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Corruption Perceptions Index, 2017

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector[1] corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[2] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".[3]

The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)". Denmark and New Zealand are perceived as the least corrupt countries in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, ranking at 9 out of 100 since 2017.[4]

Contents

MethodsEdit

Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[5] The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[6] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[3] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[7] The institutions are:

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[7] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[9]

ValidityEdit

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and overabundance of regulation.[10]

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[10] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implicationsEdit

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[11] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[12] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

RankingsEdit

Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
100–090 089–080 079–070 069–060 059–050 049–040 039-030 029–020 019–010 009–000

2012–2018Edit

2012-2018 Corruption Perceptions Index table[13][14]
Rank Country
or
Territory
2018[15] 2017[16] 2016[17] 2015[18] 2014[19] 2013[20] 2012[21]
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1   Denmark
88
  0
88
  -2
90
  −1
91
  −1
92
  +1
91
  +1
90
2   New Zealand
87
  -2
89
  -1
90
  −1
91
  0
91
  0
91
  +1
90
3   Finland
85
  0
85
  -4
89
  −1
90
  +1
89
  0
89
  −1
90
3   Sweden
85
  +1
84
  -4
88
  −1
89
  +2
87
  −2
89
  +1
88
3    Switzerland
85
  0
85
  -1
86
  0
86
  0
86
  +1
85
  −1
86
3   Singapore
85
  +1
84
  0
84
  −1
85
  +1
84
  −2
86
  −1
87
7   Norway
84
  -1
85
  0
85
  −2
87
  +1
86
  0
86
  +1
85
8   Netherlands
82
  0
82
  -1
83
  −4
87
  +4
83
  0
83
  −1
84
9   Canada
81
  -1
82
  0
82
  −1
83
  +2
81
  0
81
  −3
84
9   Luxembourg
81
  -1
82
  +1
81
  0
81
  −1
82
  +2
80
  0
80
11   Germany
80
  -1
81
  0
81
  0
81
  +2
79
  +1
78
  −1
79
11   United Kingdom
80
  -2
82
  +1
81
  0
81
  +3
78
  +2
76
  +2
74
13   Australia
77
  0
77
  -2
79
  0
79
  −1
80
  −1
81
  −4
85
14   Iceland
76
  -1
77
  -1
78
  −1
79
  0
79
  +1
78
  −4
82
14   Hong Kong
76
  -1
77
  0
77
  +2
75
  +1
74
  −1
75
  −2
77
14   Austria
76
  +1
75
  0
75
  −1
76
  +4
72
  +3
69
  0
69
17   Belgium
75
  0
75
  -2
77
  0
77
  +1
76
  +1
75
  0
75
18   Ireland
73
  -1
74
  +1
73
  −2
75
  +1
74
  +2
72
  +3
69
18   Japan
73
  0
73
  +1
72
  −3
75
  −1
76
  +2
74
  0
74
18   Estonia
73
  +2
71
  +1
70
  0
70
  +1
69
  +1
68
  +4
64
21   France
72
  +2
70
  +2
69
  −1
70
  +1
69
  −2
71
  0
71
22   United States
71
  -4
75
  +1
74
  −2
76
  +2
74
  +1
73
  0
73
23   Uruguay
70
  0
70
  -1
71
  −3
74
  +1
73
  0
73
  +1
72
23   United Arab Emirates
70
  -1
71
  +5
66
  −4
70
  0
70
  +1
69
  +1
68
25   Bhutan
68
  +1
67
  +2
65
  0
65
  0
65
  +2
63
  0
63
25   Barbados
68
  0
68
  +7
61
  0   0
74
  −1
75
  −1
76
27   Chile
67
  0
67
  +1
66
  −4
70
  −3
73
  +2
71
  −1
72
29   Bahamas
65
  0
65
