Cayuse language

The Cayuse language (Cailloux, Willetpoos) is an extinct unclassified language formerly spoken by the Cayuse Native American tribe in the U.S. state of Oregon. The Cayuse name for themselves was Liksiyu (see Aoki 1998).

Cayuse
Native toUnited States
RegionOregon
EthnicityCayuse
Extinct1930s[1]
Unclassified
Language codes
ISO 639-3xcy
xcy
Glottologcayu1241[2]

ClassificationEdit

Similarities to Molala, the language of people to the south of them in central Oregon, are thought to have been due to contact (Rigsby 1969: 71).[3]:71

Edward Sapir had originally grouped Cayuse with Molala as part of a Waiilatpuan branch with the Plateau Penutian languages; the Waiilatpuan group had been originally proposed by Horatio Hale (1846), based on his 1841 field work with the Cayuse people at Waiilatpu Mission. However, Cayuse has little documentation, and that which is documented is inadequately recorded.

PronounsEdit

Cayuse pronouns listed by Horatio Hale (1846):[3]

I iniŋ
you (sg.) nikí
you (du.) nkímiš
he nip
we námək
you (pl.) mkímiš
they nípik

Cayuse pronouns listed by McBean:[3]

I in ning
you (sg., pl.) in kai
he neepe
we nung naw naw
they cap pick

VerbsEdit

Cayuse verb paradigms documented by Henry W. Henshaw:[3]

'hungry'
I am hungry. wi-tu-tŭnt
I was hungry. kler-ka-wĭ-tu-tŭnt
I will be hungry. wí-tu-näk-sŭnt
You and I are hungry. swi-tu-ter-yìk
You and I were hungry. swi-tu-te-lì-kai-ĭk
You and I will be hungry. nĭng-i-li-pʔl-swi-tu-nak-stunk-a-wak
You are hungry. tu-swi-tu-tuñg-a
You were hungry. swi-tu-til-kutla
You will be hungry. swi-tu-nak-stung-at-la
'thirsty'
I am thirsty. nĭs-ka-mu-tiñg
I was thirsty. nĭs-ka-mu-til
I will be thirsty. nĭs-ka-mu-näk-skĭn
You are thirsty. tu-mĭs-ka-mu-tĭñg
You were thirsty. mĭs-ka-mu-til-hă
You will be thirsty. mĭs-ka-mu-na-stĭnk-la

VocabularyEdit

In 1910 or 1911, Stephens Savage, a Molala speaker, had told Leo Frachtenberg that the following five words were identical in both Cayuse and Molala (considered by Rigsby (1969) to be loanwords).[3]

sorrel horse qasqasi tasiwitkwi
spotted horse yuꞏk tasiwitkwi
black horse múkimuki tasiwitkwi
comb taꞏsps
spoon ƚúꞏpinc

Limited lexical items in Cayuse had also been collected by Bruce Rigsby, Melville Jacobs, Verne Ray, and Theodore Stern. Their Cayuse informants had highly limited knowledge of Cayuse and were more fluent in Sahaptin or Nez Perce.

Hale (1846)Edit

A word list of Cayuse with nearby 200 lexical items was documented by Horatio Hale (1846: 570-629). The word list has been reproduced below.[4]

