola, Shripiire, Bhandarigaon, Chitlia, Noyapattan, Ganganagar, Bhanubil, Katabil Tateygaon (Mange Makhong Khul in Meitei language), Mongolpur (Haobam Leikai in Meitei language), Konagoan (Kamalgonj P.S.), among others.[15]

Habiganj districtEdit

Habigonj District (Chunarghat P.S.) had four Meitei settlement areas, which are Gaborkhula, Abadgaon, Shibnagar and Dudhpatil.[15]

Sunamganj districtEdit

Sunamgonj District (Chatak P.S.) has three Meitei populated settlements, which are Nayanpur, Lakhat and Ratanpur.[15]



Districts of Barak Valley - Meitei speaking population settlement areas of Assam

Meitei language is the third most widely spoken language, after Bengali and Hindi, in the Barak Valley region of Assam state of India.[16]


The Indian state of Manipur has the largest Meitei speaking population among all its geographical distribution. Native to as well as predominantly spoken in the state, Meitei language is the official language of the Government of Manipur as well as the lingua franca of the different communities living in Manipur.[17]


Myanmar has significant Meitei speaking population in Kachin state, Yangon Region, Sagaing Region, Shan state, Ayeyarwady Region, among others.[18]


The name Meitei or its alternate spelling Meithei is preferred by many native speakers of Meitei over Manipuri.[19] The term is derived from the Meitei word for the language Meitheirón (Meithei + -lon 'language', pronounced /mə́i.təi.lón/).[19][20] Meithei may be a compound from 'man' + they 'separate'.[19] This term is used by most Western linguistic scholarship.[19] Meitei scholars use the term Meit(h)ei when writing in English and the term Meitheirón when writing in Meitei.[19] Chelliah (2015: 89) notes that the Meitei spelling has replaced the earlier Meithei spelling.[21]

The language (and people) is also referred to by the loconym Manipuri.[19] The term is derived from name of the state of Manipur.[19] Manipuri is the official name of the language for the Indian government and is used by government institutions and non-Meitei authors.[19] The term Manipuri is also used to refer to the different languages of Manipur and people.[19] Additionally, Manipuri, being a loconym, can refer to anything pertaining to Manipur state.

The term Meetei is used by Meitei speakers who want political autonomy from India, so-called "revivalists".[19]

Speakers of Meitei language are known as "Kathe" by the Burmese people, "Moglie" or "Mekhlee" by the people of Cachar, Assam (Kacharis and Assamese) and "Cassay" by the Shan people and the other people living in the east of the Ningthee River (or Khyendwen River). "Ponna" is the Burmese term used to refer to the Meiteis living inside Burma.[22]


The Meitei language exhibits a degree of regional variation; however, in recent years the broadening of communication, as well as intermarriage, has caused the dialectal differences to become relatively insignificant. The only exceptions to this occurrence are the speech differences of the dialects found in Tripura, Bangladesh and Myanmar.[23] The exact number of dialects of Meitei is unknown.[24]

The three main dialects of Meitei are: Meitei proper, Loi and Pangal. Differences between these dialects are primarily characterised by the extensions of new sounds and tonal shifts. Meitei proper is considered to be the standard variety—and is viewed as more dynamic than the other two dialects.[clarification needed] The brief table below compares some words in these three dialects:[25]

Standard Meitei Loi Pangal English translation
chaaba chaapa chaaba to eat
kappa kapma kappa to weep
saabiba saapipa saabiba to make
thamba thampa thamba to put
chuppiba chuppipa chuppiba to kiss

Devi (2002)[26] compares the Imphal, Andro, Koutruk, and Kakching dialects of Meitei.


The Emblem of Manipur uses Meitei language, written in Meitei script.

Official language statusEdit

Meitei is the sole official language of the Government of Manipur. It is used for all official purposes, except for some interstate cases. Meitei is included among the languages that stand apart of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language".[27][28]

Amendment to the script policyEdit

In 2021, there were changes to the Manipur Official Language Act by the Government of Manipur as follows:

"Manipuri Language" means Meeteilon written in Meetei Mayek and spoken by the majority of Manipur population: Provided that the concurrent use of Bengali Script and Meetei Mayek shall be allowed in addition to English language, for a period upto 10(ten) years from the date of commencement of this Act.

— The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021 (Amendment to the Section 2 of the "Manipur Official Language Act, 1979", for clause "f")[29]

Court language statusEdit

Meitei language was the court language of the historic Manipur Kingdom (Meeteileipak),[30][31] and was declared as such in the kingdom's 1947 Constitution, before it merged into the Indian Republic.[32][33][34][35][36]

Recognition by the Sahitya AkademiEdit

Meitei language was recognised by the National Sahitya Akademi as one of the major Indian languages in 1972, long before it was recognised as a constitutionally scheduled language in 1992. It has been recognised by the National Sahitya Academy for its rich literary traditions.[37][38]

Scheduled language statusEdit

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows:-
1. Short title.-This Act may be called the Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992.
2. Amendment of Eighth Schedule. In the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution,-
(a) existing entry 7 shall be re-numbered as entry 8, and before entry 8 as so re-numbered, the entry "7. Konkani." shall be inserted;
(b) existing entry 8 shall be re-numbered as entry 10, and before entry 10 as so re-numbered, the entry "9. Manipuri." shall be inserted;

(c) existing entries 9 to 15 shall be re-numbered as entries 12 to 18 respectively, and before entry 12 as so re-numbered, the entry "11. Nepali." shall be inserted.

The Meitei language has been recognised (under the name Manipuri) by the Indian Union and was included in the list of scheduled languages (included in the 8th schedule by the 71st amendment of the constitution in 1992).[40][41] The day of the inclusion of Meitei language in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and making it one of the official languages of the Indian Republic is annually commemorated as Meitei Language Day (also called Manipuri Language Day) on August 20.[42][43]

Language movementsEdit

In the modern era, several Meitei language movements have been in existence, including the linguistic purism movement, scheduled language movement, classical language movement, associate official language movement. There is a proposal for the language to be granted the elite status of "Classical Languages of India".[44][45][46] Besides, it is also proposed to be recognised as an "associate official language" of the Government of Assam. According to Leishemba Sanajaoba, the present titular king of Manipur and a Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from Manipur state, by recognising Meitei as an associate official language of Assam, the identity, history, culture and tradition of Manipuris residing in Assam could be able to get protected and preserved.[47][48][49]

In the Prime Minister's OfficeEdit

Meitei language is selected as one of the 11 Indian languages, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, to be made available in the official website of the Indian Prime Minister's Office.[50]

In the Ministry of Information and BroadcastingEdit

Meitei language is selected as one of the 14 Indian languages, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, to be made available in the Press Information Bureau (PIB) by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India (GOI). The Meitei language versions of the press releases are presently available in Bengali script, but there is plan of changing the script into Meitei script (Manipuri script) in due course of time.[51][52]

In the Staff Selection CommissionEdit

Meitei language is one of the 13 Indian languages, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, selected by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) of the Government of India, to be made available in the conduction of the Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff examination across the country. The Staff Selection Commission is one of the biggest job recruiting agencies belonging to the Indian Government. It mainly recruits people to "Group B" (Non-Gazetted Posts) and "Group C" (Non-Technical Posts) in diverse governmental ministries and departments.[53][54]

In the Ministry of Electronics and Information TechnologyEdit

Meitei language is selected as one of the 5 Indian languages, for publishing information on the Indian heritage by the Indian Government's Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology sponsored "Northeast Heritage" Web, besides Hindi and English.[55][56]

In the National Education PolicyEdit

Meitei language is one of the 28 languages selected across the world, besides French, Sanskrit, Tamil, etc. to be used in teaching and learning in grades (1-5) by the "Unified District Information System for Education Plus" (UDISE+), as per the reports of the Press Information Bureau (PIB). It is a part of the National Education Policy 2020 started by the Union Cabinet of India.[57][58]


