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World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on 21 March 2017).
  0.900 and over
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  0.350–0.399 and under
  Data unavailable
World map indicating the categories of Human Development Index by country (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on 21 March 2017).
  Very high
  High
  Medium
  Low
  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by the UNDP and is based on the concept of human development, which was developed by Indian economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq.[1]

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".

The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Ul Haq, and is anchored in Sen's work on human capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Beings: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. It must also be noted that the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (e.g. during a religious fast) is quite different to someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.[2]

Contents

OriginsEdit

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.[3] Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

 
The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.[4]

Dimensions and calculationEdit

New method (2010 Index onwards)Edit

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:[5][6]

  • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
  • Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
  • A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)  

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI)  [7]

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI)  [8]
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI)  [9]
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)  

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:
  LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (before 2010 Index)Edit

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

 
HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
  OECD
  Europe not in the OECD and CIS

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).[10] In general, to transform a raw variable, say  , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

  •  

where   and   are the lowest and highest values the variable   can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with 13 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

  • Life Expectancy Index =  
  • Education Index =  
  • GDP =  

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2016 Human Development IndexEdit

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[11]

  •   = increase.
  •   = steady.
  •   = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2015 report.
Rank Country Score
2016 estimates for 2015
[12]
Change in rank from previous year[12] 2016 estimates for 2015
[12]
Change from previous year
[12]
1     Norway 0.949   0.001
2     Australia 0.939   0.002
2      Switzerland 0.939   0.001
4   (2)   Germany 0.926   0.002
5   (1)   Denmark 0.925   0.002
5   (6)   Singapore 0.925   0.013
7   (1)   Netherlands 0.924   0.001
8     Ireland 0.923   0.003
9   (7)   Iceland 0.921   0.002
10   (1)   Canada 0.920   0.001
10   (2)   United States 0.920   0.002
12     Hong Kong 0.917   0.001
13   (4)   New Zealand 0.915   0.002
14   (1)   Sweden 0.913   0.004
15   (1)   Liechtenstein 0.912   0.001
16   (4)   United Kingdom 0.909   0.003
17   (3)   Japan 0.903   0.001
18     South Korea 0.901   0.002
19     Israel 0.899   0.001
20     Luxembourg 0.898   0.002
21   (1)   France 0.897   0.003
22   (1)   Belgium 0.896   0.001
23     Finland 0.895   0.002
24     Austria 0.893   0.001
25   (3)   Spain 0.892   0.005
26     Slovenia 0.890   0.002
27   (1)   Italy 0.887   0.006
28     Czech Republic 0.878   0.003
29     Greece 0.866   0.001
30     Brunei 0.865   0.001
30   (1)   Estonia 0.865   0.002
32     Andorra 0.858   0.001
33   (1)   Cyprus 0.856   0.002
33   (2)   Malta 0.856   0.003
33     Qatar 0.856   0.001
36     Poland 0.855   0.003
37     Lithuania 0.848   0.002
38   (4)   Chile 0.847   0.002
38     Saudi Arabia 0.847   0.002
40   (5)   Slovakia 0.845   0.003
41     Portugal 0.843   0.002
42     United Arab Emirates 0.840   0.004
43     Hungary 0.836   0.002
44     Latvia 0.830   0.002
45   (5)   Argentina 0.827   0.001
45   (1)   Croatia 0.827   0.004
47   (1)   Bahrain 0.824   0.001
48   (1)   Montenegro 0.807   0.003
49   (1)   Russia 0.804   0.001
50   (1)   Romania 0.802   0.004
51   (1)   Kuwait 0.800   0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDIEdit

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[13] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

  1.   Norway 0.898
  2.   Iceland 0.868
  3.   Netherlands 0.861
  4.   Australia 0.861
  5.   Germany 0.859
  6.    Switzerland 0.859
  7.   Denmark 0.858
  8.   Sweden 0.851
  9.   Ireland 0.850
  10.   Finland 0.843
  11.   Canada 0.839
  12.   Slovenia 0.838
  13.   United Kingdom 0.836
  14.   Czech Republic 0.830
  15.   Luxembourg 0.827
  16.   Belgium 0.821
  17.   Austria 0.815
  18.   France 0.813
  19.   United States 0.796
  20.   Slovakia 0.793
  21.   Japan 0.791
  22.   Spain 0.791
  23.   Estonia 0.788
  24.   Malta 0.786
  25.   Italy 0.784
  26.   Israel 0.778
  27.   Poland 0.774
  28.   Hungary 0.771
  29.   Cyprus 0.762
  30.   Lithuania 0.759
  31.   Greece 0.758
  32.   Portugal 0.755
  33.   South Korea 0.753
  34.   Croatia 0.752
  35.   Latvia 0.742
  36.   Montenegro 0.736
  37.   Russia 0.725
  38.   Romania 0.714
  39.   Argentina 0.698
  40.   Chile 0.692

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Kuwait.

