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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

Glottolog
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ProducerMax Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Germany)
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Glottolog provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several respects:

  • It attempts to only accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct. Varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested".[note 1]
  • It attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid.
  • Bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages.
  • To a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them.

The language names used in the bibliographic entries are identified by ISO 639-3 code or Glottolog's own code (Glottocode); apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic centre, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue and other online language databases

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013 and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License. Edition 2.4 was published in 2015, 3.0 in 2017, 3.3.2 in August 2018, 3.4 in April 2019. The latest version is 4.0, released in June 2019.

Language familiesEdit

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of languages and groups within families but more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. Edition 4.0 lists 420 oral-language[note 2] families and isolates as follows:[1]

List of Glottolog genealogical families
Name Region[note 3] Languages
Atlantic-Congo Africa, North America 1,432
Austronesian Africa, Eurasia, Oceania, South America 1,275
Indo-European Africa, Australia, Eurasia, North America, Oceania, South America 588
Sino-Tibetan Eurasia 494
Afro-Asiatic Africa, Eurasia 373
Nuclear Trans New Guinea Oceania 314
Pama-Nyungan Australia, Oceania 248
Otomanguean North America 180
Austroasiatic Eurasia 159
Tai-Kadai Eurasia 94
Dravidian Eurasia 81
Arawakan North America, South America 78
Mande Africa 75
Tupian South America 71
Uto-Aztecan North America 69
Central Sudanic Africa 64
Nuclear Torricelli Oceania 55
Nilotic Africa 54
Uralic Eurasia 48
Algic North America 45
Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit North America 45
Pano-Tacanan South America 45
Quechuan South America 45
Turkic Eurasia 44
Cariban South America 42
Hmong-Mien Eurasia 39
Sepik Oceania 36
Nakh-Daghestanian Eurasia 34
Mayan North America 33
Lower Sepik-Ramu Oceania 30
Nuclear-Macro-Je South America 30
Chibchan North America, South America 27
Tucanoan South America 26
Salishan North America 25
Timor-Alor-Pantar Oceania 23
Dogon Africa 20
Lakes Plain Oceania 20
Mixe-Zoque North America 19
Morehead-Wasur Oceania 19
Ta-Ne-Omotic Africa 19
Siouan North America 18
Anim Oceania 17
Mongolic Eurasia 17
Border Oceania 15
Japonic Eurasia, Oceania 15
North Halmahera Oceania 15
Khoe-Kwadi Africa 14
Angan Oceania 13
Ndu Oceania 13
Nubian Africa 13
Tor-Orya Oceania 13
Tungusic Eurasia 13
Chapacuran South America 12
Eskimo-Aleut Eurasia, North America 12
Gunwinyguan Australia 12
Totonacan North America 12
Cochimi-Yuman North America 11
Iroquoian North America 11
Miwok-Costanoan North America 11
Surmic Africa 11
Western Daly Australia 11
Geelvink Bay Oceania 10
Great Andamanese Eurasia, Oceania 10
Heibanic Africa 10
Ijoid Africa 10
Maban Africa 10
Nyulnyulan Australia 10
Saharan Africa 10
Sko Oceania 10
Songhay Africa 10
Worrorran Australia 10
Chocoan South America 9
Dagan Oceania 9
South Bougainville Oceania 9
Greater Kwerba Oceania 8
Kiowa-Tanoan North America 8
Koiarian Oceania 8
Mailuan Oceania 8
Narrow Talodi Africa 8
Tuu Africa 8
Bosavi Oceania 7
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eurasia 7
Dajuic Africa 7
Huitotoan South America 7
Matacoan South America 7
Muskogean North America 7
Pomoan North America 7
Arawan South America 6
Baining Oceania 6
Barbacoan South America 6
Chumashan North America 6
East Strickland Oceania 6
Goilalan Oceania 6
Kadugli-Krongo Africa 6
Kartvelian Eurasia 6
Kiwaian Oceania 6
Left May Oceania 6
Nambiquaran South America 6
South Bird's Head Family Oceania 6
Wakashan North America 6
Zaparoan South America 6
Abkhaz-Adyge Eurasia 5
Caddoan North America 5
Eleman Oceania 5
Guahiboan South America 5
Guaicuruan South America 5
Kxa Africa 5
Lengua-Mascoy South America 5
Mirndi Australia 5
Misumalpan North America 5
Nimboranic Oceania 5
Pauwasi Oceania 5
Sahaptian North America 5
South Omotic Africa 5
West Bird's Head Oceania 5
Xincan North America 5
Yanomamic South America 5
Yareban Oceania 5
Yeniseian Eurasia 5
Yuat Oceania 5
Arafundi Oceania 4
Aymaran South America 4
Blue Nile Mao Africa 4
Chicham South America 4
Chinookan North America 4
Chonan South America 4
Eastern Jebel Africa 4
Eastern Trans-Fly Oceania 4
Huavean North America 4
Iwaidjan Proper Australia 4
Jodi-Saliban South America 4
Kamakanan South America 4
Koman Africa 4
Maiduan North America 4
Mangarrayi-Maran Australia 4
Maningrida Australia 4
Nadahup South America 4
North Bougainville Oceania 4
Sentanic Oceania 4
Suki-Gogodala Oceania 4
Tamaic Africa 4
Tangkic Australia 4
Turama-Kikori Oceania 4
Walioic Oceania 4
Yokutsan North America 4
Yukaghir Eurasia 4
Ainu Eurasia 3
Bororoan South America 3
Cahuapanan South America 3
Charruan South America 3
Dizoid Africa 3
East Bird's Head Oceania 3
Giimbiyu Australia 3
Gumuz Africa 3
Jarrakan Australia 3
Kalapuyan North America 3
Kamula-Elevala Oceania 3
Katla-Tima Africa 3
Kawesqar South America 3
Kayagaric Oceania 3
Kolopom Oceania 3
Kuliak Africa 3
Kwalean Oceania 3