Besides being a medium of instructions in the educational institutions in Manipur, Meitei language is taught as a subject up to the post-graduate level (Ph.D.) in major universities of India, including but not limited to Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi University, Gauhati University, and University of North Bengal.[59][60]

All IndiaEdit


Meitei language (under the subject name "Manipuri") is one of the 40 languages (including indigenous/local and foreign/international) offered for academics in the curriculum for the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), controlled and managed by the Ministry of Education of the Government of India.[61][62][63]


Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the largest university in the world, offers education in Meitei language as one of the 14 major "Modern Indian Languages" (MILs) for undergraduate students.[64]


Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA) offers Meitei language subject under the name "Manipuri".[65][66]Assam Higher Secondary Education Council (AHSEC) of Assam offers Meitei language subjects, under the names "Manipuri" and "Advance Manipuri".[67][68][69][70]

Meitei language subject is offered by the Government of Assam in the lower primary schools of Assam, since 1956. Meitei language subject is offered for the education in the Bachelor's degree in the Gauhati University.[71]

Since 2020, Assam Government is annually granting ₹5 lakh as financial assistance to the Assam Manipuri Sahitya Parishad. Moreover, the Assam government financed 6 crore (US$750,000) and created a corpus for the development of the Meitei language.[71]

The "Department of Manipuri" (estd. in July 1997) of Assam University in Silchar offers education of Master's degree, Master of Philosophy degree and Doctor of Philosophy degree in Meitei language, under the title "Manipuri".[72][73][74]


The Government of Tripura offers Meitei language as "first language" subject at primary level in 24 notified schools throughout the state. It was introduced since 1998.[75]

In December 2021, Tripura University proposed to the Ministry of Human Resource Development and the University Grants Council (UGC), about the introduction of diploma courses in Meitei language, along with other international languages like Japanese, Korean and Nepali simultaneously.[76]



The Meitei language is a tonal language. There is a controversy over whether there are two or three tones.[77]


Meitei distinguishes the following phonemes:[78]


Labial Dental/Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless unaspirated p t k ʔ
voiced unaspirated b d ɡ
breathy-voiced ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w j


Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ɐ o
Low a

Note: the central vowel /ɐ/ is transcribed as <ə> in recent linguistic work on Meitei. However, phonetically it is never [ə], but more usually [ɐ]. It is assimilated to a following approximant: /ɐw/ = /ow/, /ɐj/ = [ej].

Phonological processesEdit

A velar deletion is noted to occur on the suffix -lək when following a syllable ending with a /k/ phoneme.[77]

Meitei has a dissimilatory process similar to Grassmann's law found in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, though occurring on the second aspirate.[79] Here, an aspirated consonant is deaspirated if preceded by an aspirated consonant (including /h/, /s/) in the previous syllable. The deaspirated consonants are then voiced between sonorants.[citation needed]









pierce upwards

/tʰin-/ + /-kʰət/ → /tʰinɡət/

pierce {} upward {} {pierce upwards}










/səŋ/ + /kʰom/ → /səŋɡom/

cow {} udder {} milk









trim outwards

/hi-/ + /-tʰok/ → /hidok/

trim {} outward {} {trim outwards}

Writing systemsEdit

Meitei scriptEdit

A Meitei language stone inscription in Meitei script about a royal decree of a Meitei king found in the sacred site of God Panam Ningthou in Andro, Imphal East, Manipur

The Meitei script (ꯃꯩꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ, romanized: Meitei Mayek), also known as the Meetei script (ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ, romanized: Meetei Mayek),[80] used for writing in Meitei language, is one of the official scripts of the Indian Republic. Also known as the Kanglei script (ꯀꯪꯂꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ/ꯀꯪꯂꯩ ꯏꯌꯦꯛ, romanized: Kanglei Mayek/Kanglei Iyek)[81][82] and the Kok Sam Lai script (ꯀꯣꯛ ꯁꯝ ꯂꯥꯏ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ, romanized: Kok Sam Lai Mayek),[c][83][84] its earliest known epigraphic evidence of existence dates back to the 6th century CE coins issued by Meitei kings, engraving the Meitei letters,[85] as verified by the National Sahitya Akademi.[86] It was used until the 18th century, when it was replaced by the Bengali script, and reused again massively in the 20th century.[87] Starting from 2021, Meitei script (officially known as Meetei Mayek[d]) was officially used by the Government of Manipur, along with the Bengali script, to write the Meitei language, as per "The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021".[88]

Image(s) Letter(s) Name(s)/Pronunciation(s) Romanization Representation(s) Meaning(s)[e] Latin equivalent letters/sounds IPA[93]
ꯀꯣꯛ kok head or brain K /k/
ꯁꯝ sam/sham hair S /s/
ꯂꯥꯏ lai forehead L /l/
ꯃꯤꯠ mit/meet eye M /m/
ꯄꯥ /paa eyelash P /p/
ꯅꯥ /naa ear N /n/
ꯆꯤꯜ chil/cheel lips Ch /t͡ʃ/
ꯇꯤꯜ til/teel saliva T /t/
ꯈꯧ khou throat, palate, neck Kh /kʰ/
ꯉꯧ ngou pharynx, larynx Ng /ŋ/
ꯊꯧ thou breast, chest, ribs Th /tʰ/
ꯋꯥꯏ wai navel, heart W /w/
ꯌꯥꯡ yang backbone, vertebral column, spine Y /j/
ꯍꯨꯛ huk/hook joint, articulation H /h/
ꯎꯟ un/oon skin, hair follicle U /u(ː)/
ee/i blood I or E /i(ː)/
ꯐꯝ pham/fam "anus" or "buttocks" or "seat" or "uterus" or "womb" F or Ph /pʰ/
ꯑꯇꯤꯡꯉꯥ / ꯑꯇꯤꯌꯥ atinga/atiya "sky" or "immortality" or "heaven" or "eternity" or "divinity" or "celestial being" or "birth" A /ɐ/

Naoriya Phulo scriptEdit

Latin scriptEdit

Elementary Manipuri (Roman Script) is one of the subjects offered to the students by the The Board of Secondary Education Manipur, BSEM.[94][95] It is a subject categorised under the "Subjects In Lieu Of First Language", for being used in lieu of "Manipuri".[96] It is a commonly opted subject to the students of the hill people of Manipur.[97]

The Meitei language editions of the Bible in Roman script is very commonly used by the Christians of Manipur.[98]

There exists an informal, but fairly consistent practical spelling of Meitei in Latin script.[citation needed] This spelling is used in the transcription of personal names and place names, and it is extensively used on the internet (Facebook, blogspots, etc.). It is also found in academic publications, for the spelling of Meitei book titles and the like (examples can be seen in the References, below). This spelling, on the whole, offers a transparent, unambiguous representation of the Meitei sound system, although the tones are usually not marked. It is practical in the sense that it does not use extra-alphabetical symbols, and can, therefore, be produced easily on any standard keyboard. The only point of ambiguity is found in the spelling of the vowels /ɐ/ and /a/, which are usually both written "a", except when they occur before an approximant (see table below). The vowel /a/ is sometimes written as "aa" to distinguish it from /ɐ/.[citation needed]

IPA Practical
/m/ m
/n/ n
/ŋ/ ng
/b/ b
/d/ d
/dʒ/ j
/ɡ/ g
/bʱ/ bh
/dʱ/ dh
/dʒʱ/ jh
/ɡʱ/ gh
/p/ p
/t/ t
/tʃ/ c or ch
/k/ k
/pʰ/ ph (rarely f)
/tʰ/ th
/kʰ/ kh
/s/ s or sh
/h/ h
/ɾ/ r
/l/ l
/w/ w
/j/ y
/ɐ/ a
/ɐj/ ei
/ɐw/ ou
/a/ a or aa or ā
/aj/ ai
/aw/ ao
/e/ e
/i/ i (rarely ee)
/o/ o
/oj/ oi
/u/ u (rarely oo)
/uj/ ui

Bengali scriptEdit

The term "Manipuri Lon" and its endonym "Meitei Lon", literally meaning "Manipuri language" and "Meitei language" respectively, written in the Eastern Nagari script (Bengali script)

Meitei in Bangladesh and India currently uses the Bengali script, alongside the Meitei script.[1]


Sentences in the Meitei language use the format Subject + Object + Verb (SOV). For example, in the sentence Ei chak chai (ꯑꯩ ꯆꯥꯛ ꯆꯥꯢ), which translates to I eat rice, the gloss is "ei" (I), "chak" (rice), "chai" (eat).


