|Republic of the Sudan|
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān (Arabic)
Motto: النصر لنا (Arabic)
"Victory is ours"
Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green.
and largest city
|Government||One-party state under an authoritarian dictatorship (de facto)|
|Bakri Hassan Saleh|
|Bakri Hassan Saleh|
|Hassabu Mohamed Abdalrahman|
|Council of States|
|1 January 1956|
|9 January 2005|
• Secession of South Sudan
|9 July 2011|
|1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi) (15th)|
• 2016 estimate
• 2008 census
|30,894,000 (disputed) |
|21.3/km2 (55.2/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
low · 165th
|Currency||Sudanese pound (SDG)|
|Time zone||CAT (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||SD|
|Internet TLD||.sd, سودان.|
The Sudan or Sudan (US: // ( listen), UK: /
The history of Sudan goes back to Antiquity, when the Meroitic-speaking Kingdom of Kush controlled northern and central Sudan and, for nearly a century, even Egypt. After its fall in the mid 4th century AD the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia. While the Nubians managed to defeat the invading Rashidun Caliphate in 642 and 652 Muslim Arabs still began to settle in Sudan: first at the Sudanese Red Sea coast and the adjacent Eastern Desert and finally, in the 14th and 15th century, in the Nile Valley. After 1365 Makuria had largely collapsed, while Alodia was conquered in c. 1500 by either Arabs or the African Funj.
Afterwards central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north. Christianity got replaced by Sufi Islam, while the Nubians living upstream of Al Dabbah and in Kordofan were also Arabized; two processes largely completed by the 19th century. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman. This state lasted until 1899, when it was destroyed by the British Empire. Afterwards Sudan was governed by the Anglo-Egyptian condominium.
The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiri, Sudan instituted fundamentalist Islamic law in 1983. This exacerbated the rift between the Arab north, the seat of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the south. Differences in language, religion, ethnicity and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), eventually concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became independent in 2011. Since 2011 Sudan's government is engaged in a war with the Sudan Revolutionary Front. Human rights violations, religious persecution and allegations that Sudan had been a safe haven for terrorists isolated the country from most of the international community. In 1995, the United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against it.
The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.
Prehistoric Sudan (before c. 800 BC)Edit
By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the next centuries become the Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
Kingdom of Kush (c. 800 BC–350 AD)Edit
The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and the Nile River. It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase.
After King Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.[page needed] The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria. Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony; however, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain Egypt. Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal (668 – c. 627 BC) sent a large army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani, ending all hopes of a revival of the Nubian Empire.
During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë. In ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia (a term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the Nubians). The civilization of Kush was among the first in the world to use iron smelting technology. The Nubian kingdom at Meroë persisted until the fourth century AD. After the collapse of the Kushite empire several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia.
Medieval Nubian kingdoms (c. 350–1500)Edit
On the turn of the fifth century, the Blemmyes established a short-lived state in Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia, probably centered around Talmis (Kalabsha), but before 450 they were already driven out of the Nile Valley by the Nobatians. The latter eventually founded a kingdom on their own, Nobatia. By the 6th century there were in total three Nubian kingdoms: Nobatia in the north, which had its capital at Pachoras (Faras); the central kingdom, Makuria centred at Tungul (Old Dongola), about 13 kilometres (8 miles) south of modern Dongola; and Alodia, in the heartland of old Kushitic kingdom, which had its capital at Soba (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum). Still in the sixth century they converted to Christianity. In the seventh century, probably at some point between 628 and 642, Nobatia was incorporated into Makuria.
In 639 the Muslim Arabs of the Rashidun Caliphate invaded and conquered Byzantine Egypt. In 641 or 642 and again in 652 they invaded Nubia but were repelled, making the Nubians one of the few who managed to defeat the Arabs during the Islamic expansion. Afterwards the Makurian king and the Arabs agreed on a unique non-aggression pact that also included an annual exchange of gifts, thus acknowledging Makuria's independence. While the Arabs failed to conquer Nubia they began to settle east of the Nile, where they eventually founded several port towns and intermarried with the local Beja.
From the mid 8th-mid 11th century Christian Nubia went through its Golden Age, when its political power and cultural development peaked. In 747 Makuria invaded Egypt, which at this time belonged to the declining Umayyads, and it did so again in the early 960s, when it pushed as far north as Akhmim. Makuria maintained close dynastic ties with Alodia, perhaps resulting in the temporary unification of the two kingdoms into one state. The culture of the Medieval Nubians has been described as "Afro-Byzantine", with the significance of the "African" component increasing over time. The state organization was extremely centralized, being based on the Byzantine bureaucracy of the 6th and 7th centuries. Arts flourished in the form of pottery paintings and especially wall paintings. The Nubians developed an own alphabet for their language, Old Nobiin, basing it on the Coptic alphabet, while also utilizing Greek, Coptic and Arabic. Women enjoyed high social status: they had access to education, could own, buy and sell land and often used their wealth to endow churches and church paintings. Even the royal succession was matrilineal, with the son of the king's sister being the rightful heir.
Since the late 11th/12th century, Makuria's capital Dongola was in decline, and Alodia's capital declined in the 12th century as well. In the 14th (the earliest recorded migration from Egypt to the Sudanese Nile Valley dates to 1324) and 15th century Bedouin tribes overran most of Sudan, migrating to the Butana, the Gezira, Kordofan and Darfur. In 1365 a civil war forced the Makurian court to flee to Gebel Adda in Lower Nubia, while Dongola was destroyed and left to the Arabs. Afterwards Makuria continued to exist only as a petty kingdom. The last known Makurian king was Joel, who is attested for the years 1463 and 1484 and under whom Makuria probably witnessed a brief renaissance. After his death the kingdom probably collapsed. To the south, the kingdom of Alodia fell to either the Arabs or the Funj, an African people originating from the south. Datings range from the 9th century after the Hijra (c. 1396–1494), the late 15th century, 1504 to 1509. An alodian rump state might have survived in the form of the kingdom of Fazughli, lasting until 1685.
Islamic kingdoms of Sennar and Darfur (c. 1500–1821)Edit
During the 16th century, the Funj people under Amara Dunqus, appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alodia, establishing as-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue Sultanate), also called Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire. By the mid-16th century, Sennar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of succession arguments and coups within the royal family.
