|States and territories|
|• Total||11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)|
|Population [note 2]|
|• Density||140/km2 (350/sq mi)|
|Languages and language families|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Đông Á|
|Mongolian||Зүүн Ази (Dzuun Azi)
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Taiwan, Mongolia, Korea (North and South) and Japan; it covers about 12,000,000 km2 (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent, about twice the area of Europe.
The East Asian people comprise more than 1.5 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of all the people in the world live in East Asia. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).
Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. Major religions include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana), Confucianism or Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion in China and Taiwan, Shinto in Japan, Korean shamanism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia. The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived.
Chinese Dynasties dominated the region in matters of culture, trade, and exploration as well as militarily for a very long time. There are records of tributes sent overseas from the early kingdoms of Korea and Japan. There were also considerable levels of cultural and religious exchange between the Chinese and other regional Dynasties and Kingdoms.
As connections began to strengthen with the Western world, China's power began to diminish. Around the same time, Japan solidified itself as a nation state. Throughout World War II, Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam all fell under Japanese control. Following Japan's defeat in the war, the Korean peninsula became independent, while Taiwan became the de facto Republic of China after the latter lost to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War.
United Nations Statistics DivisionEdit
The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience, but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China (including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau) Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea.[note 3]
There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.
- Vietnam (officially part of Southeast Asia geographically, although culturally it is a part of the East Asian cultural sphere, politically, it is related to both Southeast Asia and East Asia)
- Siberia in Russia (often described as North Asia due to its location, although this part of Russia is often seen as more closely related to its East Asian neighbours)
- Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea.
In business and economics, "East Asia" has sometimes been used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan) , Japan and South Korea.[note 3] However, in this context, the term "Far East" is often more appropriate which covers ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.
Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.
Territory and region dataEdit
Major ethnic groupsEdit
|State/Territory||Area km2||Population||Population density
|Hong Kong||1,104||7,298,600||6,390||0.912||Hong Kong|
|Ethnicity||Native name||Population||Languages||Writing languages||Major states/territories|
|Han||汉族/漢族||1,058,881,578||Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, etc.||Sinogram (Simplified/Traditional)|
|125,117,000||Japanese||Sinogram (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana|
|79,432,225||Korean||Hangul, Sinogram (Hanja)|
|Mongols||Монголчуудᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ||8,942,528||Mongolian||Mongol script, Cyrillic script|
|Zhuang||壮族/Bouxcuengh||18,000,000||Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.||Sinogram (Simplified), Latin script|
|Manchurians||满族||10,422,873||Manchurian, Northwestern Mandarin, etc.||Manchurian script, Sinogram (Simplified)|
|Hui||回族||10,586,087||Lan-Yin Mandarin||Sinogram (Simplified)|
|Uyghurs||ئۇيغۇر||10,069,346||Uyghur||Arabic, Latin script|
|Hmong||Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb||9,426,007||Hmong||Latin script|
|Tibetan||བོད་པ་||6,500,000||Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc.||Tibetan script|
Note: Ethnic groups listed and ranked by population within East Asia only.
The economy of East Asia is one of the most successful, developed and high-tech economies of the world, being home to some of the world's largest, most technologically advanced and most prosperous economies such as the industrialized developed countries of South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. The military and economic superpower of China became the largest economy in the world in 2014, surpassing the United States of America. Major positive factors have ranged from favorable political-legal environments for industry and commerce, through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labor.
In modern societies, a high level of structural differentiation, functional specialization, and autonomy of the economic system from government is a major contributor to industrial-commercial growth and prosperity. Currently in East Asia, trading systems are relatively open; and zero or low duties on imports of consumer and capital goods etc. have considerably helped stimulate cost-efficiency and change. Free and flexible labor and other markets are other important factors making for high levels of business-economic performance. East Asian populations have demonstrated highly positive work ethics. There are relatively large and fast-growing markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds.
The culture of East Asia has been influenced by the civilisation of China. East Asia, as well as Vietnam, share a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, political and legal structures, and historically a common writing system. The relationship between China and East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilisation on Europe.