Nouns and pronouns are marked for number in Meitei. The plural is indicated by the suffixes -khoi (for personal pronouns and human proper nouns) and -sing (for all other nouns). Verbs associated with the pluralised nouns are unaffected. Examples are demonstrated below:[99]

Noun (Meitei) Noun (English) Example (Meitei) Example (English)
angaang baby angaang kappi Baby cries.
angaangsing babies angaangsing kappi Babies cry.

When adjectives are used to be more clear, Meitei utilises separate words and does not add a suffix to the noun. Examples are show in the chart below:[99]

Adjective (Meitei) Adjective (English) Example (Meitei) Example (English)
ama one mi ama laak’i A person comes.
khara some mi khara laak’i Some persons come.
mayaam many mi mayaam laak’i Many persons come.

Compound verbsEdit

Compound verbs are created by combining root verbs each ending with aspect markers. While the variety of suffixes is high, all compound verbs utilise one of two:[100]

Suffix English translation
-thok out/ come out
-ning To wish/ want/ desire

Aspect markers appear as suffixes that clarify verb tense and appear at the end of the compound verb. Overall, the formula to construct a compound verb becomes [root verb] + [suffix] + [aspect marker]:[100]

Language Root verb Suffix Aspect marker Combined form
Meitei tum -thok -le tumthokle
English sleep out/ come out perfect aspect has started sleeping
Meitei tum -ning -le tumningle
English sleep want perfect aspect has felt sleepy

Compound verbs can also be formed utilising both compound suffixes as well, allowing utterances such as pithokningle meaning "want to give out".

Number wordsEdit

Numeral Word Etymology Meitei Script
1 a-ma ~ a-maa "1" ꯑꯃꯥ
2 a-ni Proto-Tibeto-Burman *ni ꯑꯅꯤ
3 a-húm PTB *sum ꯑꯍꯨꯝ
4 ma-ri PTB *li ꯃꯔꯤ
5 ma-ngaa PTB *ŋa ꯃꯉꯥ
6 ta-ruk PTB *luk ꯇꯔꯨꯛ
7 ta-ret PTB *let ꯇꯔꯦꯠ
8 ni-paan "2-less" ꯅꯤꯄꯥꯟ
9 maa-pan "1-less" ꯃꯥꯄꯟ
10 ta-raa "10" ꯇꯔꯥ
11 taraa-maa-thoi "ten + 1-more" ꯇꯔꯥꯃꯥꯊꯣꯏ
12 taraa-ni-thoi "ten + 2-more" ꯇꯔꯥꯅꯤꯊꯣꯏ
13 taraa-húm-doi "ten + 3-more" ꯇꯔꯥꯍꯨꯝꯗꯣꯏ
14 taraa-mari "ten +4" ꯇꯔꯥꯃꯔꯤ
15 taraa-mangaa "ten +5" ꯇꯔꯥꯃꯉꯥ
16 taraa-taruk "ten +6" ꯇꯔꯥꯇꯔꯨꯛ
17 taraa-taret "ten +7" ꯇꯔꯥꯇꯔꯦꯠ
18 taraa-nipaan "ten +8" ꯇꯔꯥꯅꯤꯄꯥꯟ
19 taraa-maapan "ten +9" ꯇꯔꯥꯃꯥꯄꯟ
20 kun ~ kul "score" ꯀꯨꯟ ~ ꯀꯨꯜ
30 *kun-taraa > kun-thraa "score ten" ꯀꯨꯟꯊ꯭ꯔꯥ
40 ni-phú "two score" ꯅꯤꯐꯨ
50 yaang-khéi "half hundred" ꯌꯥꯡꯈꯩ
60 hum-phú "three score" ꯍꯨꯝꯐꯨ
70 hum-phú-taraa "three score ten" ꯍꯨꯝꯐꯨꯇꯔꯥ
80 mari-phú "four score" ꯃꯔꯤꯐꯨ
90 mari-phú-taraa "four score ten" ꯃꯔꯤꯐꯨꯇꯔꯥ
100 chaama "one hundred" ꯆꯥꯃ
200 cha-ni "two hundreds" ꯆꯥꯅꯤ
300 cha-hum "three hundreds" ꯆꯥꯍꯨꯝ
400 cha-mri "four hundreds" ꯆꯥꯃ꯭ꯔꯤ
500 cha-mangaa "five hundreds" ꯆꯥꯃꯉꯥ
1,000 lisíng ama "one thousand" ꯂꯤꯁꯤꯡ
10,000 lisīng-taraa "ten thousands" ꯂꯤꯁꯤꯡꯇꯔꯥ
1,00,000 licha "one hundred-thousand" ꯂꯤꯆꯥ
10,00,000 licha-taraa "ten hundred-thousands" ꯂꯤꯆꯥꯇꯔꯥ
1,00,00,000 leepun "one ten-million" ꯂꯤꯄꯨꯟ
10,00,00,000 leepun-taraa "ten ten-millions" ꯂꯤꯄꯨꯟꯇꯔꯥ
1,00,00,00,000 leepot "one billion" ꯂꯤꯄꯣꯠ
10,00,00,00,000 leepot-taraa "ten billions" ꯂꯤꯄꯣꯠꯇꯔꯥ
1,00,00,00,00,000 leekei "one hundred-billion" ꯂꯤꯀꯩ
10,00,00,00,00,000 leekei-taraa "ten hundred-billions" ꯂꯤꯀꯩꯇꯔꯥ
1,00,00,00,00,00,000 pu-ama "one ten-trillion" ꯄꯨ ꯑꯃꯥ


Among the various Tibeto-Burman languages, the most important and in literature certainly of much greater importance than Newari, is the Meitei or Manipuri language.

Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, Padma Vibhushan awardee Indian Bengali scholar[101][102][103]

The Numit Kappa, a Classical Meitei epic text written during the 1st century, based on ancient Meitei mythology and religion (Sanamahism)

The Khamba Thoibi Sheireng, also spelled as the Khamba Thoibi Seireng (ꯈꯝꯕ ꯊꯣꯏꯕꯤ ꯁꯩꯔꯦꯡ, lit. Poem on Khamba Thoibi[104]), which is regarded as the national epic of the Manipuris,[105][106][107] is a classical Meitei language epic poem based on the ancient romantic adventure tale of Khamba and Thoibi of Moirang kingdom[f] of Ancient Kangleipak (early Manipur). It is the masterpiece of Hijam Anganghal, the "Bard of Samurou", and is regarded as the greatest of all the epic poems in Meitei literature, having a length of 39,000 verses.[108][107][109]

Linguistic traditionEdit

The culture involved with the Meitei language is rooted deeply with pride and tradition based on having respect to the community elders. Young children who do not know about the tales that have been passed on from generation to generation are very rare. Regarding the history behind the ancient use of proverbs that defines the way conversation is held with the Meitei language, it is a way of expressing and telling stories and even using modern slang with old proverbs to communicate between one another.[110]

The Meitei language had its own script. The history behind the Meitei language itself comes primarily from the ancient period of northeastern India.[111]