In the west rose a new kingdom, the sultanate of Darfur, which had succeeded the Tunjur kingdom. At its peak in the late 18th and early 19th century it stretched as far east as the western banks of the Nile.
In 1820, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII. Darfur's Kordofan province was conquered in 1821, and Darfur itself was incorporated in 1874.
Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan (1821–1899)Edit
In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, had invaded and conquered northern Sudan. Although technically the Vali of Egypt under the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali styled himself as Khedive of a virtually independent Egypt. Seeking to add Sudan to his domains, he sent his third son Ismail (not to be confused with Isma'il Pasha mentioned later) to conquer the country, and subsequently incorporate it into Egypt. This policy was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim Pasha's son, Isma'il, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered.
The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the Sudanese infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard to irrigation and cotton production. In 1879, the Great Powers forced the removal of Ismail and established his son Tewfik Pasha in his place. Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the ‘Urabi Revolt, which threatened the Khedive's survival. Tewfik appealed for help to the British, who subsequently occupied Egypt in 1882. Sudan was left in the hands of the Khedivial government, and the mismanagement and corruption of its officials.
During the Khedivial period, dissent had spread due to harsh taxes imposed on most activities. Taxation on irrigation wells and farming lands were so high most farmers abandoned their farms and livestock. During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade had an adverse impact on the economy of northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, the Mahdi (Guided One), offered to the ansars (his followers) and those who surrendered to him a choice between adopting Islam or being killed. The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed traditional Sharia Islamic laws.
From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of Khartoum in January 1885, Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan, known as the Turkiyah. Muhammad Ahmad died on 22 June 1885, a mere six months after the conquest of Khartoum. After a power struggle amongst his deputies, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of the Baggara of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. After consolidating his power, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa (successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed Ansar (who were usually Baqqara) as emirs over each of the several provinces.
Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah period, largely because of the Khalifa's brutal methods to extend his rule throughout the country. In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded Ethiopia, penetrating as far as Gondar. In March 1889, king Yohannes IV of Ethiopia marched on Metemma; however, after Yohannes fell in battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the Khalifa's general, attempted an invasion of Egypt in 1889, but British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. The failure of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility. The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and in 1893, the Italians repelled an Ansar attack at Agordat (in Eritrea) and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia.
In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but in actuality treating the country as a British colony. By the early 1890s, British, French and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile headwaters. Britain feared that the other powers would take advantage of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to Egypt. Apart from these political considerations, Britain wanted to establish control over the Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam at Aswan. Herbert Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdist Sudan from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a decisive victory in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898.
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)Edit
In 1899, Britain and Egypt reached an agreement under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent. In reality Sudan was effectively administered as a Crown colony. The British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali Pasha, of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries.
Under the Delimitation, Sudan's border with Abyssinia was contested by raiding tribesmen trading slaves, breaching boundaries of law. In 1905 Local chieftain Sultan Yambio reluctant to the end gave up the struggle with British forces that had occupied the Kurdofan region, finally ending the lawlessness. The continued British administration of Sudan fuelled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. With a formal end to Ottoman rule in 1914, Sir Reginald Wingate was sent that December to occupy Sudan as the new Military Governor. Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, as was his brother and successor, Fuad I. They continued upon their insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese state even when the Sultanate of Egypt was retitled as the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, but it was Sa'd Zaghlul who continued to be frustrated in the ambitions until his death in 1927.
From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north and south. The assassination of a Governor-General of Khartoum in Cairo was the causative factor; it brought demands of the newly elected Wafd government from colonial forces. A permanent establishment of two battalions in Khartoum was renamed the Sudan Defence Force acting as under the government, replacing the former garrison of Egyptian army soldiers, saw action afterwards during the Wal Wal Incident. The Wafdist parliamentary majority had rejected Sarwat Pasha's accommodation plan with Austen Chamberlain in London; yet Cairo still needed the money. The Sudan Government's revenue had reached a peak in 1928 at £6.6 million, thereafter the Wafdist disruptions, and Italian borders incursions from Somaliland, London decided to reduce expenditure during the Great Depression. Cotton and Gum exports were dwarfed by the necessity to import almost everything from Britain leading to a balance of payments deficit at Khartoum.
In July 1936 the Liberal Constitutional leader, Muhammed Mahmoud was persuaded to bring Wafd delegates to London to sign the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, "the beginning of a new stage in Anglo-Egyptian relations", wrote Anthony Eden. The British Army was allowed to return to the Sudan to protect the Canal Zone. They were able to find training facilities; and the RAF was free to fly over Egyptian territory. It did not however resolve the problem of Sudan: the Sudanese Intelligentsia agitated for a return to metropolitan rule, conspiring with Germany's agents.
Mussolini made it clear that he could not invade Abyssinia without first conquering Egypt and the Sudan; they intended unification of Libya with Italian East Africa. The British Imperial General Staff prepared for a military defence of the region, which was lamentably thin on the ground. The British ambassador blocked Italian attempts to secure a Non-Aggression Treaty with Egypt-Sudan. But Mahmoud was a supporter of the Mufti of Jerusalem; the region was caught between the Empire's efforts to save the Jews, and moderate Arab calls to halt migration.
The Sudanese Government was directly involved militarily in the East African Campaign. Formed in 1925, the Sudan Defence Force played an active part in responding to incursions early in World War Two. Italian troops occupied Kassala and other border areas from Italian Somaliland during 1940. In 1942, the SDF also played a part in the invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. The last British governor-general was Robert George Howe.
The Egyptian revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese, and later Gamal Abdel Nasser, believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt to officially abandon its claims of sovereignty. In addition Nasser knew it would be difficult for Egypt to govern an impoverished Sudan after its independence. The British on the other hand continued their political and financial support for the Mahdist successor, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, whom it was believed would resist Egyptian pressure for Sudanese independence. Rahman was capable of this, but his regime was plagued by political ineptitude, which garnered a colossal loss of support in northern and central Sudan. Both Egypt and Britain sensed a great instability fomenting, and thus opted to allow both Sudanese regions, north and south to have a free vote on whether they wished independence or a British withdrawal.
This section is missing information about the history of Sudan between 1956 and 1969 and between 1977 and 1989.(January 2016)
A polling process was carried out resulting in composition of a democratic parliament and Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government. On 1 January 1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the Egyptian and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag, composed of green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place by the prime minister Ismail al-Azhari.
Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d'état on 25 May 1969. The coup leader, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry, became prime minister, and the new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties. Disputes between Marxist and non-Marxist elements within the ruling military coalition resulted in a briefly successful coup in July 1971, led by the Sudanese Communist Party. Several days later, anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power. In 1972, the Addis Ababa Agreement led to a cessation of the north-south civil war and a degree of self-rule. This led to ten years hiatus in the civil war but less happily an end to American investment in the Jonglei Canal project. This had been considered absolutely essential to irrigate the Upper Nile region and to prevent an environmental catastrophe and wide-scale famine among the local tribes, most especially the Dinka. In the civil war that followed their homeland was raided looted, pillaged and burned. Many of the tribe were murdered in a bloody civil war that raged for over 20 years.
Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly dedicated to internal consumption. In 1972, the Sudanese government became more pro-Western, and made plans to export food and cash crops. However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing economic problems for Sudan. At the same time, debt servicing costs, from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. In 1978, the IMF negotiated a Structural Adjustment Program with the government. This further promoted the mechanized export agriculture sector. This caused great hardship for the pastoralists of Sudan (See Nuba Peoples). In 1976, the Ansars had mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt. But in July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq al-Mahdi, opening the way for a possible reconciliation. Hundreds of political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was announced for all oppositionists.
On 30 June 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military coup. The new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level. Later al-Bashir carried out purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent newspapers, and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists. On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself "President" and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. The executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by al-Bashir.
In the 1996 general election he was the only candidate by law to run for election. Sudan became a one-party state under the National Congress Party (NCP). During the 1990s, Hassan al-Turabi, then Speaker of the National Assembly, reached out to Islamic fundamentalist groups, invited Osama bin Laden to the country. The United States subsequently listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism. The U.S. bombed Sudan in 1998, targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory. Al-Turabi's influence began to wane, others in favour of more pragmatic leadership tried to change Sudan's international isolation. The country worked to appease its critics by expelling members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and encouraging bin Laden to leave.
Before the 2000 presidential election, al-Turabi introduced a bill to reduce the President's powers, prompting al-Bashir to order a dissolution and declare a state of emergency. When al-Turabi urged a boycott of the President's re-election campaign signing agreement with Sudan People's Liberation Army, al-Bashir suspected they were plotting to overthrow the government. Hassan al-Turabi was jailed later the same year.
In February 2003, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs, precipitating the War in Darfur. The conflict has since been described as a genocide, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague has issued two arrest warrants for al-Bashir. Arabic-speaking nomadic militias known as the Janjaweed stand accused of many atrocities.
On 9 January 2005, the government signed the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) with the objective of ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation. The peace agreement was a prerequisite to the 2011 referendum: the result was a unanimous vote in favour of secession of South Sudan; the region of Abyei will hold its own referendum at a future date.
The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan. After the peace agreement, their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions. A peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front was signed on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. On 5 May 2006, the Darfur Peace Agreement was signed, aiming at ending the three-year-long conflict. The Chad–Sudan Conflict (2005–2007) had erupted after the Battle of Adré triggered a declaration of war by Chad. The leaders of Sudan and Chad signed an agreement in Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the Darfur conflict spilling along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) border.
In July 2007 the country was hit by devastating floods, with over 400,000 people being directly affected. Since 2009, a series of ongoing conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in Sudan and South Sudan have caused a large number of civilian casualties.
Partition and rehabilitationEdit
The Sudan internal conflict in the early 2010s between the Army of Sudan and the Sudan Revolutionary Front started as a dispute over the oil-rich region of Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese independence, though it is also related to civil war in Darfur that is nominally resolved.
On January 13, 2017, President Barack Obama signed an Executive Order that lifted many sanctions placed against Sudan and assets of its government held abroad. On October 6, 2017, President Donald Trump lifted most of the remaining sanctions against the country and its petroleum, export-import, and property industries.
Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea. It has land borders with Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Chad, and Libya. With an area of 1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi), it is the third largest country on the continent (after Algeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the sixteenth largest in the world.
Sudan lies between latitudes 8° and 23°N. The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges. In the west the Deriba Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the Marrah Mountains, is the highest point in Sudan. In the east are the Red Sea Hills.
The Blue and White Nile rivers meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. The Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between Sennar and Khartoum. The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries.
There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border.
Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc.
The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. The central and the northern part have extremely dry desert areas such as the Nubian Desert to the northeast and the Bayuda Desert to the east; in the south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan's rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south.
The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops. The sunshine duration is very high all over the country but especially in deserts where it could soar to over 4,000 h per year.
Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.
The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.
Government and politicsEdit
Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudan People's Armed Forces in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the bicameral parliament—the National Legislature, with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber). The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. It is part of the Northern Africa grouping of the UN geoscheme.
According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament and is divided between two chambers—the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats, and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms. Despite his international arrest warrant, al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in twenty-four years. In the build-up to the vote, Sudanese pro-democracy activists say they faced intimidation by the government and the International Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had gerrymandered electoral districts. A few days before the vote, the main opposition candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from the race. The U.S.-based Carter Center, which helped monitor the elections, described the vote tabulation process as "highly chaotic, non-transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation." Al-Bashir was declared the winner of the election with sixty-eight percent of the vote.
The legal system in Sudan is based on Islamic Sharia law. The 2005 Naivasha Agreement, ending the civil war between north and south Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum. Sudan's application of Sharia law is geographically inconsistent.
Stoning remains a judicial punishment in Sudan. Between 2009 and 2012, several women were sentenced to death by stoning. Flogging is a legal punishment. Between 2009 and 2014, many people were sentenced to 40–100 lashes. In August 2014, several Sudanese men died in custody after being flogged. 53 Christians were flogged in 2001. Sudan's public order law allows police officers to publicly whip women who are accused of public indecency.
Crucifixion is a legal punishment. In 2002, 88 people were sentenced to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and participating in ethnic clashes, Amnesty International wrote that they could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion.
International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with reservations. Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law did not apply in South Sudan. Since the secession of South Sudan there is some uncertainty as to whether Sharia law will now apply to the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter.
The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court, the Court of Cassation, and other national courts; the National Judicial Service Commission provides overall management for the judiciary.
Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its radical Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).
As the National Islamic Front regime in Khartoum gradually emerged as a real threat to the region and the world, the U.S. began to list Sudan on its list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. After the US listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop relations with Iraq, and later Iran, the two most controversial countries in the region.
From the mid-1990s, Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased U.S. pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, in Tanzania and Kenya, and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan had centered on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the war in Darfur.
Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten percent of its oil from Sudan. According to a former Sudanese government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms.
In 2015, Sudan participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.
The Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of Sudan and is divided into five branches: the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy (including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force, Border Patrol and the Internal Affairs Defense Force, totalling about 200,000 troops. The military of Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force, thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and preserving internal security.
Since the Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups such as the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have been important priorities. While not official, the Sudanese military also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the Janjaweed, in executing a counter-insurgency war. Somewhere between 200,000 and 400,000 people have died in the violent struggles.
International organizations in SudanEdit
Several UN agents are operating in Sudan such as the World Food Program (WFP); the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO); the United Nations Development Program (UNDP); the United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (UNIDO); the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF); the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the United Nations Mine Service (UNMAS), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the World Bank. Also present is the International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Since Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also involved in humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. The NGOs are working in every corner of Sudan, especially in the southern part and western parts. During the civil war, international nongovernmental organizations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south but based in the capital Khartoum. The attention of NGOs shifted shortly after the war broke out in the western part of Sudan known as Darfur. The most visible organization in South Sudan is the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) consortium. Some international trade organizations categorize Sudan as part of the Greater Horn of Africa
Even though most of the international organizations are substantially concentrated in both South Sudan and Darfur region, some of them are working in the northern part as well. For example, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in Khartoum, the capital. It is mainly funded by the European Union and recently opened more vocational training. The Canadian International Development Agency is operating largely in northern Sudan.
Since 1983, a combination of civil war and famine has taken the lives of nearly 2 million people in Sudan. It is estimated that as many as 200,000 people had been taken into slavery during the Second Sudanese Civil War.
Muslims who convert to Christianity can face the death penalty for apostasy, see Persecution of Christians in Sudan and the death sentence against Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag (who actually was raised as Christian). According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 88% of women in Sudan had undergone female genital mutilation. Sudan's Personal Status law on marriage has been criticized for restricting women's rights and allowing child marriage. Evidence suggests that support for female genital mutilation remains high, especially among rural and less well educated groups, although it has been declining in recent years. Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense in Sudan.
A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of protecting its own citizens in Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity. The letter added that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004. Some reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the government and the Janjaweed. The U.S. State Department's human-rights report issued in March 2007 claims that "[a]ll parties to the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and recruitment of child soldiers."
Over 2.8 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is estimated at 300,000 killed. Both government forces and militias allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights defenders, student activists and displaced people in and around Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been accused in a report issued by the U.S. government of attacking humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians. According to UNICEF, in 2008, there were as many as 6,000 child soldiers in Darfur.
Disputed areas and zones of conflictEdit
- In mid-April 2012, the South Sudanese army captured the Heglig oil field from Sudan.
- In mid-April 2012 the Sudanese army recaptured Heglig.
- Kafia Kingi and Radom National Park was a part of Bahr el Ghazal in 1956. Sudan has recognized South Sudan independence according to the borders for 1 January 1956.
- The Abyei Area is disputed region between Sudan and South Sudan. It is currently under Sudan rule.
- The states of South Kurdufan and Blue Nile are to hold "popular consultations" to determine their constitutional future within the Sudan.
- The Hala'ib triangle is disputed region between Sudan and Egypt. It is currently under Egyptian administration.
- Bir Tawil is a terra nullius occurring on the border between Egypt and Sudan, claimed by neither state.
Regional bodies and areas of conflictEdit
In addition to the states, there also exist regional administrative bodies established by peace agreements between the central government and rebel groups.
- The Darfur Regional Authority was established by the Darfur Peace Agreement to act as a co-ordinating body for the states that make up the region of Darfur.
- The Eastern Sudan States Coordinating Council was established by the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement between the Sudanese Government and the rebel Eastern Front to act as a coordinating body for the three eastern states.
- The Abyei Area, located on the border between South Sudan and the Republic of the Sudan, currently has a special administrative status and is governed by an Abyei Area Administration. It was due to hold a referendum in 2011 on whether to join an independent South Sudan or remain part of the Republic of the Sudan.
In 2010, Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy in the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New York Times in a 2006 article. Because of the secession of South Sudan, which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields, Sudan entered a phase of stagflation, GDP growth slowed to 3.4 percent in 2014, 3.1 percent in 2015 and is projected to recover slowly to 3.7 percent in 2016 while inflation remained as high as 21.8% as of 2015[update].
Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a rise from a very low level of per capita output. The economy of Sudan has been steadily growing over the 2000s, and according to a World Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent. This growth was sustained even during the war in Darfur and period of southern autonomy preceding South Sudan's independence.Oil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007. The independence of oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's direct control and oil production in Sudan fell from around 450,000 barrels per day (72,000 m3/d) to under 60,000 barrels per day (9,500 m3/d). Production has since recovered to hover around 250,000 barrels per day (40,000 m3/d) for 2014–15.
In order to export oil, South Sudan relies on a pipeline to Port Sudan on Sudan's Red Sea coast, as South Sudan is a landlocked country, as well as the oil refining facilities in Sudan. In August 2012, Sudan and South Sudan agreed a deal to transport South Sudanese oil through Sudanese pipelines to Port Sudan.
The People's Republic of China is one of Sudan's major trading partners, China owns a 40 percent share in the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company. The country also sells Sudan small arms, which have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur and South Kordofan.
While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000 growth. Currently, the International Monetary Fund IMF is working hand in hand with Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic policies. This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and World Bank soured, culminating in its eventual suspension from the IMF.[page needed] The program has been in place since the early 1990s, and also work-out exchange rate and reserve of foreign exchange. Since 1997, Sudan has been implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the International Monetary Fund.
Agricultural production remains Sudan's most-important sector, employing 80 percent of the workforce and contributing 39 percent of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in Northern Sudan, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. It is situated on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream from the dam's construction site.