Mairasic Oceania 3
Peba-Yagua South America 3
Shastan North America 3
Tequistlatecan North America 3
Tsimshian North America 3
Ulmapo Oceania 3
West Bomberai Oceania 3
Yangmanic Australia 3
Zamucoan South America 3
Amto-Musan Oceania 2
Araucanian South America 2
Baibai-Fas Oceania 2
Bayono-Awbono Oceania 2
Bogia Oceania 2
Boran South America 2
Bulaka River Oceania 2
Bunaban Australia 2
Chimakuan North America 2
Coosan North America 2
Doso-Turumsa Oceania 2
East Kutubu Oceania 2
Eastern Daly Australia 2
Furan Africa 2
Garrwan Australia 2
Haida North America 2
Harakmbut South America 2
Hatam-Mansim Oceania 2
Hibito-Cholon South America 2
Huarpean South America 2
Hurro-Urartian Eurasia 2
Inanwatan Oceania 2
Jarawa-Onge Eurasia 2
Jicaquean North America 2
Kakua-Nukak South America 2
Katukinan South America 2
Keresan North America 2
Konda-Yahadian Oceania 2
Koreanic Eurasia 2
Kresh-Aja Africa 2
Kwomtari-Nai Oceania 2
Lencan North America 2
Lepki-Murkim Oceania 2
Limilngan-Wulna Australia 2
Manubaran Oceania 2
Marrku-Wurrugu Australia 2
Mombum-Koneraw Oceania 2
Namla-Tofanma Oceania 2
North-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Northern Daly Australia 2
Nyimang Africa 2
Otomaco-Taparita South America 2
Pahoturi Oceania 2
Palaihnihan North America 2
Piawi Oceania 2
Puri-Coroado South America 2
Rashad Africa 2
Senagi Oceania 2
Somahai Oceania 2
South-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Southern Daly Australia 2
Tarascan North America 2
Taulil-Butam Oceania 2
Teberan Oceania 2
Temeinic Africa 2
Ticuna-Yuri South America 2
Uru-Chipaya South America 2
Western Tasmanian Australia 2
Wintuan North America 2
Yawa-Saweru Oceania 2
Yuki-Wappo North America 2
Abinomn Oceania 1
Abun Oceania 1
Adai North America 1
Aewa South America 1
Aikanã South America 1
Alsea-Yaquina North America 1
Ambakich Oceania 1
Andaqui South America 1
Andoque South America 1
Anem Oceania 1
Ap Ma Oceania 1
Arutani South America 1
Atacame South America 1
Atakapa North America 1
Bangime Africa 1
Basque Eurasia 1
Beothuk North America 1
Berta Africa 1
Betoi-Jirara South America 1
Bilua Oceania 1
Bogaya Oceania 1
Burmeso Oceania 1
Burushaski Eurasia 1
Camsá South America 1
Candoshi-Shapra South America 1
Canichana South America 1
Cayubaba South America 1
Cayuse North America 1
Chimariko North America 1
Chiquitano South America 1
Chitimacha North America 1
Chono South America 1
Coahuilteco North America 1
Cofán South America 1
Comecrudan North America 1
Cotoname North America 1
Cuitlatec North America 1
Culli South America 1
Damal Oceania 1
Dem Oceania 1
Dibiyaso Oceania 1
Duna Oceania 1
Elamite Eurasia 1
Elseng Oceania 1
Esselen North America 1
Etruscan Eurasia 1
Fasu Oceania 1
Fulniô South America 1
Gaagudju Australia 1
Guachi South America 1
Guaicurian North America 1
Guamo South America 1
Guató South America 1
Gule Africa 1
Guriaso Oceania 1
Hadza Africa 1
Hattic Eurasia 1
Hruso Eurasia 1
Iberian Eurasia 1
Irántxe-Münkü South America 1
Itonama South America 1
Jalaa Africa 1
Jirajaran South America 1
Kaki Ae Oceania 1
Kanoê South America 1
Kapori Oceania 1
Karami Oceania 1
Karankawa North America 1
Kariri South America 1
Karok North America 1
Kaure-Narau Oceania 1
Kehu Oceania 1
Kembra Oceania 1
Kenaboi Eurasia 1
Kibiri Oceania 1
Kimki Oceania 1
Klamath-Modoc North America 1
Kol (Papua New Guinea) Oceania 1
Kosadle Oceania 1
Kujarge Africa 1
Kunama Africa 1
Kungarakany Australia 1
Kunza South America 1
Kuot Oceania 1
Kusunda Eurasia 1
Kutenai North America 1
Kwaza South America 1
Laal Africa 1
Lafofa Africa 1
Laragia Australia 1
Lavukaleve Oceania 1
Leco South America 1
Lule South America 1
Máku South America 1
Maratino North America 1
Marori Oceania 1
Massep Oceania 1
Matanawí South America 1
Mato Grosso Arára South America 1
Mawes Oceania 1
Maybrat-Karon Oceania 1
Meroitic Africa 1
Mimi-Gaudefroy Africa 1
Minkin Australia 1
Mochica South America 1
Molale North America 1
Molof Oceania 1
Mor (Bomberai Peninsula) Oceania 1
Mosetén-Chimané South America 1
Movima South America 1
Mpur Oceania 1
Muniche South America 1
Mure South America 1
Nara Africa 1
Natchez North America 1
Nihali Eurasia 1
Nivkh Eurasia 1
Odiai Oceania 1
Omurano South America 1
Ongota Africa 1
Oti South America 1
Oyster Bay-Big River-Little Swanport Australia 1
Páez South America 1
Pankararú South America 1
Papi Oceania 1
Pawaia Oceania 1
Payagua South America 1
Pele-Ata Oceania 1
Pirahã South America 1
Puelche South America 1
Puinave South America 1
Pumé South America 1
Puquina South America 1
Purari Oceania 1
Pyu Oceania 1
Ramanos South America 1
Salinan North America 1
Sandawe Africa 1
Sapé South America 1
Sause Oceania 1
Savosavo Oceania 1
Sechuran South America 1
Seri North America 1
Shabo Africa 1
Shom Peng Eurasia 1
Siamou Africa 1
Siuslaw North America 1
Sulka Oceania 1
Sumerian Eurasia 1
Tabo Oceania 1
Taiap Oceania 1
Takelma North America 1
Tallán South America 1
Tambora Oceania 1
Tanahmerah Oceania 1
Taruma South America 1
Taushiro South America 1
Timote-Cuica South America 1
Timucua North America 1
Tinigua South America 1
Tiwi Australia 1
Tonkawa North America 1
Touo Oceania 1
Trumai South America 1
Tunica North America 1
Tuxá South America 1
Umbugarla Australia 1
Urarina South America 1
Usku Oceania 1
Vilela South America 1
Wadjiginy Australia 1
Wageman Australia 1
Waorani South America 1
Warao South America 1
Washo North America 1
Wiru Oceania 1
Xukurú South America 1
Yale Oceania 1
Yámana South America 1
Yana North America 1
Yele Oceania 1
Yerakai Oceania 1
Yetfa Oceania 1
Yuchi North America 1
Yuracaré South America 1
Yurumanguí South America 1
Zuni North America 1