Literary AwardsEdit


An illustration of the Maniwood clapperboard

After the birth of Meitei cinema in 1972 as Matamgi Manipur (ꯃꯇꯝꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ), Maniwood, the Meitei language film industry, began to bring fame and prestige to India at the international level and to Manipur at the nation level. Notable internationally acclaimed and renowned films include 1981 film Imagi Ningthem (first Indian film to win a grand prix award of the Golden Montgolfiere at the Festival des 3 Continents, Nantes),[112] 1990 film Ishanou (screened at the Un Certain Regard section of the 1991 Cannes International Film Festival),[113] the 1984 film "Pebet" (Best Short Fiction Film in the International Short Film Festival, Kolkata 1985), the 2008 film "Nungee Mit" (Best Short Film in 2nd Cine ASA International Film Festival 2009, Guwahati), the 2009 film "Ilisha Amagi Mahao" (Best Director Award in the Cine ASA International Film Festival 2009, Guwahati), 2014 film "Phum Shang" (Best Medium Length Film at 18th International Environmental Film & Video Festival, Goias, Brazil 2016), 2016 film "Ima Sabitri" (Best Documentary Film Award at the 15th Mumbai International Film Festival), 2017 film "Theatre of the Earth" (Winner of Satyajit Ray Bronze Award for the 3rd Best Documentary at the 2nd South Asian Short Film Festival), 2018 film "Fireflies" (Best Documentary Short at Arthouse Asia International Film Festival 2018), "Naapal" (Best Short Film Award at the 1st Guwahati International Documentary, Short and Animation Film Festival), 2019 film "Highways of Life" (Best Film Award at the 8th Liberation DocFest, Bangladesh 2020), "I Rise" (Best Documentary Award at the Mumbai Short International Film Festival 2020), Motsillaba Mingsel (The Tainted Mirror) (Best Director and Best Child Artist awards at the Cochin International Shortfilm Awards 2021, Best Short Film Award at The Himalayan Film Festival 2021), 2020 film "Nawa Seidum" (Outstanding Achievement Award at the Tagore International Film Festival 2020, Best Narrative Film in Moment International 2020), "Samnaba - Merge" (Best Cinematography Award at The Himalayan Film Festival 2021), 2021 film "Class@6pm" (Best Asian Short Film Award at the Golden Leaf International Film Festival 2021), "Monsoon of Life" (Best Film at Unibrow Film Festival 2021 at the MOKKHO International Film Festival 2022), "Beyond Blast" (Best Director of Photography in the Goa International Film Festival 2021 and Best Documentary Feature Film in the Port Blair International Film Festival 2021), 2022 film "Erolnungdagi" (2nd Best Film Award at the 14th International Guwahati Film Festival 2022), "Re-Inkarnation" (DocEdge New Zealand Award in the Dhaka Doc Lab 2022), etc.

All the Meitei newspapers will be using the Meitei script instead of the Bengali script from 15 January 2023; 2 months ago (2023-01-15), according to a joint meeting consensus of the "Meetei Erol Eyek Loinasillol Apunba Lup" (MEELAL), "All Manipur Working Journalists’ Union" (AMWJU) and "Editors' Guild Manipur" (EGM) in Imphal.[114][115][116][117][118]

Annual eventsEdit

Various annual events are organised to promote, protect and develop Meitei language, in the sovereign states of India and Bangladesh in particular as well as in other parts of the world in general.

Meitei language dayEdit

The Meitei language day (ꯃꯩꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ, romanized: Meiteilon-gi Numit), formally known as the Manipuri language day (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯂꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ, romanized: Manipuri Lon-gi Numit), is annually observed on 20th of August, in memory of the historic day on which the language was included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and made one of the official languages of the Indian Republic on 20th August, 1992.[119][120][121][122][123]

Meitei poetry dayEdit

The Meitei poetry day (ꯃꯩꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ ꯁꯩꯔꯦꯡꯒꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ, romanized: Meiteilon Sheirenggi Numit), formally termed as the Manipuri poetry day (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯁꯩꯔꯦꯡꯒꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ, romanized: Manipuri Sheirenggi Numit), is an annual literary event that promotes the Meitei language poetries and honours the contributions of the poets as well as the diverse and distinctive uncommon literary traditions of Meitei language,[124][125] organised in Manipur as well as in other Meitei speakers populated areas (Northeast India and West Bengal[g] inside India), aiming to popularise and expose Meitei literature (Manipuri literature) to the greater world.[128]

Meitei language festivalEdit

The Meitei language festival (ꯃꯩꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯀꯨꯝꯃꯩ, romanized: Meiteilon-gi Kummei), formally known as the Manipuri language festival (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯂꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯀꯨꯝꯃꯩ, romanized: Manipuri Lon-gi Kummei) or the Manipuri Bhasha Utsav (মণিপুরী ভাষা উৎসব), is an annual cultural event that aims to the protection and the development of Meitei language, indigenous Meitei script[h] and Meitei culture[i] in the Republic of Bangladesh.[131] The event is organised by the "Bangladesh Manipuri Sahitya Sangsad" since the year 2008.[132][133]


In 2021, Rudali Huidrom, a Manipuri researcher of the EBMT/NLP laboratory, Waseda University, Japan, created a text corpus named "EM Corpus" (shortened form of "Emalon Manipuri Corpus"). It is the first comparable text to text corpus built for Meitei language (mni) and English language (eng) pair from sentences. The writing system used for Meitei language in this corpus is Bengali script. It was crawled and collected from - the news website of "The Sangai Express",[134] a daily newspaper of Manipur from August 2020 to 2021. In version 1, she created the monolingual data, having 1,034,715 Meitei language sentences and 846,796 English language sentences. In version 2, she created the monolingual data, having 1,880,035 Meitei language sentences and 1,450,053 English language sentences.[135][136]

EM-ALBERT is the first ALBERT model available for Meitei language. EM-FT is also FastText word embedding available for Meitei language. These resources were created by Rudali Huidrom and are now available at free of cost at the European Language Resources Association catalogue (ELRA catalogue) under CC-BY-NC-4.0 license.[135][136]

A screen shot of Google Translate translating a sentence from English language into Meitei language

On 11 May 2022, Google Translate added Meitei-language (under the name "Meiteilon (Manipuri)") during its addition of 24 new languages to the translation tool. The writing system used for Meitei language in this tool is Meitei script.[137][138][139]

Influence on other speech formsEdit

Words of Meitei origin occur in other languages, dialects and lects.

In Bishnupriya lectEdit

Bishnupriya, also termed as "Bishnupriya Manipuri" or "Bishnupriya Meitei",[140] a creole[141] of Bengali language and Meitei language, besides still retaining its pre-Bengali features,[142][143][144] uses around 4000 borrowed root words from Meitei language.[145]

In TangkhulEdit

"Tangkhul" (ꯇꯥꯡꯈꯨꯜ) is a speech form as well as an ethnicity. The term "Tangkhul" got its name from the Meitei language terms, "Tang" (ꯇꯥꯡ) meaning "scarce" and "Khul" (ꯈꯨꯜ) meaning "village" respectively.[146] According to another theory, the term "Tangkhul" is derived from "Thankhul", meaning "Than village" in Meitei language.[147][148][149]

In Lamkang/LamgangEdit

"Lamkang" (ꯂꯝꯀꯥꯡ) or "Lamgang" (ꯂꯝꯒꯥꯡ) is a speech form as well as an ethnic group. The term is derived from the Meitei language words, "Lam" (ꯂꯝ[150]) meaning "land" and "Kang" (ꯀꯡ[151]) meaning "dry". The overall meaning of "Lamkang" is rendered as "people who settled on the dry hilly areas" by the Meitei people. In old Meitei records, the Lamkang people were termed as the "Hiroi Lamkang". The prefixed term "Hiroi" is derived from the Meitei language word for boat ("hi") and work group ("loi").[152][153]

