Central Sudanic languages

Central Sudanic is a family of about sixty languages that have been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family. Central Sudanic languages are spoken in the Central African Republic, Chad, South Sudan, Uganda, Congo (DRC) and Cameroon. They include the pygmy languages Efé and Asoa.

Central Sudanic
Geographic
distribution
CAR, Sudan, Chad, South Sudan, Uganda, Congo (DRC), Cameroon
Linguistic classificationNilo-Saharan?
  • Central Sudanic – Kadu ?
    • Central Sudanic
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5csu
Glottologcent2225[1]
Central Sudanic Languages.png
Central Sudanic languages in Africa

Blench (2011) suggests that Central Sudanic influenced the development of the noun-class system characteristic of the Niger–Congo languages.

ClassificationEdit

Half a dozen groups of Central Sudanic languages are generally accepted as valid. They are customarily divided into East and West branches.

Starostin (2016)Edit

Starostin (2016)[2] finds support for Eastern Central Sudanic (Lendu, Mangbetu, Lugbara, etc., concentrated in the northeast corner of DR Congo) but not for the western division, which would include Bongo–Bagirmi and Kresh scattered across Chad, the CAR, and South Sudan.

Central Sudanic 
 Eastern 
(Lendu–Mangbetu) 

Mangbetu (2–3)

Mangbutu–Lese (5)

Lendu (2–3)

Moru–Madi (10)

Bongo–Bagirmi (40 languages)

 Birri–Kresh 

Birri (1)

Kresh (2)

Starostin (2011) notes that the poorly attested language Mimi of Decorse is suggestive of Central Sudanic, though he provisionally treats it as an isolate. Boyeldieu (2010) states that the inclusion of Kresh has yet to be demonstrated, but Starostin (2016) finds good support, with Birri being its closest relative.

Bender (1992)Edit

Lionel Bender (1992) classifies the Central Sudanic languages as follows, with Central Sudanic bifurcating into a Peripheral branch and a Central branch.[3]