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic lexicon.

In addition to the families and isolates listed above, Glottolog uses several non-genealogical families for various languages:[2]

  • Pidgins (80 languages)
  • Mixed languages (17)
  • Artificial languages (16)
  • Speech registers (8)
  • Sign languages (193, including 1 pidgin,[3] 3 auxiliary sign systems,[4] and 2 unclassified sign languages)[5]
  • Unclassifiable attested languages (122)
  • Unattested languages (67)
  • Bookkeeping: spurious languages, such as retired ISO entries; kept for bookkeeping purposes (399 including 5 sign languages)[6]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See for example the bookkeeping section for ISO languages that Glottolog has deemed to be spurious distinctions.
    This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from MultiTree or other sources without verification.
  2. ^ Sign languages are listed together, including those grouped typologically as village sign languages, as are pidgins and unclassified languages, but without a claim that they are necessarily related.
  3. ^ Geographic regions include "Papunesia" (a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Austronesia), which refers to the islands of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania, excluding Australia. Here it is replaced with 'Oceania'.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Glottolog Families". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  2. ^ "Glottolog: About Languoids". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  3. ^ "Glottolog Language: Hawai'i Pidgin Sign Language". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  4. ^ "Glottolog Subfamily: Auxiliary Sign Systems". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  5. ^ "Glottolog Subfamily: Unclassified Deaf Sign Language". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  6. ^ "Glottolog Family: Bookkeeping". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-04-02.

External linksEdit