2015 Human Development IndexEdit

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[14][15][16]

  •   = increase.
  •   = steady.
  •   = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2014 report.
Rank Country Score
2015 estimates for 2014
[17]
Change in rank from previous year[17] 2015 estimates for 2014
[17]
Change from previous year
[17]
1     Norway 0.944   0.002
2     Australia 0.935   0.002
3      Switzerland 0.930   0.002
4     Denmark 0.923  
5     Netherlands 0.922   0.002
6     Germany 0.916   0.001
6   (2)   Ireland 0.916   0.004
8   (1)   United States 0.915   0.002
9   (1)   Canada 0.913   0.001
9   (1)   New Zealand 0.913   0.002
11   (2)   Singapore 0.912   0.003
12     Hong Kong 0.910   0.002
13     Liechtenstein 0.908   0.001
14     Sweden 0.907   0.002
14   (1)   United Kingdom 0.907   0.005
16     Iceland 0.899  
17     South Korea 0.898   0.003
18     Israel 0.894   0.001
18     Macau 0.894 [18]
19     Luxembourg 0.892   0.002
20   (1)   Japan 0.891   0.001
21     Belgium 0.890   0.002
22     France 0.888   0.001
23     Austria 0.885   0.001
24     Finland 0.883   0.001
25     Taiwan 0.882 [19]
26     Slovenia 0.880   0.001
27     Spain 0.876   0.002
28     Italy 0.873  
29     Czech Republic 0.870   0.002
30     Greece 0.865   0.002
31     Estonia 0.861   0.002
32     Brunei 0.856   0.004
33     Cyprus 0.850  
33   (1)   Qatar 0.850   0.001
34     Andorra 0.845   0.001
35   (1)   Slovakia 0.844   0.005
36   (1)   Poland 0.843   0.003
37     Lithuania 0.839   0.002
37     Malta 0.839   0.002
39     Saudi Arabia 0.837   0.001
40     Argentina 0.836   0.003
41   (1)   United Arab Emirates 0.835   0.002
42     Chile 0.832   0.002
43     Portugal 0.830   0.002
44     Hungary 0.828   0.003
45     Bahrain 0.824   0.003
46   (1)   Latvia 0.819   0.003
47   (1)   Croatia 0.818   0.001
48   (1)   Kuwait 0.816  
49     Montenegro 0.802   0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDIEdit

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[14] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

  1.   Norway 0.893 ( )
  2.   Netherlands 0.861 (  1)
  3.    Switzerland 0.861 (  1)
  4.   Australia 0.858 (  2)
  5.   Denmark 0.856 (  3)
  6.   Germany 0.853 (  1)
  7.   Iceland 0.846 (  1)
  8.   Sweden 0.846 (  1)
  9.   Ireland 0.836 (  1)
  10.   Finland 0.834 (  1)
  11.   Canada 0.832 (  2)
  12.   Slovenia 0.829 ( )
  13.   United Kingdom 0.829 (  3)
  14.   Czech Republic 0.823 (  1)
  15.   Luxembourg 0.822 (  1)
  16.   Belgium 0.820 (  1)
  17.   Austria 0.816 (  4)
  18.   France 0.811 ( )
  19.   Slovakia 0.791 (  2)
  20.   Estonia 0.782 (  4)
  21.   Japan 0.780 (  1)
  22.   Israel 0.775 (  3)
  23.   Spain 0.775 (  1)
  24.   Italy 0.773 (  1)
  25.   Hungary 0.769 (  2)
  26.   Malta 0.767 ( )
  27.   Poland 0.760 (  2)
  28.   United States 0.760 ( )
  29.   Cyprus 0.758 (  1)
  30.   Greece 0.758 (  5)
  31.   Lithuania 0.754 ( )
  32.   South Korea 0.751 (  1)
  33.   Portugal 0.744 (  1)
  34.   Croatia 0.743 (  1)
  35.   Belarus 0.741
  36.   Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

2014 Human Development IndexEdit

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[20][15][16]