In Anal/AnanEdit

"Anāl" (ꯑꯅꯥꯜ) is a speech form as well as an ethnic group. The term "Anāl" (ꯑꯅꯥꯜ) is derived from the Meitei language term "Anan" (ꯑꯅꯥꯟ) meaning "cleanliness". The Anāl people are named so by the Meitei people because of their cleanliness in comparison to other tribes.[154][155][156][157]

Sample textEdit

The following is a sample text in Modern Meitei of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations)[158][j]:

ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯕ ꯈꯨꯗꯤꯡꯃꯛ ꯄꯣꯛꯄ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯅꯤꯡꯇꯝꯃꯤ, ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯏꯖꯖꯠ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯍꯛ ꯃꯥꯟꯅꯅ ꯂꯧꯖꯩ ꯫ ꯃꯈꯣꯏ ꯄꯨꯝꯅꯃꯛ ꯋꯥꯈꯜ ꯂꯧꯁꯤꯡ ꯁꯦꯡꯏ, ꯑꯐ ꯐꯠꯇ ꯈꯪꯏ, ꯑꯗꯨꯅ ꯑꯃꯅ ꯑꯃꯒ ꯂꯣꯏꯅꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯃꯆꯤꯟ ꯃꯅꯥꯎꯒꯨꯝꯅ ꯂꯣꯏꯅꯒꯗꯕꯅꯤ ꯫

— Modern Meitei in Meitei script

মিওইবা খুদিংমক পোকপা মতমদা নিংতম্মী, অমদি ইজ্জৎ অমসুং হক মান্ননা লৌজৈ । মখোই পুম্নমক ৱাখল লৌশিং শেঙই, অফ ফত্তা খঙই, অদুনা অমনা অমগা লোইনবদা মচীন মনাওগুম্না লোইনগদবনি ।

— Modern Meitei in Bengali script

Mioiba khudingmak pokpa matamda ningtammi amadi ijjat amasung hak mānnana leijei, makhoi pumnamak wākhal loushing shengi, apha phatta khangi, aduna amana amaga loinabada machin manāogumna loinagadabani.

— Modern Meitei in Roman transliteration, faithful to script

míːójbə kʰud̯íŋmək pókpə mət̯ə̀md̯ə níːŋt̯ə̀mmi, əməd̯i iːdʒət əməʃùng hə́k màːnənə lɐ̀jdʒɐ̀j. məkʰój púmnəmək wakʰə̀l lə̀wʃiŋ ʃèŋi, əpʱə̀ pʱə́ːt̯ə kʰə́ŋi, əd̯unə əmənə əməgə lòjnəbəd̯ə mət͡ʃìn mənáwgùmnə lójnəgəd̯əbəni'.

— Modern Meitei in IPA

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are all pure in mind, knowing right from wrong, and should be treated like brothers and sisters when they treat each other.