The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. The construction of the dam was finished December 2008, supplying more than 90 percent of the population with electricity. Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum State and other States.
According to the Corruptions Perception Index, Sudan is one of the most corrupt nations in the world. According to the Global Hunger Index of 2013, Sudan has an GHI indicator value of 27.0 indicating that the nation has an 'Alarming Hunger Situation' and earning the nation the distinction of being the 5th hungriest nation in the world. According to the 2015 Human Development Index (HDI) Sudan ranked the 167st place in Human Development, indicating Sudan still has one of the lowest human development in the world. Almost one-fifth of Sudan's population lives below the international poverty line which means living on less than US$1.25 per day.
|Population in Sudan|
In Sudan's 2008 census, the population of Northern, Western and Eastern Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. This puts present estimates of the population of Sudan after the secession of South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6 million. The population of Greater Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and was recorded to be 5.2 million.
Despite being a refugee-generating country, Sudan also hosts a refugee population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 310,500 refugees and asylum seekers lived in Sudan in 2007. The majority of this population came from Eritrea (240,400 people), Chad (45,000), Ethiopia (49,300) and the Central African Republic (2,500). The Sudanese government UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2007 forcibly deported at least 1,500 refugees and asylum seekers during the year. Sudan is a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.
Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; and Rufa'a, Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf, Kinanah and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic. In addition, the Western province comprises various ethnic groups, while a few Arab Bedouin of the northern Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese Arabic share the same culture and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs.
The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes like the Fur, Zaghawa, Borgo, Masalit and some Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian Arabic, show less cultural integration because of cultural, linguistic and genealogical variations with other Arab and Arabized tribes.
Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian Peninsula and intermarriages with the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian people, who also share a common history with Egypt. Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century.
The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and other African populations and introduced Islam.
There is also a small, but prominent Greek community.
Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan.
Sudanese Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It is the variety of Arabic, an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch spoken throughout Sudan. The dialect has borrowed much vocabulary from local Nilo-Saharan languages (Nobiin, Fur, Zaghawa, Mabang). This has resulted in a variety of Arabic that is unique to Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by Nilotic, Arab, and western cultures. Few nomads in Sudan still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. Other important languages include Beja (AKA Bedawi) along the Red Sea, with perhaps 2 million speakers. It is the only language from the Afroasiatic family's Cushitic branch that is today spoken in the territory.
As with South Sudan, a number of Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken in Sudan. Fur speakers inhabit the west (Darfur), with perhaps a million speakers. There are likewise various Nubian languages, with over 6 million speakers along the Nile in the north. The most linguistically diverse region in the country is the Nuba Hills area in Kordofan, inhabited by speakers of multiple language families, with Darfur and other border regions being second.
The Niger-Congo family is represented by many of the Kordofanian languages, and Indo-European by Domari (Gypsy) and English. Historically, Old Nubian, Greek, and Coptic were the languages of Christian Nubia, while Meroitic was the language of the Kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt.
At the 2011 division which split off South Sudan, over 97% of the population in the remaining Sudan adheres to Islam. Most Muslims are divided between two groups: Sufi and Salafi (Ansar Al Sunnah) Muslims. Two popular divisions of Sufism, the Ansar and the Khatmia, are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist parties, respectively. Only the Darfur region has traditionally been bereft of the Sufi brotherhoods common in the rest of the country.
Significant, long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians exist in Khartoum and other northern cities. Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities also exist in Khartoum and eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past few decades. The largest groups affiliated with Western Christian denominations are Roman Catholic and Anglican. Other Christian groups with smaller followings in the country include the Africa Inland Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Sudan Church of Christ, the Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Sudan Pentecostal Church, the Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North).
Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions. Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its support from Islamists, Salafis/Wahhabis and other conservative Arab Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab followers of the Ansar sect of Sufism as well as non-Arab Muslims from Darfur and Kordofan. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both Arab and non-Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in the Khatmia Sufi sect.
Sudanese culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about 578 ethnic groups, communicating in 145 different languages, in a region microcosmic of Africa, with geographic extremes varying from sandy desert to tropical forest. Recent evidence suggests that while most citizens of the country identify strongly with both Sudan and their religion, Arab and African supranational identities are much more polarising and contested.
Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan. Beginning with the imposition of strict Salafi interpretation of sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin (returned to Sudan in the mid-1990s) and Mohammed Wardi (returned to Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo. Traditional music suffered too, with traditional Zār ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated . At the same time European militaries contributed to the development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. The march March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk. In northern Sudan different music from the rest of Sudan, is used as a type of music called (Aldlayib) used a musical instrument called (Tambur) are industry manually and has five strings and is made from wood and made wonderful music accompanied by the voices of human applause and singing artists give a perfect blend gives the area Northern State special character.
The most popular sports in Sudan are athletics (track and field) and football. Though not as successful as football, basketball, handball, and volleyball are also popular in Sudan. In the 1960s and 1970s, the national basketball team finished among the continent's top teams. Nowadays, it is only a minor force.
Sudanese football has a long history. Sudan was one of the four African nations – the others being Egypt, Ethiopia and South Africa – which formed African football. Sudan hosted the first African Cup of Nations in 1956, and has won the African Cup Of Nations once, in 1970. Two years later, the Sudan National Football Team participated in the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. The nation's capital is home to the Khartoum League, which is considered to be the oldest football league in Africa.
Sudanese football teams such as Al-Hilal and El-Merreikh are among the nation's strongest teams. Other teams like Khartoum, El-Neel, Al-Nidal El-Nahud and Hay-Al Arab, are also starting to grow in popularity.
Most individual Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. A traditional garb widely worn in Sudan is the jalabiya, which is a loose-fitting, long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also common to Egypt. The jalabiya is accompanied by a large scarf worn by women, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and personal preferences.
A similar garment common to Sudan is the thobe or thawb, pronounced tobe in Sudanese dialect. The thobe is a long one piece cloth that women wrap around their inner garments. The word "thawb" means "garment" in Arabic, and the thawb itself is the traditional Arab dress for men.
Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990. The primary language at all levels is Arabic. Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the West have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students. Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces. The literacy rate is 70.2% of total population, male: 79.6%, female: 60.8%.
