Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is an extinct Native American language that was spoken in northwestern Louisiana.

Tenánat Hadéyas
Native toUnited States
EthnicityAdai people
Extinctlate 19th century[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3xad
Pre-contact distribution of Adai

Classification Edit

It was once proposed that there may be a connection between Adai and the nearby Caddoan languages, but this now seems unlikely.[2]

Vocabulary Edit

Adai is known only from a list of 275 words from 1804 by John Sibley.[3] The manuscript word list below has been reproduced from Grant's (1995) transcriptions.[2] (Note: Due to the poor printing in Grant (1995), the text below may not be entirely accurate and will need to be re-checked.)

Nouns Edit

gloss Adai
fire nang
water holcat
earth capăt
air gavecăt
wind solette
sky ganick
sun naleen
moon nachavat
star otat
light cahachet
darkness hachaoosto
day nestack
night arestenet
cold hastalza
smoke sewot
cloud sowie
fog sawiatto
rain ganic
hail hiechuck
ice hăhing
frost hatsuck
dew helgat
rainbow cochakee
thunder nacotrine
lightning newiche
yesterday woncha
today naleaton
tomorrow ansteete
a day nallenachus
a month ponachus
a year ovetsnachus
spring hoasang
summer weetsuck
autumn hăstal neetsoock
winter henawnck
a man haasing
a woman quaechuke
a boy tallahache
a girl quoatwistuck
a child tallahaning
father kewanick
mother amanie
brother gasing
sister nasing
husband hasekino
wife quochekino
son tallehennic
daughter quolasinic
the body stieng
the head tochae
the hair catatuck
the beard tosocat
the faced annack
an eye analca
the nose wecoocat
the cheek ampachochuk
chin teaskuck
lip wacachuck
mouth wacatcholak
tooth awat
tongue tenanat
ear calat
neck hautoleat
arm walcat
wrist sickolat
hand secut
finger okinsin
belly noeyack
back sahaocat
side soleot
bubby acut
nipple actonè
thigh otack
leg ahasuck
foot nocal
toe notocat
skin polac
nails sicksapasca
bone wahacut
blood pchack
life waaton
death oeying
food capisting
meat kosing
fat taanack
lean ahcanick
bread okhapin
Indian corn ocasuck
milk haplecut
egg oalaken
a house coochut
buffalo haapan
elk wakhanissie
deer wakhine
bear solang
wolf akalasco
panther hieanne
wildcat ocashine
polecat nowat
fox yanostan
beaver culawa
raccoon angalasto
opossum wasehat
hare awaine
squirrel onack
flying squirrel paachan
mole ainolack
a bird washang
an eagle ochuck
a hawk tiang
owl onack
turkey owachuck
swan teotoka
wild goose nicknicka
duck ahuck
turkey buzzard aspachuack
raven anak
crow antocock (anlocock)
blackbird tehalhuck
crane cuhat
pigeon anchocat
pheasant newatocat
partridge newan
mockingbird waccocochin
redbird yatochosto
snake hostuck
lizard annuila
butterfly washep
fly ganetso
fish aesut
frog halonloka (halontoka)
gold selhack
silver stawa
copper holnasak
a stone ekseka
wood mang
gum wastocha
a mountain tolola
hill newanah
valley steluck
sea aatack
lake aatalkon
pond holcata
river yawichat
creek yacuck
a spring holcastalga
grass hasack
a tree tanack
pine tanquechat
cedar nooktanuck
sycamore heohè
ash toltenna
elm napstein
beech hancaptin
birch caoluck
maple wieack
oak pantana
chestnut hangan
hickory tampchasuck
walnut nahattonie
locust nohat
mulberry etalenno
a vine colac
tobacco hackhuck
joy olaha
sorrow cachtiek

Adjectives Edit

gloss Adai
white testaga
black hatona
green naetsa
blue ostonga
yellow neetsack
red pechasat
good awiste
bad ashawè
large tocat
small enechet
high alonie
low hatishtinet
broad walack
narrow cooatechuck
old hansnala
young tallahasin
new colisco
hard toosca
soft yolaca
sweet piscacha
sour chacuck
bitter yaweiling
hot welchuck
cold hostalga
dry tollooso
wet walloco
strong olack
weak okesack
pretty alwoinie
ugly chawack
sick kistana
brave hackhing
cowardly tewani
wise acknossese
foolish achiskiet

Pronouns Edit

gloss Adai
I hicatuck
you innaluak
he nassicon
she estuck
they ostachan
this attack
that natack

Verbs Edit

gloss Adai
to eat okeach
to drink hann
to sleep nican
to laugh heike
to cry newaskè
to sing havetoo
to whistle yastoo
to smell nescon
to hear henaasack
to see watuck
to speak cocheek
to walk enacoot
to run hehi
to stand hintoco
to sit hetachelsa
to lie down connie
to smoke a pipe hatchhunk
to love cosetan
to hate hieska
to strike ecanhack
to kill yoeick
to dance nasan
to jump yestook
to fall yeahtack
to break cheeceek (cheereek?)
to bend pasquoque

Numerals Edit

gloss Adai
1 nancas
2 nass
3 colle
4 tacache
5 seppacan
6 pacanancus
7 pacaness
8 pacalcon
9 sickinish
10 neusne
11 cooscosnawa
12 coawaconnos
13 coescoescola
14 coescoestacahce
15 coescoesspacanas
16 coescoespacana
17 coescoespalcol
18 coescoespaciness
19 coescoessickiness
20 neusnieanagas
20 coescoesnagas
30 coescoesnass
40 coescoescola
50 coescoestathata
60 coescoesipagan
70 coescosepanas
80 coescoeshana
90 coescoespalcola
100 coescoessikiness
200 neusnicola
300 neusnicol
400 coscosnagas
500 coscosnassa
600 coescoescolla
700 coescoestacataha
800 coescoesipacanis
900 coescoespacanis
1000 quosquospanis

Others Edit

gloss Adai
yes cola
no ieska

References Edit

  1. ^ Adai at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ a b Grant, Anthony P. 1995. John Sibley's Adai vocabulary: a contribution to Caddoan Lexicography? Paper presented at 1995 Siouan-Caddoan Conference, Albuquerque. 15pp. (Contains the entire vocabulary of Adai from MS in American Philosophical Soc.)
  3. ^ Sibley, John. 1804. A vocabulary of the Adaye or Adaize Indians. Manuscript. (See also Mithridates Vol. 3, part 3., p. 278.)
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509427-5
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.

External links Edit