— Gloss, word-for-word

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

— Translation, grammatical

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The terms, "Meitei", "Meetei" and "Manipuri" are synonymous. While "Meitei" is more popular than "Meetei", "Meetei" is the officially mentioned synonym of the term "Manipuri".
  2. ^ Konkani and Nepali languages were recognised as scheduled languages at the same time when Meitei language was recognised.
  3. ^ named after the first three letters "Kok" (K), "Sam" (S) and "Lai" (L) of the Meitei writing system.
  4. ^ The terms, "Meitei", "Meetei" and "Manipuri" are synonymous. While "Meitei" is more popular than "Meetei", "Meetei" is the officially mentioned synonym of the term "Manipuri".
  5. ^ Some of the meanings rendered by some letters (characters) are different according to different sources. So, if found different, they're added together in the same section.[89][90][91][92]
  6. ^ Moirang was an independent kingdom in early times, though later became a province of a unified kingdom, called Manipur Kingdom.
  7. ^ The event is annually observed in Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal, by an organization named "Manipuri in Kolkata" (MIK).[126][127]
  8. ^ The event promotes indigenous Meitei writing system to be used for Meitei language, other than the already predominantly used Bengali script.[129]
  9. ^ The event also focusses on the cultural programs, besides the mother tongue, Meitei language.[130]
  10. ^ The Meitei-language translation of the passage of the Article 1 has two foreign words present, "ꯏꯖꯖꯠ" ("iːdʒət") and "ꯍꯛ" ("hə́k"), meaning "dignity" and "rights" respectively, as given in the source website. The original Meitei-language terms for "dignity" and "rights" are "ꯏꯀꯥꯏ ꯈꯨꯝꯅꯕ" ("í.kai kʰum.nə.bə") and "ꯐꯪꯐꯝ ꯊꯣꯛꯄ" ("pʰəŋ.pʰəm tʰok.pə") respectively.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Manipuri at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)  
    Old Manipuri at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)  
  2. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021".
  3. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021".
  4. ^ "নাওরিয়া ফুলো : ঋষি অমা - এলাংম দীনমনী" (PDF). (in Manipuri). India.
  5. ^ "লাইনীংহন নাওরিয়া ফুলো অমসুং মহাক্কী থবকশিং - ইঙো লোইতোংবা মোহেন" (PDF). (in Manipuri). India.
  6. ^ Ghosh, Dr Kunal (1 January 2008). Separatism in North-East India: Role of Religion, Language and Script. Suruchi Prakashan. pp. 133, 148. ISBN 978-81-89622-33-6.
  7. ^ "Meithei". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 October 2022. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  8. ^ "Manipuri". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 October 2022. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  9. ^ Burling, Robbins (2003). "The Tibeto-Burman Languages of Northeastern India". In Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.). The Sino-Tibetan Languages. Routledge. pp. 169–191. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5.
  10. ^ "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  11. ^ "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue". Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  12. ^ Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. "C-16: Population by mother tongue, India – 2011". Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  13. ^ Sunil, Oinam (14 July 2015). "Manipuris in Mandalay see ray of hope in Modi". The Times of India.
  14. ^ Moseley, C., ed. (2010). Atlas of the world's languages in danger (3rd ed). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. pp. 44–45 and elsewhere.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Textile Bdesh Myanmar 3". Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  16. ^ Mishra, Awadesh (1 January 1999). "The Manipuris in the Barak Valley: A Case Study of Language Maintenance'". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area.
  17. ^ "Manipuri language | Britannica". Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  18. ^ "Manipuri in Myanmar 1". Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chelliah (1997: 2)
  20. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary.Meitei". Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  21. ^ Chelliah (2015: 89)
  22. ^ Gangte, Priyadarshini M. "Evolution of Meetei state- Emergence of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba". The People's Chronicle. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  23. ^ Thoudam, P. C. (2006). Demographic and Ethnographic Information: Problems in the analysis of Manipuri language. Central Institute of Indian Language.
  24. ^ Haokip, P. (April 2011). "The Languages of Manipur: A Case Study of the Kuki-Chin Languages". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 34 (1): 86–118.
  25. ^ Ningoma, M. S. (1996). Manipur Dialects. Sealang Projects.
  26. ^ Devi, L. Manimala. 2002. A comparative study of Imphal, Andro, Koutruk and Kakching dialects of Meiteiron. (Doctoral dissertation, Canchipur: Manipur University; 273pp.)
  27. ^ "Manipuri language and alphabets".
  28. ^ "Manipuri language | Britannica".
  29. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". Government of India. National Informatics Center.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 290. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  31. ^ Mohanty, P. K. (2006). Encyclopaedia of Scheduled Tribes in India: In Five Volume. p. 149. ISBN 978-81-8205-052-5.
  32. ^ Chishti, S. M. A. W. (2005). Political Development in Manipur, 1919-1949. p. 282. ISBN 978-81-7835-424-8.
  33. ^ Sharma, Suresh K. (2006). Documents on North-East India: Manipur. Mittal Publications. p. 168. ISBN 978-81-8324-092-5.
  34. ^ Tarapot, Phanjoubam (2003). Bleeding Manipur. Har-Anand Publications. p. 309. ISBN 978-81-241-0902-1.
  35. ^ Sanajaoba, Naorem (1993). Manipur: Treatise & Documents. Mittal Publications. p. 369. ISBN 978-81-7099-399-5.
  36. ^ Sanajaoba, Naorem (1993). Manipur: Treatise & Documents. Mittal Publications. p. 255. ISBN 978-81-7099-399-5.
  37. ^ Hajarimayum Subadani Devi. "Loanwords in Manipuri and their impact" (PDF). In 1972 the Sahitya Akademi, the highest body of language and literature of India recognized Manipuri (Manipuri Sahitya Parisad. 1986:82)
  38. ^ "Dr Thokchom Ibohanbi - first Manipuri writer to get Akademi award : 24th feb22 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  39. ^ "The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992| National Portal of India". Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  40. ^ "Manipuri language in 8th Schedule By Jeet Akoijam". Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  41. ^ "Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution | Department of Official Language | Ministry of Home Affairs | GoI". Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  42. ^ "30th Manipuri Language Day observed : 21st aug21 ~ E-Pao! Headlines".
  43. ^ "Manipuri Language Day observed in Manipur - Eastern Mirror". 20 August 2017.
  44. ^ "Government must take concrete step for recognition of Manipuri as classical language". Imphal Free Press.
  45. ^ IANS (20 August 2016). "Classic language status for Manipuri demanded". Business Standard India.
  46. ^ "Manipur Govt Begins Efforts for Inclusion of Manipuri Among 'Classical' Languages". India Today NE (in Hindi). 21 August 2019.
  47. ^ "Manipuri as associate official language in Assam Sanajaoba approaches Sonowal".
  48. ^ "Manipuri language should be one of Assam's associate official languages: AAMSU". Imphal Free Press.
  49. ^ Laithangbam, Iboyaima (27 September 2020). "Assam to look into demand to include Manipuri in list of associate languages". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X.
  50. ^ "PMINDIA Multilingual Website now available in 13 languages Assamese and Manipuri versions of Prime Minister's Official Website launched". Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  51. ^ "PIB press releases in Manipuri : 25th nov15 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  52. ^ Press, Imphal Free. "PIB website has news in regional languages now – KanglaOnline". Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  53. ^ "Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh lauds SSC for deciding to conduct the Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff examination 2022 in 13 regional languages in addition to Hindi and English for the first time". Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  54. ^ "হিন্দি অমসুং ইংলিসকী মথক্তা অহানবা ওইনা লম-লমগী লোন ১৩দা মল্তি-তাস্কিং(নন-তেক্নিকেল) স্তাফ এজামিনেসন ২০২২ পাংথোক্নবা ৱারেপ লৌখিবগীদমক য়ুনিয়ন মিনিস্তর দোক্তর জিতেন্দ্র সিংহনা এস.এস.সি থাগৎখ্রে". (in Manipuri). Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  55. ^ "Discover the Heritage of North East India ... English | हिंदी | অসমীয়া | Ka Ktien Khasi | Mizo ṭawng | Meitei | बड़". Northeast Heritage (in English, Hindi, Assamese, Manipuri, Bodo, Khasi, and Mizo). Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  56. ^ "ভারতকি চিংখৈথংবা শরুকতা চৎনরকলিবা মৈহৌরোল পুথোকপা". Northeast Heritage (in Manipuri). Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  57. ^ "Education in Mother Tongue". Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  58. ^ "মমালোন্দা লাইরিক তম্বা". (in Manipuri). Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  59. ^ Devi, S. (May 2013). "Is Manipuri an Endangered Language?" (PDF). Language in India. 13 (5): 520–533.
  60. ^ Bareh, Hamlet (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Mittal Publications. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7099-790-0.
  61. ^ "CBSE | Academics Unit : Curriculum/Syllabus". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  62. ^ "Language Secondary | Manipuri Sec" (PDF).
  63. ^ "Curriculum Main 20 | Sr Secondary | Manipuri" (PDF).
  64. ^ ANI (16 February 2023). "Kashmiri language introduced by IGNOU at under graduate level". ThePrint. Retrieved 19 March 2023. In addition to these disciplines, the School has an elective basket of Modern Indian Languages on offer to undergraduates: Malayalam, Marathi, Odiya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Manipuri and Nepali.
  65. ^ "Assam HSLC Exam Routine 2023 Revised: SEBA To Conduct All Class 10 Language Papers Including English On April 1". 17 March 2023. Retrieved 18 March 2023. In addition to Assamese, the other MIL subjects are Bengali, Bodo, Hindi, Manipuri, Hmar, Nepali, Mizo, Khasi, Garo, Karbi and Urdu.
  66. ^ "Assam paper leak case: MIL exam of Class 10 boards rescheduled for April 1". Hindustan Times. 17 March 2023. Retrieved 18 March 2023. The MIL paper includes languages such as English (IL), Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Hindi, Manipuri, Hmar, Nepali, Mizo, Khasi, Garo, Karbi and Urdu.
  67. ^ "AHSEC COMPLETE SYLLABUS FOR HS 2ND YEAR". 2.(i) Any one of the following Modern Indian Language (MIL) subjects: a) Assamese || b) Bodo || c) Hindi || d) Nepali || e) Urdu || f) Khasi|| g) Garo || h) Mizo || i) Manipuri || j) Hamar || k) Bengali ...... 11. (ii)Any one of the following advanced languages subjects: Advance Assamese || Advance Hindi || Advance Bodo || Advance Sanskrit || Advance Manipuri || ...
  68. ^ Bureau, Pratidin. "AHSEC HS 2nd Year Examination Routine 2023 Released Today– Download now". Pratidin Time. Retrieved 19 March 2023. Modern Indian Languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Garo, Hmar, Hindi, Khasi, Manipuri, Mizo, Nepali & Urdu. ... Advance Languages include: Advance Assamese, Advance Bengali, Advance Bodo, Advance Hindi & Advance Manipuri.
  69. ^ "Assam Board Exam 2023: Class 12 date sheet released". Firstpost. 14 December 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2023. The exam will be conducted for modern languages including Bodo, Garo, Assamese, Bengali, Manipuri, Mizo, Hmar, Hindi, Khasi, Nepali and Urdu. The advanced language includes Advance Assamese, Advance Bodo, Advance Bengali, Advance Hindi and Advance Manipuri.
  70. ^ Desk, Sentinel Digital (5 June 2022). "AHSEC includes Karbi as Modern Indian Language in HS first year - Sentinelassam". Retrieved 19 March 2023. The AHSEC already has Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Garo, Hmar, Hindi, Khasi, Manipuri, Mizo, Nepali and Urdu as MIL.
  71. ^ a b Laithangbam, Iboyaima (27 September 2020). "Assam to look into demand to include Manipuri in list of associate languages". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 March 2023. The Assam government had recognised Manipuri in the lower primary schools in 1956. It is taught at the graduate level under the Gauhati university. ... Mr. Nandababu said the Assam government had recently started granting ₹5 lakh as annual financial assistance to the Assam Manipuri Sahitya Parishad. Besides it created a corpus by sanctioning ₹6 crore for the development of the Manipuri language.
  72. ^ "Manipuri Department". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  73. ^ "5 literary bodies bat for Manipuri language in Assam". Retrieved 18 March 2023. Moreover, Manipuri in MA and PhD courses are offered at Assam University, Silchar.
  74. ^ "AAMSU demands Associate Official Language status to Manipuri language". Several universities, notably Assam University and Silchar University, provide Manipuri language courses.
  76. ^ "Tripura University proposes introduction of diploma courses in Japanese, Korean, Nepali and Manipuri languages". India Today NE (in Hindi). 23 December 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  77. ^ a b LaPolla, Randy J. (2000). "Book review: A grammar of Meitei, by S. L. Chelliah". Lingua. Elsevier. 110 (4): 299–304. doi:10.1016/s0024-3841(99)00037-6.
  78. ^ Chelliah, S. L. (1997). Meitei Phonology. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 17–21.
  79. ^ Chelliah (1997)
  80. ^ Khuman, Yanglem Loijing Khomba; Devi, Salam Dickeeta; Singh, Ch. Ponykumar; Devi, H. Mamata; Singh, N. Ajith (1 December 2022). "A benchmark dataset for printed Meitei/Meetei script character recognition". Data in Brief. 45: 108585. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2022.108585. ISSN 2352-3409. PMC 9679442. PMID 36426059.