Science and researchEdit
Sudan has 19 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic. Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education. In addition, the "islamization" encouraged by president Al-Bashir alienated many researchers: the official language of instruction in universities was changed from English to Arabic and Islamic courses became mandatory. Internal science funding withered. According to UNESCO, more than 3000 Sudanese researchers left the country between 2002 and 2014. By 2013, the country had a mere 19 researchers for every 100,000 citizens, or 1/30 the ratio of Egypt, according to the Sudanese National Centre for Research. In 2015, Sudan published only about 500 scientific papers. For comparison, Poland, a country of similar population size, publishes on the order of 10,000 papers per year.
- "2005 constitution in English" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Sudan country profile". BBC. 2017-06-05.
- Rayah, Mubarak B. (1978). Sudan civilization. Democratic Republic of the Sudan, Ministry of Culture and Information. p. 64.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "Discontent over Sudan census". News24. Cape Town. Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "Sudan". International Monetary Fund.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
- Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
- "The World Factbook: Sudan". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ISSN 1553-8133. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Davison, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs. 38 (4): 665–675. doi:10.2307/20029452.
- Collins, Robert O. (2008). A History of Modern Sudan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85820-5.
- International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131,
West Africa may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal in the West, to the Cameroons in the East; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs
- "Sudan A Country Study". Countrystudies.us.
- Keita, S.O.Y. (1993). "Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships". History in Africa. 20: 129–54. doi:10.2307/3171969. JSTOR 317196.
- Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-193825-7.
- Welsby 2002, p. 26.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 16-22.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 24&26.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 16-17.
- Werner 2013, p. 77.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 68-70.
- Hasan 1967, p. 31.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 77-78.
- Shinnie 1978, p. 572.
- Werner 2013, p. 84.
- Werner 2013, p. 101.
- Welsby 2002, p. 89.
- Ruffini 2012, p. 264.
- Werner 2013, pp. 408-409.
- Werner 2013, p. 254.
- Edwards 2004, p. 237.
- Adams 1977, p. 496.
- Adams 1977, p. 482.
- Welsby 2002, pp. 236-239.
- Werner 2013, pp. 344-345.
- Welsby 2002, p. 88.
- Welsby 2002, p. 252.
- Hasan 1967, p. 106.
- Hasan 1967, p. 176.
- Hasan 1967, p. 145.
- Werner 2013, pp. 143-145.
- Lajtar 2011, p. 130-131.
- Ruffini 2012, p. 256.
- Welsby 2002, p. 255.
- Vantini 1975, pp. 786–787.
- Hasan 1967, p. 133.
- Vantini 1975, p. 784.
- Vantini 2006, pp. 487–489.
- Spaulding 1974, pp. 12-30.
- Churchill, Winston (1902). "The Rebellion of the Mahdi". The River War.
- Rudolf Carl Freiherr von Slatin; Sir Francis Reginald Wingate (1896). Fire and Sword in the Sudan. E. Arnold. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Domke, D. Michelle (November 1997). "ICE Case Studies; Case Number: 3; Case Identifier: Sudan; Case Name: Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?". Inventory of Conflict and Environment (via the School of International Service at the American University). Archived from the original on 9 December 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- M. Daly, Empire on the Nile, p.346.
- Morewood, The British Defence of Egypt, (Suffolk 2005), p.4
- Daly, pp.457–59
- Morewood, The British Defence of Egypt 1935–40, (Suffolk, 1940), p.94-5
- Arthur Henderson, 8 May 1936 quoted in Daly, Empire on the Nile, p.348
- Sir Miles Lampson quoted in diary, 29 September 1938; Morewood, p.117
- Morewood, p.164-5
- "Brief History of the Sudan". Sudan Embassy in London. 20 November 2008. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Factbox – Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir". Reuters. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Bekele, Yilma (12 July 2008). "Chickens Are Coming Home To Roost!". Ethiopian Review. Addis Ababa. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-674-01090-1.
- Walker, Peter (14 July 2008). "Profile: Omar al-Bashir". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- The New York Times. 16 March 1996. p. 4.
- "History of the Sudan". HistoryWorld. n.d. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Shahzad, Syed Saleem (23 February 2002). "Bin Laden Uses Iraq To Plot New Attacks". Asia Times. Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Families of USS Cole Victims Sue Sudan for $105 Million". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Fuller, Graham E. (2004). The Future of Political Islam. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4039-6556-1.
- Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 221–223. ISBN 978-0-307-26608-8.
- "Profile: Sudan's President Bashir". BBC News. 25 November 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Ali, Wasil (12 May 2008). "Sudanese Islamist Opposition Leader Denies Link with Darfur Rebels". Sudan Tribune. Paris. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "ICC Prosecutor Presents Case Against Sudanese President, Hassan Ahmad al Bashir, for Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes in Darfur" (Press release). Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court. 14 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.
- "Warrant issued for Sudan's Bashir". BBC News. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Lynch, Colum; Hamilton, Rebecca (13 July 2010). "International Criminal Court Charges Sudan's Omar Hassan al-Bashir with Genocide". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "UNMIS Media Monitoring Report" (PDF). United Nations Mission in Sudan. 4 January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2006.
- "Darfur Peace Agreement". US Department of State. 8 May 2006. Archived from the original on 2 August 2006.
- "Restraint Plea to Sudan and Chad". Al Jazeera. Agence France-Presse. 27 December 2005. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006.
- "Sudan, Chad Agree To Stop Fighting". China Daily. Beijing. Associated Press. 4 May 2007.
- "UN: Situation in Sudan could deteriorate if flooding continues". International Herald Tribune. Paris. Associated Press. 6 August 2007. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008.
- "Sudan Floods: At Least 365,000 Directly Affected, Response Ongoing" (Press release). UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Relief Web. 6 August 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Wadhams, Nick; Gebre, Samuel (6 October 2017). "Trump Moves to Lift Most Sudan Sanctions". Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- "Sudan geography". Institute for Security Studies. 12 January 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011.
- "Sudan". Country Studies. n.d. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Geography of Sudan". Sudan Embassy in London. n.d. Archived from the original on 30 September 2005.