  -1
66
  0   0
71
  0
71
  0
71
30   Portugal
64
  +1
63
  +1
62
  −1
63
  0
63
  +1
62
  −1
63
31   Taiwan
63
  0
63
  +2
61
  −1
62
  +1
61
  0
61
  0
61
31   Brunei
63
  +1
62
  +4
58
  0   0   0
60
  +5
55
33   Qatar
62
  -1
63
  +2
61
  −10
71
  +2
69
  +1
68
  0
68
34   Israel
61
  -1
62
  -2
64
  +3
61
  +1
60
  −1
61
  +1
60
34   Botswana
61
  0
61
  +1
60
  −3
63
  0
63
  −1
64
  −1
65
36   Poland
60
  0
60
  -2
62
  0
62
  +1
61
  +1
60
  +2
58
36   Slovenia
60
  -1
61
  0
61
  +1
60
  +2
58
  +1
57
  −4
61
38   Lithuania
59
  0
59
  0
59
  −2
61
  +3
58
  +1
57
  +3
54
38   Cyprus
59
  +2
57
  +2
55
  −6
61
  −2
63
  0
63
  −3
66
38   Czech Republic
59
  +2
57
  +2
55
  −1
56
  +5
51
  +3
48
  −1
49
41   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
58
  0
58
  -2
60
  0   0
67
  +5
62
  0
62
41   Spain
58
  +1
57
  -1
58
  0
58
  −2
60
  +1
59
  −6
65
41   Georgia
58
  +2
56
  -1
57
  +5
52
  0
52
  +3
49
  −3
52
41   Latvia
58
  0
58
  +1
57
  +2
55
  0
55
  +2
53
  +4
49
45   Cape Verde
57
  +2
55
  -4
59
  +4
55
  −2
57
  −1
58
  −2
60
45   Dominica
57
  0
57
  -2
59
  0   0
58
  0
58
  0
58
45   South Korea
57
  +3
54
  +1
53
  −3
56
  +1
55
  0
55
  −1
56
48   Costa Rica
56
  -3
59
  +1
58
  +3
55
  +1
54
  +1
53
  −1
54
48   Rwanda
56
  +1
55
  +1
54
  0
54
  +5
49
  −4
53
  0
53
50   Saint Lucia
55
  0
55
  -5
60
  0   0   0
71
  0
71
51   Malta
54
  -2
56
  +1
55
  −1
56
  +1
55
  −1
56
  −1
57
52   Namibia
53
  +2
51
  -1
52
  −1
53
  +4
49
  +1
48
  0
48
53   Grenada
52
  0
52
  -4
56
  0   0   0   0
53   Italy
52
  +2
50
  +3
47
  +3
44
  +1
43
  0
43
  +1
42
53   Oman
52
  +8
44
  -1
45
  0
45
  0
45
  −2
47
  0
47
56   Mauritius
51
  +1
50
  -4
54
  +1
53
  −1
54
  +2
52
  −5
57
57   Slovakia
50
  0
50
  -1
51
  0
51
  +1
50
  +3
47
  +1
46
58   Jordan
49
  +1
48
  0
48
  −5
53
  +4
49
  +4
45
  −3
48
58   Saudi Arabia
49
  0
49
  +3
46
  −6
52
  +3
49
  +3
46
  +2
44
60   Croatia
48
  -1
49
  0
49
  −2
51
  +3
48
  0
48
  +2
46
61   Malaysia
47
  0
47
  -2
49
  −1
50
  −2
52
  +2
50
  +1
49
61   Romania
47
  -1
48
  0
48
  +2
46
  +3
43
  0
43
  −1
44
61   Cuba
47
  0
47
  0
47
  0
47
  +1
46
  0
46
  −2
48
64   Hungary
46
  +1
45
  -3
48
  −3
51
  −3
54
  0
54
  −1
55
64   São Tomé and Príncipe
46
  0
46
  0
46
  +4
42
  0
42
  0
42
  0
42
67   Montenegro
45
  -1
46
  +1
45
  +1
44
  +2
42
  −2
44
  +3
41
67   Senegal
45
  0
45
  0
45
  +1
44
  +1
43
  +2
41
  +5
36
67   Greece
45
  -3
48
  +4
44
  −2
46
  +3
43
  +3
40
  +4
36
70   Solomon Islands
44
  +5
39
  -3
42
  0   0   0   0
70   Belarus
44
  0
44
  +4
40
  +8
32
  +1
31
  +2
29
  −2
31
70   Jamaica
44
  0
44
  +5
39
  −2
41
  +3
38
  0
38
  0
38
73   South Africa
43
  0
43
  -2
45
  +1
44
  0
44
  +2
42
  −1
43
73   Suriname
43
  +2
41
  -4
45
  +9
36
  0
36
  0
36
  −1
37
73   Tunisia
43
  +1
42
  +1
41
  +3
38
  −2
40
  −1
41
  0
41
73   Morocco
43
  +3
40
  +3
37
  +1
36
  −3
39
  +2
37
  0
37
77   Bulgaria
42
  -1
43
  +2
41
  0
41
  −2
43
  +2
41
  0
41
78   Ghana
41
  +1
40
  -3
43
  −4
47
  −1
48
  +2
46
  +1
45
78   Burkina Faso
41
  -1
42
  0
42
  +4
38
  0
38
  0
38
  0
38
78   Kuwait
41
  +2
39
  -2
41
  −8
49
  +5
44
  +1
43
  −1
44
78   Turkey
41
  +1
40
  -1
41
  −1
42
  −3
45
  −5
50
  +1
49
78   India
41
  +1
40
  0
40
  +2
38
  0
38
  +2
36
  0
36
78   Lesotho
41
  -1
42
  +3
39
  −5
44
  −5
49
  0
49
  +4
45
78   Trinidad and Tobago
41
  0
41
  +6
35
  −4
39
  +1
38
  0
38
  −1
39
85   Argentina
40
  +1
39
  +3
36
  +4
32
  −2
34
  0
34
  −1
35
85   Benin
40
  +1
39
  +3
36
  −1
37
  −2
39
  +3
36
  0
36
87   Serbia
39
  -2
41
  -1
42
  +2
40
  −1
41
  −1
42
  +3
39
87   China
39
  -2
41
  +1
40
  +3
37
  +1
36
  −4
40
  +1
39
88   Bosnia and Herzegovina
38
  0
38
  -1
39
  +1
38
  −1
39
  −3
42
  0
42
89   Indonesia
38
  +1
37
  0
37
  +1
36
  +2
34
  +2
32
  0
32
89   Sri Lanka
38
  0
38
  +2
36
  −1
37
  −1
38
  +1
37
  −3
40
93   Mongolia
37
  +1
36
  -2
38
  −1
39
  0
39
  +1
38
  +2
36
93   Panama
37
  0
37
  -1
38
  −1
39
  +2
37
  +2
35
  −3
38
93   Macedonia
37
  +2
35
  -2
37
  −5
42
  −3
45
  +1
44
  +1
43
93   Kosovo
37
  -2
39
  +3
36
  +3
33
  0
33
  0
33
  −1
34
93   Guyana
37
  -1
38
  +4
34
  +5
29
  −1
30
  +3
27
  −1
28
93   Gambia
37
  +7
30
  +4
26
  −2
28
  −1
29
  +1
28
  −6
34
99   Bahrain
36
  0
36
  -7
43
  −8
51
  +2
49
  +1
48
  −3
51
99   Albania
36
  -2
38
  -1
39
  +3
36
  +3
33
  +2
31
  −2
33
99   Colombia
36
  -1
37
  0
37
  0
37
  0
37
  +1
36
  0
36
99   Philippines
36
  +2
34
  -1
35
  0
35
  −3
38
  +2
36
  +2
34
99   Thailand
36
  -1
37
  +2
35
  −3
38
  0
38
  +3
35
  −2
37
99   Tanzania
36
  0
36
  +4
32
  +2
30
  −1
31
  −2
33
  −2
35
105   Brazil
35
  -2
37
  -3
40
  +2
38
  −5
43
  +1
42
  −1
43
105   Zambia
35
  -2
37
  -1
38
  0
38
  0
38
  0
38
  +1
37
105   El Salvador
35
  +2
33
  -3
36
  −3
39
  0
39
  +1
38
  0
38
105   Peru
35
  -2
37
  +2
35
  −1
36
  −2
38
  0
38
  0
38
105   Timor-Leste
35
  -3
38
  +3
35
  +7
28
  0
28
  −2
30
  −3
33
105   Algeria
35
  +2
33
  -1
34
  −2
36
  0
36
  0
36
  +2
34
105   Egypt
35
  +3
32
  -2
34
  −2
36
  −1
37
  +5
32
  0
32
105   Ivory Coast
35
  -1
36
  +2
34
  +2
32
  0
32
  +5
27
  −2
29
105   Armenia
35
  0
35
  +2
33
  −2
35
  −2
37
  +1
36
  +2
34
114   Niger
34
  +1
33
  -2
35
  +1
34
  −1
35
  +1
34
  +1
33
114   Ethiopia
34
  -1
35
  +1
34
  +1
33
  0
33
  0
33
  0
33
114   Ecuador
34
  +2
32
  +1
31
  −1
32
  −1
33
  −2
35
  +3
32
117   Vietnam
33
  -2
35
  +2
33
  +2
31
  0
31
  0
31
  0
31
117   Pakistan
33
  +1
32
  0
32
  +2
30
  +1
29
  +1
28
  +1
27
117   Moldova
33
  +2
31
  +1
30
  −3
33
  −2
35
  0
35
  −1
36
120   Liberia
32
  +1
31
  -6
37
  0
37
  0
37
  −1
38
  −3
41
120   Mali
32
  +1
31
  -1
32
  −3
35
  +3
32
  +4
28
  −6
34
120   Malawi
32
  +1
31
  0
31
  0
31
  −2
33
  −4
37
  0
37
120   Ukraine
32
  +2
30
  +1
29
  +2
27
  +1
26
  +1
25
  −1
26
124   Maldives
31
  -2
33
  -3
36
  0   0   0   0
124   Gabon
31
  -1
32
  -3
35
  +1
34
  −3
37
  +3
34
  −1
35
124   Djibouti
31
  0
31
  +1
30
  −4
34
  0
34
  −2
36
  0
36
124   Kazakhstan
31
  0
31
  +2
29
  +1
28
  −1
29
  +3
26
  −2
28
124     Nepal
31
  0
31
  +2
29
  +2
27
  −2
29
  −2
31
  +4
27
129   Togo
30
  -2
32
  0
32
  0
32
  +3
29
  0
29
  −1
30
129   Dominican Republic
30
  +1
29
  -2
31
  −2
33
  +1
32
  +3
29
  −3
32
129   Sierra Leone
30
  0
30
  0
30
  +1
29
  −2
31
  +1
30
  −1
31
132   Bolivia
29
  -4
33
  0
33
  −1
34
  −1
35
  +1
34
  0
34
132   Honduras
29
  0
29
  -1
30
  −1
31
  +2
29
  +3
26
  −2
28
132   Laos
29
  0
29
  -1
30
  +5
25
  0
25
  −1
26
  +5
21
132   Paraguay
29
  0
29
  -1
30
  +3
27
  +3
24
  0
24
  −1
25
132   Kyrgyzstan
29
  0
29
  +1
28
  0
28
  +1
27
  +3
24
  0
24
132   Myanmar
29
  -1
30
  +2
28
  +6
22
  +1
21