  •   = increase.
  •   = steady.
  •   = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.
Rank Country HDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[21]
Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report[21] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[21]
Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[21]
1     Norway 0.944   0.011
2     Australia 0.933   0.002
3      Switzerland 0.917   0.001
4     Netherlands 0.915  
5     United States 0.914   0.002
6     Germany 0.911  
7     New Zealand 0.910   0.002
8     Canada 0.902   0.001
9   (3)   Singapore 0.901   0.002
10     Denmark 0.900  
11   (3)   Ireland 0.899   0.017
12   (1)   Sweden 0.898   0.001
13     Iceland 0.895   0.002
14     United Kingdom 0.892   0.002
14     Macau 0.892 [18]
15     Hong Kong 0.891   0.002
15   (1)   South Korea 0.891   0.003
17   (1)   Japan 0.890   0.002
18   (2)   Liechtenstein 0.889   0.001
19     Israel 0.888   0.002
20     France 0.884  
21     Taiwan 0.882 [19]
22     Austria 0.881   0.001
22     Belgium 0.881   0.001
22     Luxembourg 0.881   0.001
23     Finland 0.879  
24     Slovenia 0.874  
25     Italy 0.872  
26     Spain 0.869  
27     Czech Republic 0.861  
28     Greece 0.853   0.001
29     Brunei 0.852  
30     Qatar 0.851   0.001
31     Cyprus 0.845   0.003
32     Estonia 0.840   0.001
33     Saudi Arabia 0.836   0.003
34   (1)   Lithuania 0.834   0.003
34   (1)   Poland 0.834   0.001
35     Andorra 0.830  
35   (1)   Slovakia 0.830   0.001
36     Malta 0.829   0.002
37     United Arab Emirates 0.827   0.002
38   (1)   Chile 0.822   0.003
38     Portugal 0.822  
39     Hungary 0.818   0.001
40     Bahrain 0.815   0.002
40     Cuba 0.815   0.002
41   (2)   Kuwait 0.814   0.001
42     Croatia 0.812  
43     Latvia 0.810   0.002
44     Argentina 0.808   0.002

Countries not includedEdit

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:[20] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDIEdit

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[20] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

  1.   Norway 0.891 ( )
  2.   Australia 0.860 ( )
  3.   Netherlands 0.854 (  1)
  4.    Switzerland 0.847 (  3)
  5.   Germany 0.846 ( )
  6.   Iceland 0.843 (  2)
  7.   Sweden 0.840 (  4)
  8.   Denmark 0.838 (  1)
  9.   Canada 0.833 (  4)
  10.   Ireland 0.832 (  4)
  11.   Finland 0.830 ( )
  12.   Slovenia 0.824 (  2)
  13.   Austria 0.818 (  1)
  14.   Luxembourg 0.814 (  3)
  15.   Czech Republic 0.813 (  1)
  16.   United Kingdom 0.812 (  3)
  17.   Belgium 0.806 (  2)
  18.   France 0.804 ( )
  19.   Israel 0.793 (  1)
  20.   Japan 0.779 (New)
  21.   Slovakia 0.778 (  1)
  22.   Spain 0.775 (  2)
  23.   Italy 0.768 (  1)
  24.   Estonia 0.767 (  1)
  25.   Greece 0.762 (  2)
  26.   Malta 0.760 (  3)
  27.   Hungary 0.757 (  1)
  28.   United States 0.755 (  12)
  29.   Poland 0.751 (  1)
  30.   Cyprus 0.752 (  1)
  31.   Lithuania 0.746 (  2)
  32.   Portugal 0.739 ( )
  33.   South Korea 0.736 (  5)
  34.   Latvia 0.725 (  1)
  35.   Croatia 0.721 (  4)
  36.   Argentina 0.680 (  7)
  37.   Chile 0.661 (  4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

Past top countriesEdit

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest thirteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDIEdit

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

Geographical coverageEdit

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[22][23]

Country/region specific HDI listsEdit

CriticismEdit

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.[24]

Sources of data errorEdit

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.[24]

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[25] to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine[26] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

In 2013, Monni and Spaventa underline that in the debate between GDP and HDI, it is forgotten that these are both external indicators that purport to privilege different goals as reflective of human welfare. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population. [27]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  4. ^ "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. 
  6. ^ "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. 
  7. ^ "New method of calculation of Human Development Index (HDI)". India Study Channel. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2017-11-19. 
  8. ^ Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902. 
  9. ^ (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  10. ^ Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived 20 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2016—'Human Development for everyone'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  13. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf
  14. ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf
  15. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015
  16. ^ a b Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2015—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  18. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016
  19. ^ a b The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf
  21. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2014—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  22. ^ Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02. 
  23. ^ Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org.  Information Note linked to data
  24. ^ a b Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x. 
  25. ^ "UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011. [dead link]
  26. ^ "The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". 6 January 2011. 
  27. ^ Monni, Salvatore; Spaventa, Alessandro (2013). "Beyond Gdp and HDI: Shifting the focus from Paradigms to Politics". Development. 56 (2): 227–231. doi:10.1057/dev.2013.30. 

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