NounsEdit

gloss Cayuse
man yúant
woman pintχlkaíu; watχlóa
boy láutlaŋ
girl staítχləŋ; staítlaŋ
infant; child skútχla
father pintét; títʃa
mother penín; nínʃa
husband ináiu
wife inχlkaío
son wái
daughter wái
brother pnákən; pənátaŋ
sister pənátiaŋ; pənwaíəq
Indian; people -
head talʃ; táəlʃ
hair tχlókomot
face léequkʃ
forehead penátχliʃ
ear takʃ
eye hăkaməʃ
nose pitχlóken
mouth səmqakʃ
tongue puʃ
teeth tenif
beard ʃimkéməʃ
neck yet
arm tiélaq
hand épip
fingers épip
nails ʃíŋiʃ
body ʃilăməʃ
leg maúwət
foot tiʃ
toes tiyəyáu
bone pápət
heart -
blood tiwéə̈ʃ
town; village -
chief iatóiaŋ
warrior lotéwa
friend enlápoit
house niʃt
kettle tχlípaniʃ
bow hífoit
arrow lalχ
axe; hatchet yeŋgókinʃ
knife ʃekt
canoe; boat tχláap
shoes täítχlo
pipe iptnχlónʃ
tobacco hanʃ
sky; heaven ndjălawaía, tíŋpap
sun huéwiʃ
moon hátχltóp
star tχlítχliʃ
day ewéiə̈
night ftalp
light notawásim
darkness ʃilímtiŋk
morning tétχlpəna
evening wəχaía
spring ʃuatoluŋátntiŋ; kiátim
summer ʃqáätim
autumn təŋ
winter wit
wind húntilχp
thunder tiŋtululutéʃin
lightning ʃniktawíŋtiŋ
rain tiʃtkitχlmítiŋ
snow pói
hail puŋiós
fire tetʃ
water iʃkáiniʃ
ice tók
earth; land liŋʃ
sea yamué-iʃkaíniʃ
river luʃmi
lake fuŋʃ
valley paniákp
hill; mountain téit
island liŋtkaíli
stone ápit
salt kamtiʃímpen
iron qauqauítχliínik
tree laúik
wood hútiʃ
leaf qaisós
bark pétimi
grass tχleft; qə́ïʃt
pine laúikʃ
flesh; meat pítχli
dog náapaŋ
buffalo -
bear liméakʃ; nokoláo
wolf tχlaíu; tsóilaχs
deer aitχléwa
elk yútiŋʃ
beaver pīeká
tortoise atsík
fly tqaínʃiʃ; katχlísaŋ
mosquito píŋkii
snake waíimaʃ
bird tianíyiwa
egg lópitχl
feathers tiaqaímutχl
wings haŋ
duck əʃimtχl
pigeon súuku
fish wiaíiʃ
salmon milóqli
sturgeon -
name peʃp
affection atíŋp; tiʃktaʃewetáuŋko

AdjectivesEdit

gloss Cayuse
white tχlaktχláko
black ʃkupʃkúpu
red lakaítlakaítu
blue yotsyóts
yellow qəʃqə́ʃu
green yotsyóts
great yaúmua; yiyímu (pl.)
small etsáŋua
strong ntáloa; naantáloa
old kuiátsu
young itsáŋu
good suaíu; sasuáiu (pl.)
bad luastu; laluástu (pl.)
handsome hapútsu; suaíu
ugly huástu
alive wióko
dead úwaa
cold ʃúŋa
warm lokóia

PronounsEdit

gloss Cayuse
I íniŋ
thou nikí
he nip
we námək
ye mkímiʃ; nkímiʃ (dual)
they nípik
this qe, qă, ke
that qá, ká
all naŋináo
many (much) yíphea
who

Adverbs and othersEdit

gloss Cayuse
near piáfi
today páməŋ
yesterday iétin
tomorrow tetχlp
yes i
no téehu

NumeralsEdit

gloss Cayuse
one na
two lépli
three mátnin
four pípiŋ
five táwit
six nōiná
seven nóilip
eight nōimát
nine tanáuiaiʃímʃim
ten niŋítelp
eleven nántetχle
twelve leplin-ntétχle
twenty lépuik
thirty mátuík
one hundred niŋítalpuík
one thousand -

VerbsEdit

gloss Cayuse
to eat pitáŋa
to drink pasqunstáŋa
to run pqíntuql
to dance iókseak
to sing tuŋséaql
to sleep ʃpíʃiŋql
to speak úlipkin
to see miskaléntənt
to love ktáʃo
to kill piaíitχltiŋ
to sit ifníql; ifníkta
to stand laútsiŋ
to go wintúkstaŋa; wintúql (imp.)
to come wintúkum

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cayuse at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cayuse". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rigsby, Bruce. 1969. The Waiilatpuan Problem: More on Cayuse-Molala Relatability. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 3. 68-146.
  4. ^ Hale, Horatio (1846). Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia: C. Sherman.
  • Aoki, Haruo. (1998). A Cayuse Dictionary based on the 1829 records of Samuel Black, the 1888 records of Henry W. Henshaw and others, Manuscript. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.
  • Rigsby, Bruce. (1965). Linguistic Relations in the Southern Plateau, PhD dissertation, University of Oregon.

External linksEdit