  81. ^ Noni, Arambam; Sanatomba, Kangujam (16 October 2015). Colonialism and Resistance: Society and State in Manipur. Routledge. pp. 223, 235, 237. ISBN 978-1-317-27066-9.
  82. ^ O'Keeffe, Anne; McCarthy, Michael (5 April 2010). The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. Taylor and Francis. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-135-15363-2. Meetei Mayek (Meitei Mayek, ... Kanglei)
  83. ^ "মণিপুরদা লোলয়ান চঙলকপা অমদি মীতৈ ইয়েক্না থোঙজিন্দা ৱারৌজনা লেপ্লরবদা !" (PDF). (in Manipuri).
  84. ^ "Lost and revived: The story of Meitei script". The Indian Express. 11 December 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  85. ^ Fresh Fictions: Folk Tales, Plays, Novellas from the North East. Katha. 2005. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-87649-44-1.
  86. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  87. ^ Laithangbam, Iboyaima (23 September 2017). "Banished Manipuri script stages a comeback". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  88. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  89. ^ Arambarn Parratt, Saroj Nalini, ed. (2009), "Meetei Mayek or Meetei script chart", The Court Chronicle of the Kings of Manipur, Foundation Books, pp. 145–148, ISBN 978-81-7596-854-7, retrieved 6 March 2023
  90. ^ Watham, S.; Vimal, V. (2013). "Transliteration from Hindi Script to Meetei Mayek : ( A Rule Based Approach )". S2CID 16339978. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  91. ^ "Meetei Mayek: The Script". Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  92. ^ "Meitei Mayek Alphabets".
  93. ^ "Manipuri (Meeteilon / Meithei)". Omniglot. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  94. ^ "Manipur HSLC Date Sheet 2023: BSEM Class 10 time table released, exam begins March 16". The Times of India. 25 January 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  95. ^ "Prescribed-BSEM-Text-Books-2019" (PDF). Board of Secondary Education Manipur, BSEM. Government of Manipur. 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  96. ^ SNS (10 January 2019). "Manipur Board Class 12 (HSC) and Class 10 (HSLC) Timetable 2019 available online at | Check now". The Statesman. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  97. ^ Editorial, Signpost (21 August 2022). "Preserving Manipuri Lol by Hill people". Signpost News. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  98. ^ "The Birth of Jesus Manipuri Roman Mayek CB" (PDF).
  99. ^ a b Singh, S. Indrakumar (November 2013). "Agreements in Manipuri" (PDF). Language in India. 13 (11): 216–231.
  100. ^ a b Devi, M. Bidyarani (May 2014). "Compound Verbs in Manipuri" (PDF). Language in India. 14 (5): 66–70.
  101. ^ Devi, Nunglekpam Premi (14 April 2018). A Glimpse of Manipuri Literary Works. p. 5.
  102. ^ Singh, Ch Manihar (1996). A History of Manipuri Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-260-0086-9.
  103. ^ Anthology of articles, Indian and Soviet scholars (1975). Problems of Modern Indian Literature. the University of Michigan: Statistical Pub. Society : distributor, K. P. Bagchi. p. 23.
  104. ^ George, K. M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. India: Sahitya Akademi. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  105. ^ George, K. M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. India: Sahitya Akademi. p. 258. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0. H. Anganghal Singh's Khamba Thoibi Sheireng (Poem on Khamba Thoibi, 1940) is a national epic of the Manipuris based on the story of Khamba and Thoibi of Moirang. The poet composes the whole epic in the Pena Saisak style of folk ballads sung by minstrels or bards popular in Manipur.
  106. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Devraj to Jyoti. India: Sahitya Akademi. p. 1186. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  107. ^ a b Das, Sisir Kumar (2005). A History of Indian Literature: 1911-1956, struggle for freedom : triumph and tragedy. Sahitya Akademi. p. 190. ISBN 978-81-7201-798-9. His epic Singel Indu was published in 1938 which was followed by his magnum opus Khamba Thoibi Sheireng (1940), a poem of 39000 lines, considered to be the 'national' epic of the Manipuris, written in the Pena Saisak style of folk ballads.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  108. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Devraj to Jyoti. India: Sahitya Akademi. p. 1573. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0. His best work, Khamba Thoibi sheireng, in 39,000 lines on the story of 'Khamba and Thoibi' was started in 1939 and the composition was completed in 1940.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  109. ^ Delhi, All India Radio (AIR), New (31 August 1975). AKASHVANI: Vol. XL. No. 35 ( 31 AUGUST, 1975 ). All India Radio (AIR),New Delhi. p. 1582.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  110. ^ Betholia, C. (August 2008). "Manipuri Culture Seen Through Proverbs". Indian Folklife (30): 4–5.
  111. ^ Singh, T. D. (April 2014). "Phonological System of Medieval Manipuri" (PDF). Language in India. 14 (4): 56–68.
  112. ^ "Digitised Imagi Ningthem screened at Pune film fest : 15th jan14 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  113. ^ "ISHANOU - Festival de Cannes". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  114. ^ "Meetei Mayek in newspapers". Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  115. ^ "Meetei Mayek in newspapers : 29th jan22 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  116. ^ Time, Pratidin. "Meetei Mayek to Replace Bengali Script in Manipuri Newspapers from 2023". Pratidin Time. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  117. ^ HYNews. "All Bengali script Manipuri Dailies in Manipur to Print in Meitei Eyek (Script) from 15th January 2023". Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  118. ^ "State dailies to cease Bengali script Manipuri papers from Jan, 2023 : 29th jan22 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  119. ^ Singh, Dr Th Suresh (2 June 2014). The Endless Kabaw Valley: British Created Visious Cycle of Manipur, Burma and India. Quills Ink Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-93-84318-00-0.
  120. ^ Singh, Dr Th Suresh (2 June 2014). The Endless Kabaw Valley: British Created Visious Cycle of Manipur, Burma and India. Quills Ink Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-84318-00-0.
  121. ^ Coleman, Daniel; Glanville, Erin Goheen; Hasan, Wafaa; Kramer-Hamstra, Agnes (26 April 2012). Countering Displacements: The Creativity and Resilience of Indigenous and Refugee-ed Peoples. University of Alberta. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-88864-592-0.
  122. ^ "30th Manipuri Language Day observed : 21st aug21 ~ E-Pao! Headlines".
  123. ^ "Manipuri Language Day observed in Manipur - Eastern Mirror". 20 August 2017.
  124. ^ "St Joseph University, Nagaland observes Manipuri Poetry Day 2022". Imphal Free Press. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  125. ^ "Manipuri Poetry Day 2021 celebrated : 22nd oct21 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  126. ^ Ajit, Sh. "Manipuri in Kolkata observes "Manipuri Poetry Day" - Imphal Times". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  127. ^ "Manipuri in Kolkata observes 'Manipuri Poetry Day' : 15th oct19 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  128. ^ "Manipuri Poetry Day 2021 celebrated". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  129. ^ প্রতিনিধি. "কমলগঞ্জে দিনব্যাপী মণিপুরি ভাষা ও সংস্কৃতি উৎসব". Prothomalo (in Bengali). Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  130. ^ Paul, Jibon (14 May 2022). "কমলগঞ্জে মণিপুরি ভাষা ও সংস্কৃতি উৎসব". দৈনিক জালালাবাদ | Daily Jalalabad. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  131. ^ "কমলগঞ্জে মনিপুরী ভাষা উৎসব উদযাপিত". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  132. ^ "কমলগঞ্জে মণিপুরি ভাষা উৎসব পালিত". ABNEWS24 (in Bengali). Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  133. ^ "নিজস্ব ভাষা সাহিত্যকে যথার্থ চর্চার মাধ্যমেই বাঁচিয়ে রাখা সম্ভব". সিলেটের ডাক. 10 March 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  134. ^ "The Sangai Express - Largest Circulated NewsPaper in Manipur". Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  135. ^ a b "Machine translation of English-Manipuri made possible : 13th oct21 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  136. ^ a b "Ema-lon Manipuri Corpus (including word embedding and language model) – ELRA Catalogue". Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  137. ^ "Assamese, Meiteilon (Manipuri) and Mizo language has been added to Google translate, moment of pride for Northeastern India! - NE India Broadcast". 12 May 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  138. ^ "Google Translate adds support for Assamese, Mizo and Manipuri languages - Eastern Mirror". 11 May 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  139. ^ Webdesk, Time8 (12 May 2022). "Google Translate gets support for 24 new languages including Assamese, Mizo and Manipuri". TIME8. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  140. ^ Sahoo, Ajaya K. (30 March 2021). Routledge Handbook of Asian Diaspora and Development. Taylor & Francis. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-000-36686-0. The Bishnupriya Meiteis from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Tripura and Assam used the Bengali script and speak their own language, which is influenced by Meiteilon (Mani- puri).
  141. ^ Moseley, Christopher (1 January 2010). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. UNESCO. p. 139. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2.
  142. ^ Frawley, William (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: 4-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 481. ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8.
  143. ^ Haokip, Pauthang (2011). Socio-linguistic Situation in North-East India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-8069-760-9.
  144. ^ Asher, R. E.; Moseley, Christopher (19 April 2018). Atlas of the World's Languages. Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-317-85108-0.
  145. ^ Gelbukh, Alexander (18 April 2014). Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 15th International Conference, CICLing 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal, April 6-12, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Springer. p. 207. ISBN 978-3-642-54906-9.
  146. ^ Sanyu, Visier (1996). A History of Nagas and Nagaland: Dynamics of Oral Tradition in Village Formation. University of Michigan. Commonwealth Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-7169-369-6. ... a sparse nature of settlement that the Tangkhul tribe got its name. In Meitei language-literally, Tang means scarce and khul means village.
  147. ^ Shimray, A. S. W. (2001). History of the Tangkhul Nagas. Akansha Publishing House. p. 43. ISBN 978-81-87606-04-8. ... the village which they lived was known by the name ' THANKHUL ' meaning Than - Village in Meitei language . Therefore , the name ' TANGKHUL ' is derived from Than - Khul ...
  148. ^ Lisam, Khomdan Singh (2011). Encyclopaedia Of Manipur (3 Vol.). p. 516. ISBN 978-81-7835-864-2. The name Tangkhul was given to them by the Meiteis. There are many legends regarding the origin of the word Tangkhul.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  149. ^ "History | Ukhrul District, Government of Manipur | India". National Informatics Centre (in English and Manipuri). Government of India. Retrieved 3 February 2023. The name Tangkhul was given to them by their neighbours, the Meiteis. The northern Tangkhuls were also called the Luhupas.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  150. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Lam")". (in Manipuri and English). University of Chicago. p. 165. Retrieved 4 February 2023. lam ꯂꯝ /ləm/ n. land; state; country; nation.
  151. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Kang")". (in Manipuri and English). University of Chicago. p. 33. Retrieved 4 February 2023. kang-₁ ꯀꯡ- /kəŋ/ v. to dry.
  152. ^ Bareh, Hamlet (2001). "Lamgang". Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Mittal Publications. p. 161. ISBN 978-81-7099-790-0. ... the term Lamgang might have been given by the Meitei to mean the people who settled on the dry hilly areas (lam: land; kang: day). In the earlier records of the Meitei they are referred to as the Hiroi Lamkang. The prefix hiroi is derived from the Meitei word for boat (hi: work; loi: group).
  153. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Hiroi")". (in Manipuri and English). University of Chicago. p. 207. Retrieved 4 February 2023. hiroi ꯍꯤꯔꯣꯏ /hi.rói/ n. oarsman. Morph: hi‑roi [boat‑to accompany].
  154. ^ Bisht, Narendra S.; Bankoti, T. S. (2004). Encyclopaedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes. Global Vision. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-87746-91-1. ... because of their cleanlines in comparison with other tribes, the Meitei called them Anan which gives away to Anal.
  155. ^ Prakash, Col Ved (2007). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 1515. ISBN 978-81-269-0706-9. ... because of their fondness for cleanliness, compared to others, the Meiteis called them 'Anan', which later transformed to 'Anal'. ... But the Anals often refer to themselves as 'Pakan' and the term 'Anal' seem to be of Meitei origin.
  156. ^ Bisht, Narendra S.; Bankoti, T. S. (2004). Encyclopaedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes. Global Vision. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-87746-91-1. the Anals often refer themselves as Pakan and the term Anals seems to be of Meitei origin.
  157. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Term for "clean")". (in Manipuri and English). University of Chicago. p. 7. Retrieved 3 February 2023. anānba ꯑꯅꯥꯟꯕ /ə.nán.bə/ adj. 1) smooth. 2) clean. Morph: a‑nān‑ba [Att‑to be smooth/clean‑Nom].
  158. ^ "Manipuri language and alphabets". Retrieved 12 August 2022.