Central Sudanic

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[4]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Lendu Lendu ɗì / di (by Rev. N.M. Mpanzu) arɔ / aro ɡ͡bɔ / ɡbo θɔ / tho mbə / mbu aza / aza àrʊ̀-ɡ͡bɔ / aruɡbo àrʊ̀ / aru ɗrɛ-ði / dredhi ɗrɛ / dree
Lendu Ngiti aɪdí ɔyɔ ɪ̀ɓʊ ɪ̀fɔ imbo aza àrʊ̀ɓʊ̀ àrʊ̀ àrʊ̀ɡyèɪdí ɪdrɛ
Mangbetu Mangbetu kana sóóndrwé / sóóndrú sɔ́ta sɔ́sʉa tɔ́zɛrɛna / sɔ́zɛrɛna tɛ́nɡwɛkana / ɛ́tɛana tónórwe / tónóru bɔɡɨna téndeléɡí tɛ́ɛ́vhɛ́
Mangbutu-Efe Efe édí ɛ̀ɡbɛ̄ tsínà tsītɔ̀ tsībú tsínà tsínà (3 + 3) tsínà tsītɔ̀ (3 + 4) tsītɔ̀ tsītɔ̀ (4 + 4) tsītɔ̀ tsībú (4 + 5) ádíbȍsí
Mangbutu-Efe Mvuba eɗì àkpe ɛ̀tsɪrà ɛ̀tsɪrɔ̀ ɛ̀tsɪᵐbú màⁿzà làlòɗu làlɔ̀ àᵐbʊ̀tsɪhʊwa àᵐʊ̀tsí
Moru-Madi Moru àlʊ̄ nd͡ʒī nd͡ʒī drì àlʊ̄ (5+ 1) nd͡ʒī drì rì (5+ 2) nd͡ʒī drì nā (5+ 3) nd͡ʒī drì sū (5+ 4) ɓùtè
Moru-Madi, Central Avokaya àlō njī njī-kázíyá njī-drì-là-rì (5 + 2) njī-drì-là-nā (5 + 3) njī-drì-là-sū (5 + 4) mūdrí (hands joined)
Moru-Madi, Central Kaliko (Keliko) àlō ìrì tàu ázyá ázîrí àrò órōmè mūdrí (hands joined)
Moru-Madi, Central Logo àlo na su nzi kází nzi-drì-rì (5 + 2) nzi-drì-na (5 + 3) nzi-drì-su (5 + 4) mudrí (hands joined)
Moru-Madi, Central Lugbara (Lugbarati) àlʊ̄ ìrɪ̀ tòwɪ́ ázɪ́á ázɪ́ìrɪ̀ àrò óròmɪ̀ mōdrɪ́
Moru-Madi, Central Omi (Omiti) àlō ìrɪ̀ tòwú ázɪ́á ázɪ́ɪ̀rɪ̀ àrò órōmɪ̀ mūdrɪ́
Moru-Madi, Southern Ma'di (1) àlʊ̄ (è)rì (ī)nā (ī)sū tòú ázɨ́á tûdērì àrɔ̀ drítʃàlʊ̄ mūdrí
Moru-Madi, Southern Ma'di (2) àlʊ̄ èrì ~ rì ìnā ~ nā ìsū ~ sū tòú ázɨ́á tûdērì àrɔ̀ drítʃàlʊ̄ mūdrí
Moru-Madi, Southern Olu'bo àlʊ̄ tòú ázɨ́á tûdērì àrɔ̀ tɔ́rɔ̄mɛ̀ mūdúrí
Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka Baka ké̘ɗò ɡ͡bʀ͡ʙɛ̀ ɔ̀tà ɛ̀sɔ̀ ìɲì ìɲi dɔ̀à kéɽí (5, on it 1) ìɲi dɔ̀à ɡ͡bʀ͡ʙɛ̀ (5, on it 2) ìɲi dɔ̀à ɔ̀tà (5, on it 3) ìɲi dɔ̀à ɛ̀sɔ̀ (5, on it 4) sɔ̀kɔ́
Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo Bongo kɔ̀tʊ́ ŋɡɔ̀r mʊ̀tːà ʔɛ́w múì dɔ̀kɔtʊ́ (5 + 1) dɔ́ŋɡɔr (5 + 2) dɔ̀mʊ́tːà (5 + 3) dɔ̀mʔɛ́w (5 + 4) kɪ̀ː
Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli Jur Mödö kɔ̀tɔ́ rḯyö́ mòtá sòwɔ́ mùyí̈ mòdɔ́ɔ́kɔ̀tɔ́ (5 + 1) mòdɔ́mòrḯyö́ (5 + 2) mòdɔ́ɔ́mòtá (5 + 3) mòdɔ́mòsòwɔ́ (5 + 4) ɓùtë́
Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara Yulu kȁal(ə̏) jōoy(ə̄) mȍotȁ ȕsȍ mȕu mȉtə̏ kȁal(ə̏) {? / one} mȉtə̏ jōoy(ə̄) {? / two} mȉtə̏ mȍotȁ {? / three} mȉtə̏ ȕsȍ ~ mȉȕsȍ {? / four} kpúu
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Bagirmi (Bʼarma) kɛ́ɗɛ̀ sapi mtá mìká tʃílí marta doso dòk kemɛ́
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Kenga kàlāŋ dìó mɔ̀tɔ́ sɔ̄ː mīː mɛ̀cɛ́ cīlí mārtá jɛ́rnàŋ sīk
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Naba (Bilala) fèné /pènè rìyó mɔ̀tɔ́ / mátà sɔ́ móy míʃà / máʃà sī̄lí rātá rɔ̄fó
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Bébot káre ɟó mɨ̀té sɔ́ː mḭ́ː mɛ̰hɛ sɨrí ɟiɟó (10 -2) ɟikáre (10 -1) dɔ̀ɡɨ
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Bedjond kárē jōó mə̀tá sɔ́ mêhḛ́ sīrí jī jōó (10 -2) jī kárē (10 -1) dɔ̀ɡə̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Gulay kérē jōó mùtœ́ sɔ́ mèhé̯ sìrí sɔ́sɔ́ (4 + 4) jī kérē (10 - 1) dɔ̀ɡə̀ / kùtə̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Kaba (Kabba) (1) kaára jooà moètaà sóà mïù mïìsaàn sirïù jijooà (4 + 4) jikaàra (10 - 1) dóèkuè
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Kaba (Kabba) (2) káɾā dʒōó mòtá sɔ́ mĩ́ mĩ̀sã́n sīɾí dʒīdʒōó (4 + 4) dʒīkáɾā (10 - 1) dɔ̀kù
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Mango kárē jōó mɨ̀tə́ sɔ́ mèhẽ́ sīrí jī̄-nàɲ-jōó (10 - 2) jī̄-nàɲ-kárē (10 - 1) dɔ̀ɡɨ̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Mbay kə́rā jōó mə̀tá sɔ̄ɔ́ mḭ̄́ḭ kə́-bɔ̀y-dètə́ tènə̀-mə̀tá (5 + 1) jī-jōó (10 - 2) jī-kə́rā (10 - 1) kə̀lá
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Ngam kóɡīí dīyó mə̀tá sɔ́ mêhḛ́ sīrí sɔ́sɔ́ (4 + 4) ndōhó kùtə̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Ngambay (Sara Ngambai) kàrā jōó mùndá sɔ́ mìsã́ / màhã́ sīrí jī̄-này-jōó (10 - 2) jī̄-này-kárā (10 - 1) dɔ̀ɡə̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Sar (Sara) kóɡīí jōó mə̀tá sɔ́ mèhé̯ sìrí sɔ́sɔ́ (4 + 4) ndōkó kùtə̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Kaba Deme ɗíyá mùtɔ́ sɔ̀ɔ́ mìí mìi kàlí (5 + 1) mìí já jó (5 + 2) sàlānjā dɔ̀ kám dɔ̀ɡɔ̀ / kùtù
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Kaba Na kárē / hàré jōó mùtá sɔ̀ɔ́ mìí màhá mìtə́kə́jə́ sàlīnjā dàhábú dɔ̀ɡɔ̀
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale Lutos ɗóí zíò mútà mí zò ɗóí (5 + 1) kál m͡bákàɗɛ̀ (8 - 1) m͡bákàɗɛ́ kál ɓú (10 - 1) ɓú
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale Vale kīɗá díyò mùtá sɔ́ míkìdí kīɗá (5 + 1) míkìdí díyò (5 + 1) ɗɔ̄ɗɔ̄sɔ́ (2 x 4) ?? kàmnànɡà kīɗá (10 - 1) ɓúfú
Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar Sinyar kàllà róò mùʈʈà ùssà mòy mìccà mòorsò màartà mànɖéy ʈìyà
Kresh Kresh (Gbaya) ɓälã rǒmó tötö sösö sálã sálã lẽmbẽ ɓälã (5 + 1) sálã lẽmbẽ rǒmó (5 + 2) sálã lẽmbẽ tötö (5 + 3) sálã lẽmbẽ sösö (5 + 4) kpú

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Sudanic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ George Starostin (2016) The Nilo-Saharan hypothesis tested through lexicostatistics: current state of affairs
  3. ^ Bender, Lionel M. 1992. "Central Sudanic segmental and lexical reconstruction." Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 29: 5-61.
  4. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Nilo-Saharan Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit