Ijoid languages

Ijoid is a proposed but undemonstrated group of languages linking the Ijaw languages (Ịjọ) with the endangered Defaka language. The similarities, however, may be due to Ijaw influence on Defaka.[2]

Ijoid
Geographic
distribution
Southern Nigeria
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo?
Subdivisions
Glottologijoi1239[1]

The Ijoid, or perhaps just Ijaw, languages form a divergent branch of the Niger–Congo family and are noted for their subject–object–verb basic word order, which is otherwise an unusual feature in Niger–Congo, shared only by such distant branches as Mande and Dogon. Like Mande and Dogon, Ijoid lacks even traces of the noun class system considered characteristic of Niger–Congo, and so might have split early from that family. Linguist Gerrit Dimmendaal doubts its inclusion in Niger–Congo altogether and considers the Ijaw/Ijoid languages to be an independent family.[3][4]

Comparative vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary for Proto-Ijaw, Kalabari, and Defaka:

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Ijaw[5] *tɔrɪ³ *ɓeri¹ *nḭnḭ³ *aka² *ɪ̰ɓɛ̰lɛʊ² *ɓɪpɪ² *asɪ̰ɪ̰¹ *ṵgbəu² *tɛ̰ɪ̰² *ɓed̰i¹ *fɪɪ² *ɪrɛ²
Kalabari[6] tɔ́rʊ̄ ɓeri nínī áká ɓɛ́lɛ́ ɓɪ́ɓɪ́ ímgbe ɔmbɪ-yé, pulo sɪ́n minji fɪ́ ɛ́rɛ́
Defaka[6] ɔ́yɔ ɓasi níni nɪan mɛndʊɔ ɓɪ́ɪ́ ḿbua asi ibo tiin mbɪ́á éé ɪ́tá

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[7]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Defaka Defaka ɡbérí mààmà táátó nɛ́ì túúnɔ̀ màànɡò túààmà (5 + 2) ? túàtùà (5 + 3) ? túùnèì (5 + 4) ? wóì
Ijo, East, Northeastern Nkoroo ɡbɔ́rí màmì tárú nɛ̃́ĩ́ sɔ́nɔ́ sóníá sɔ́nɔ́mà nínì ísíéní ójí
Ijo, East, Northeastern, Eastern Ibani ŋ̀ɡɪ̀ɛ́ m̀mɛ̀ɛ́ tɛ́rɛ́ íní sɔ́nɔ́ sóníɛ́ sɔ́nɔ́mà ínínè éséníé àtìé / ójí
Ijo, East, Northeastern, Eastern Okrika (Kalabari) ŋ̀ɡèi màɪ̃ tɛrɛ ineĩ sɔnɔ sonio sɔnɔmɛ̀ ninè esenie oji, àtèi
Ijo, West Ijo Izon (Ijaw/Ijo) (1) kẹnị́ mamụ́ tǎrụ nóín sọ́nrọ́n =sɔ̃́rɔ̃́ ? sǒndie sọ́nọ́ma nínɡíni isé óí
Ijo, West Ijo Izon (Ijaw/Ijo) (2) kẹnị́ mamụ́ tǎrụ nóín sọ́nrọ́n =sɔ̃́rɔ̃́ ? sǒndie sọ́nọ́ma nínɡíni isé óí
Ijo, West Ijo Izon (Ijaw/Ijo) (3) kẹnị́ maamụ́ tǎarụ nóín sọ́nrọ́n =sɔ̃́rɔ̃́ ? sǒndie sọ́nọ́ma níníni or nínɡíni isé oyi/ óí
Ijo, West, Inland Ijo Okordia kɛ̀nɪ maamʊ taarʊ nii sɔ̃ɔ̃rɔ̃ sɔ̃zie / sɔ̃zɪ sɔnɔmà màà fùi sioni, eji karama (10 - 1) eji

BibliographyEdit

  • Jenewari, Charles E. W. (1989) 'Ijoid'. In Bendor-Samuel, John and Hartell, Rhonda L. (eds.), The Niger–Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa's largest language family, 105-118. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  • Williamson, Kay. 1969. 'Igbo' and 'Ịjọ', chapters 7 and 8 in: Twelve Nigerian Languages, ed. by E. Dunstan. Longmans.
  • Williamson, Kay. 1971. The Benue–Congo languages and Ịjọ. In: Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 7, series ed. by T. A. Sebeok, 245-306.
  • Williamson, Kay. 1988. Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of the Niger Delta. In: The Prehistory of the Niger Delta, ed. by E.J. Alagoa and others. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Williamson, Kay. 1998. Defaka revisited. The multi-disciplinary approach to African history, edited by Nkparom C. Ejituwu, Chapter 9, 151-183. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.
  • Williamson, Kay. 2004. The language situation in the Niger Delta. Chapter 2 in: The development of Ịzọn language, edited by Martha L. Akpana, 9-13.
  • Williamson, Kay & Blench, Roger (2000) 'Niger–Congo', in Heine, Bernd and Nurse, Derek (eds) African Languages: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, pp. 11–42.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ijoid". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Roger Blench, Niger-Congo: an alternative view
  3. ^ Dimmendaal, Gerrit Jan (2011-01-01). Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-9027211781.
  4. ^ Babaev, Kirill. "Joseph Greenberg and the Current State of Niger-Congo".
  5. ^ Blench, Roger M. and Kay Williamson. 2007. Comparative Ijoid Word List. Unpublished Manuscript.
  6. ^ a b Jenewari, Charles E. W. 1983. Defaka: Ijo's closest relative. (Delta Series, 2.) University of Port Harcourt Press. ISBN 978-2321-39-7
  7. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

External linksEdit