Further readingEdit

  • 1. A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-I, by Chingtamlen, 2005
  • 2. A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-II, by Chingtamlen, 2007
  • 3. A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-III, by Chingtamlen, 2008
  • 4. The Meetei and the Bishnupriya, by Chingtamlen, 2008


  • Brara, N. Vijaylakshmi. (1998). Politics, society, and cosmology in India's North East. Delphi: Oxford University Press.
  • Budha, W. (1992). Indigenous games of the Meiteis. Manipur: Wangkeimayum Publications.
  • Kshetrimayum, Otojit. (2014). Ritual, Politics and Power in North East India: Contexualising the Lai Haraoba of Manipur. Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.
  • Singh, M. Kirti. (1988). Religion and culture of Manipur. Delhi: Manas Publications.
  • Singh, M. Kirti. (1993). Folk culture of Manipur. Delhi: Manas Publications.
  • Singh, Saikhom Gopal. (2014). The Meeteis of Manipur: A Study in Human Geography. Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.


  • Bhat, D. N. S.; & Ningomba, S. (1997). Manipuri grammar. Munich: Lincom Europa.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1990). Experiencer subjects in Manipuri. In V. M. Manindra & K. P. Mohanan (Eds.), Experiencer subjects in South Asian languages (pp. 195–211). Stanford: The Center for the Study of Language and Information.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1992). Tone in Manipuri. In K. L. Adams & T. J. Hudak (Eds.), Papers from the first annual meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1991 (pp. 65–85). Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1992). Bracketing paradoxes in Manipuri. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), Morphology now (pp. 33–47). Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1994). Morphological change and fast speech phenomena in the Manipuri verb. In K. L. Adams & T. J. Hudak (Eds.), Papers from the second annual meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1992 (pp. 121–134). Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1997). A grammar of Meitei. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 0-19-564331-3.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2002). Early Meitei manuscripts. In C. I. Beckwith (Ed.), Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages: PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the ninth seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000 (pp. 59–71). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2002). A glossary of 39 basic words in archaic and modern Meitei. In C. I. Beckwith (Ed.), Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages: PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the ninth seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000 (pp. 189–190). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2004). "Polysemy through metonymy: The case of Meitei pi 'grandmother'". Studies in Language. 28 (2): 363–386. doi:10.1075/sl.28.2.04che.
  • Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2015). "Is Manipur a linguistic area?". Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics. 2 (1): 87–109. doi:10.1515/jsall-2015-0004. S2CID 130962163.
  • Singh, Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra. (1964). Manipuri to Manipuri & English dictionary.

External linksEdit