billions of USD
|GDP nominal per capita
billions of USD
|GDP PPP per capita
|Religion||Native name||Denomination||Major book||Type||Major ethnicities||Major states/territories|
|Taoism||道教||Zhengyi, Quanzhen||Tao Te Ching||Polytheism||Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia, Li|
|Confucianism||儒教||Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang||Analects||Polytheism||Han, Joseon, Yamato|
|Sino-Buddhism||佛教||Mahayana, Hinayana||Diamond Sutra||Non-God||Han, Joseon, Yamato, Manchu|
|Tibetan Buddhism||བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།||Mahayana||anuttarayoga Tantra||Non-God||Tibetan, Manchu, Mongols|
|Shamanism||N/A||N/A||N/A||Primitive||Tibetan, Manchu, Mongols, Oroqen|
|Islam||الإسلام||Sunni,Shia||Koran||Henotheism||Hui, Tajik, Uyghurs, Kazak, Dongxiang|
|Festival||Other name||Calendar||Date||Gregorian date||Activity||Religious practices||Food||Major ethnicities||Major states/territories|
|Chinese New Year||Spring Festival||Chinese||Month 1 Day 1||21 Jan–20 Feb||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks||Worship the King of Gods||Jiaozi||Han, Joseon, Manchu|
|New Year||Yuan Dan||Gregorian||1 Jan||1 Jan||Fireworks||N/A||N/A||Han, Joseon, Yamato|
|Lantern Festival||Upper Yuan Festival||Chinese||Month 1 Day 15||4 Feb–6 Mar||Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer||Yuanxiao||Han, Joseon, Yamato||*|
|Qingming Festival||Tomb Sweeping Day||Solar||15th day since March equinox||4 Apr–6 April||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Burning Hell money||Cold Food||Han, Joseon, Mongols|
|Dragon Boat Festival||Duanwu Festival||Chinese||Month 5 Day 5||Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.||Worship various Gods||Zongzi||Han, Joseon, Yamato||*|
|Ghost Festival||Mid Yuan Festival||Chinese||Month 7 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer||Han, Joseon, Yamato||*|
|Mid-Autumn Festival||Chinese||Month 8 Day 15||Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view||Worship the Moon Goddess||Mooncake||Han, Joseon, Yamato||*|
|Double Ninth Festival||Double Negative Festival||Chinese||Month 9 Day 09||Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.||Worship various Gods||Han, Joseon, Yamato||*|
|Lower Yuan Festival||Chinese||Month 10 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Water-officer||Ciba||Han|
|Dec 23 Festival||Small New Year||Chinese||Month 12 Day 23||Cleaning Houses||Worship the God of Hearth||tanggua||Han, Mongols|
|International Labor Day||Gregorian||1 May||1 May||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|International Women's Day||Gregorian||8 Mar||8 Mar||Taking care of women||N/A||N/||N/A|
*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.
East Asian Youth GamesEdit
Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of theOceania National Olympic Committees.
The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, theSoutheast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. All nigh East Asian States/Territories join this Game.
Free trade agreementsEdit
|Name of agreement||Parties||Leaders at the time||Negotiation begins||Signing date||Starting time||Current status|
|China–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye||May, 2012||Jun 01, 2015||Dec 30, 2015||Enforced|
|China–Japan–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe||Mar 26, 2013||N/A||N/A||10 round negotiation|
|Japan-Mongolia EPA||Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||-||Feb 10, 2015||-||Enforced|
|China-Mongolia FTA||Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||N/A||N/A||N/A||Officially proposed|
|Mainland-HK CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa||-||Jun 29, 2003||-||Enforced|
|mainland-Macao CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah||-||Oct 18, 2003||-||Enforced|
|HK-Macao CEPA||Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui||Oct 09, 2015||N/A||N/A||Negotiating|
|ECFA||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Jan 26, 2010||Jun 29, 2010||Aug 17, 2010||Enforced|
|CSSTA (Based on ECFA)||Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou||Mar, 2011||Jun 21, 2013||N/A||Abolished|
|CSGTA (Based on ECFA)||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Feb 22, 2011||N/A||N/A||Suspended|
|Name||Abbr.||Parties within the region||Degree|
|Shanghai Cooperation Organisation||SCO||（ ）||★|
|Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty||-||（ ）||★★|
|General Security of Military Information Agreement||GSOMIA||★★★★|
|Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan||-||( )||★★★★★|
|Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea||-||( )||★★★★★|
Major cities and townsEdit
Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.
- Economy of East Asia
- East Asia Summit
- East Asian Community
- East Asian cultural sphere
- East Asian Games
- East Asian languages
- East Asian people
- East Asian studies
- Four Asian Tigers
- China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit
- Chinese calligraphy
- Japanese calligraphy
- Korean calligraphy
- Mongolian calligraphy
- The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea & South Korea, Taiwan and Japan as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
- The population figure is the combined populations of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan as listed at List of countries by population (last updated Feb 22, 2011).
- Taiwan (officially the Republic of China) has limited recognition internationally as a sovereign state while most countries keeps unofficial relations with it, see Political status of Taiwan. The People's Republic of China has sole control of the mainland including the claim of the island of Taiwan to be part its territory under its constitution as the Taiwan Province.
- "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
the countries, territories, and regions of China, Mongolia, Hong Kong, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Macau, and Taiwan.
- Columbia University - "East Asian cultural sphere" "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilisation of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
- Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
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- United Nations Environment Programme (mentions sinosphere countries) Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication 
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