- "Sudan – Geography & Environment". Oxfam GB. n.d. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "Desertification & Desert Cultivation Studies Institute". University of Khartoum. n.d. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Soil conservation and land reclamation in the Sudan". United Nations University. n.d. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- [unreliable source?] "Sudan – Environment". Encyclopedia of the Nations. n.d. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "President Omar al-Bashir Declared Winner of Sudan Poll". BBC News. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Hamilton, Rebecca (13 August 2010). "In Challenge to Sudanese Ruling Party, Student Activists Rally for Democracy". The Washington Post (via the Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting). Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- Mazen, Maram (31 March 2010). "Sudan's Ruling Party Rigged Upcoming Vote, Crisis Group Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. New York. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Butty, James (1 April 2010). "Yasir Arman's Sudan Expert Says Yasir Arman's Withdrawal from Election Significant". Voice of America. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Chaotic Sudan Count Open to Manipulation – Observers". Reuters. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Sudan's haphazard Sharia legal system has claimed too many victims". The Guardian.
- "Sudanese woman sentenced to stoning death over adultery claims".
- "Woman faces death by stoning in Sudan".
- "Rights Group Protests Stoning of Women in Sudan".
- "Woman faces 40 lashes for wearing trousers".
- "Sudanese woman who married a non-Muslim sentenced to death".
- "Pregnant woman sentenced to death and 100 lashes".
- "Sudan : Man gets 40 lashes for sharing 'rape' video".
- "Detainee dies in custody in Port Sudan after court-ordered flogging".
- "Sudan: Pair accused of kissing face 40 lashes".
- "Detainee dies in custody in Port Sudan after court-ordered flogging". Sudan Tribune.
- "Two Sudanese men died after being detained and flogged 40 times each, says rights group". The Journal.
- "Two Sudan men die after floggings: rights group". Agence France-Presse.
- "Sudanese authorities flog 53 Christians on rioting charges". The BG News.
- "Shocking video: Sudanese woman flogged for getting into car with man who isn't related to her".
- "Sudan: Imminent Execution/Torture/Unfair trial". Amnesty International. 17 July 2002. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- "Field Listing – Legal System". The World Factbook. US Central Intelligence Agency. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Sharia law to be tightened if Sudan splits – president". BBC News. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- Michael Sheridan (23 June 2014). "Court frees Sudanese woman sentenced to death for being Christian". nydailynews.com.
- "The world's enduring dictators". CBS News. 16 May 2011.
- Goodman, Peter S. (23 December 2004). "China Invests Heavily In Sudan's Oil Industry – Beijing Supplies Arms Used on Villagers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Sudan supports Moroccan sovereignty over Southern Provinces". Morocco Times. Casablanca. 26 December 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2006.
- "U.S. Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying". Bloomberg. 26 March 2015.
- "Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region". CNN. 27 March 2015.
- "Sudan: National Security". Mongabay. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Q&A: Sudan's Darfur Conflict". BBC News. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "Darfur Peace Talks To Resume in Abuja on Tuesday: AU". People's Daily. Beijing. Xinhua News Agency. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Hundreds Killed in Attacks in Eastern Chad – U.N. Agency Says Sudanese Militia Destroyed Villages". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 11 April 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Sudan". International Organization for Migration. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "The Sudans". Gatineau, Quebec: Canadian International Development Agency. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Darfur – overview". Unicef. n.d. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "South Sudan, Nuba Mountains, May 2003 – WFP delivered food aid via road convoy". World Food Programme. 8 May 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Maxwell, Daniel, and Ben Watkins. "Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages." Disasters 27.1 (2003): 72-90.
- "EU, UNIDO set up Centre in Sudan to develop industrial skills, entrepreneurship for job creation" (Press release). UN Industrial Development Organization. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Staff writer (April 2001). "Sudan: Nearly 2 Million Dead as a Result of the World's Longest Running Civil War". Archived from the original on 10 December 2004. Retrieved 2004-12-10.. U.S. Committee for Refugees. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive.
- "SUDAN: CSI highlights 'slavery and manifestations of racism'". IRIN. September 2001. Archived 5 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- "allAfrica.com: Sudanese Authorities Urged Not to Introduce "Censorship Bureau"". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- UNICEF 2013, p. 27.
- "Time to Let Sudan's Girls Be Girls, Not Brides". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Sudan worst in Africa with legal marriage at age 10". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Hamilton, Alexander; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin. "Geography and correlates of attitude toward Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Sudan: What can we learn from successive Sudan opinion poll data?". Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. doi:10.1016/j.sste.2015.12.001.
- "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds". The Independent. 17 May 2016.
- "Letter to the U.N. Security Council on Sudan Sanctions and Civilian Protection in Darfur". Human Rights Watch. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Darfur Tops U.S. List of Worst Human Rights Abuses". USA Today. Washington DC. Associated Press. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Q&A: Sudan's Darfur conflict". BBC News. 8 February 2010.
- "Sudan – Report 2006". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006.
- "Africa – Sudan 'has 6,000 child soldiers'". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Memorial of the Government of Sudan" (PDF). The Hague: Permanent Court of Arbitration. 18 December 2008. p. xii. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012.
- "South Sudan ready to declare independence" (Press release). Menas Associates. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Economy". Government of South Sudan. 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011.
- (registration required) Gettleman, Jeffrey (24 October 2006). "War in Sudan? Not Where the Oil Wealth Flows". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- , Sudan Economic Outlook
- "South Sudan Gets Ready for Independence". Al Jazeera. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (20 June 2011). "As Secession Nears, Sudan Steps Up Drive to Stop Rebels". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- , Sudan, South Sudan reach oil deal, will hold border talks
- "The 'Big 4' – How oil revenues are connected to Khartoum". Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Herbst, Moira (14 March 2008). "Oil for China, Guns for Darfur". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. New York. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Richard P. C. Brown (1992). Public Debt and Private Wealth: Debt, Capital Flight and the Imf in Sudan. Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-0-333-57543-7.
- Corruption Perceptions Index 2013. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger Index – The challenge of hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food and Nutrition Security. Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin. October 2013.
- "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Sudan:Population living below $1.25 PPP per day (%)". undp.org. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Heavens, Andrew (21 May 2009). "Southerners dismiss Sudan pre-poll census count". Reuters. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Sudan – Population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Sudan: Copts". Minority Rights Group International. 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- "Copts migration". Sudanupdate.org.
- Bechtold, Peter R. (1991). "More Turbulence in Sudan". In Voll, John. Sudan: State and Society in Crisis. Boulder, CA: Westview Press. p. 1.
- Suliman, Osman (2010). The Darfur Conflict: Geography or Institutions?. Taylor & Francis. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-203-83616-3.
- وزير خارجية السودان الاسبق حسين ابوصالح ل"الشرق" : التهديدات الامريكية للسودان كانت تصلنا في ورقة صغيرة دون ترويسة اوامضاء (in Arabic). Almshaheer.com.
- Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1888). Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 17. p. 16. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th ed. Dallas: SIL International. Online version: "Languages of Sudan"
- Karen Andrae (2009) on YouTube
- Leclerc, Jacques. "L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Soudan"" (in French). Trésor de la langue française au Québec. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Wick, Marc. "Sudan - Largest Cities". GeoNames. GeoNames. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
- "Sudan Overview". UNDP Sudan. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Hamid Eltgani Ali, Darfur's Political Economy: A Quest for Development, pg. 9. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, 2014. ISBN 9781317964643
- ""Hamilton, A. and Hudson, J. (2014) Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan. Bath Economic Research Papers, No 21/14"" (PDF).
- "Sudan country profile" (PDF). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. December 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Nordling, Linda (2017-12-15). "Sudan seeks a science revival". Science. 358 (6369): 1369–1369. doi:10.1126/science.358.6369.1369. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29242326.
- "The top 20 countries for scientific output". www.openaccessweek.org. Retrieved 2017-12-16.
- Adams, William Y. (1977). Nubia. Corridor to Africa. Princeton University. ISBN 0691093709.
- Berry, LaVerle B., ed. (2015). Sudan: A Country Study. Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.) ISBN 978-0-8444-0750-0.
- Beswick, Stephanie (2004). Sudan's Blood Memory. University of Rochester. ISBN 1580462316.
- Brown, Richard P.C. (1992). Public Debt and Private Wealth: debt, capital flight and the IMF in Sudan. Macmillan Publishers London ISBN 0-333-57543-1.
- Churchill, Winston (1899; 2000). The River War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan. Carroll & Graf Publishers (New York City). ISBN 978-0-7867-0751-5.
- Edwards, David (2004). The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan. Routledge. ISBN 0415369878.
- Clammer, Paul (2005). Sudan: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides (Chalfont St. Peter); Globe Pequot Press. (Guilford, Connecticut). ISBN 978-1-84162-114-2.
- Evans-Pritchard, Blake; Polese, Violetta (2008). Sudan: The City Trail Guide. City Trail Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9559274-0-9.
- Edwards, David (2004). The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan. Routledge. ISBN 0415369878.
- El Mahdi, Mandour. (1965). A Short History of the Sudan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-913158-9.
- Fadlalla, Mohamed H. (2005). The Problem of Dar Fur, iUniverse (New York City). ISBN 978-0-595-36502-9.
- Fadlalla, Mohamed H. (2004). Short History Of Sudan. iUniverse (New York City). ISBN 978-0-595-31425-6.
- Fadlalla, Mohamed H. (2007). UN Intervention in Dar Fur, iUniverse (New York City). ISBN 978-0-595-42979-0.
- Hasan, Yusuf Fadl (1967). The Arabs and the Sudan. From the seventh to the early sixteenth century. Edinburgh University. OCLC 33206034.
- Jok, Jok Madut (2007). Sudan: Race, Religion and Violence. Oneworld Publications (Oxford). ISBN 978-1-85168-366-6.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2001). Slavery in Mauritania and Sudan: The State Against Blacks, in The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation. Nova Science Publishers (Huntington, New York). ISBN 978-1-56072-936-5.
- Shinnie, P.L. (1978). "Christian Nubia.". In J.D. Fage. The Cambridge History of Africa. Volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University. pp. 556–588. ISBN 978-0-521-21592-3.
- O'Fahey, Rex Seán; Spauling, Jay Lloyd (1974). Kingdoms of the Sudan. Methuen Publishing (London). ISBN 978-0-416-77450-4. Covers Sennar and Darfur.
- Peterson, Scott (2001). Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda—A Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa. Routledge (London; New York City). ISBN 978-0-203-90290-5.
- Prunier, Gérard (2005). Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Cornell University Press (Ithaca, New York). ISBN 978-0-8014-4450-0.
- Ruffini, Giovanni R. (2012). Medieval Nubia. A Social and Economic History. Oxford University.
- Vantini, Giovanni (1975). Oriental Sources concerning Nubia. Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. OCLC 174917032.
- Welsby, Derek (2002). The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia. Pagans, Christians and Muslims Along the Middle Nile. London: British Museum. ISBN 0714119474.
- (in German) Werner, Roland (2013). Das Christentum in Nubien. Geschichte und Gestalt einer afrikanischen Kirche. Lit. ISBN 978-3-643-12196-7.
- Zilfū, ʻIṣmat Ḥasan (translation: Clark, Peter) (1980). Karari: The Sudanese Account of the Battle of Omdurman. Frederick Warne & Co (London). ISBN 978-0-7232-2677-2.
- "Quo Vadis bilad as-Sudan? The Contemporary Framework for a National Interim Constitution". Law in Africa (Cologne; 2005). Vol. 8, pp. 63–82. ISSN 1435-0963.
- Lajtar, Adam (2011). "Qasr Ibrim's last land sale, AD 1463 (EA 90225)". Nubian Voices. Studies in Christian Nubian Culture.
- McGregor, Andrew (2011). "Palaces in the Mountains: An Introduction to the Archaeological Heritage of the Sultanate of Darfur". Sudan&Nubia. 15: 129–141.
- Spaulding, Jay (1974). "The Fate of Alodia" (PDF). Meroitic Newsletter. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 15: 12–30. ISSN 1266-1635. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-06-23.
- Vantini, Giovanni (2006). "Some new light on the end of Soba". In Alessandro Roccati and Isabella Caneva. Acta Nubica. Proceedings of the X International Conference of Nubian Studies Rome 9–14 September 2002. Libreria Dello Stato. pp. 487–491. ISBN 88-240-1314-7.
- Government of Sudan website
- Archaeological sites in Sudan
- Sudan web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Sudan at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Wikimedia Atlas of Sudan
- "Sudan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Sudan profile from BBC News
- CIMIC activities in the African Union Mission in Sudan