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Northeast Asia or East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea.[5][6][7][8][3][9][10][11]

East Asia
Location of East Asia
Major cities
Area[note 1]
 • Total 11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population (2016)[note 2]
 • Total 1,641,908,531
 • Density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zone
Languages and language families
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet Đông Á
Chữ Hán 東亞
Korean name
Hangul 동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian Зүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kana ひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai 東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
شەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
Russian Восточная Азия
Romanization Vostochnaja Azija

The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[12][13] East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.[14][15][16] Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[17]), which emphasize interpersonal harmony, social order, a holistic of life, as well as the importance of education, Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, Shintoism in Japan, and Sindoism in Korea.[18] Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus and Ewenki.[19][20] Islam is popular in Northwest China and Kazaks in Mongolia. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture, and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from.

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of world's population lives in East Asia. The region is to home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).



In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would already possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.[21] As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors.[22][23][24] Succeeding Chinese Dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically, politically and militarily for over two millennia.[24] Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion during the second century B.C. Jomon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. As full fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea and Japan actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of Han Characters, Chinese style architecture, institutions, political philosophies into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[25] For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization.[26] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[27][23] The transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the 19th century.[21]

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S.Commodore Matthew C. Perry would open Japan to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s.[28] Around the same time, Japan with its rush to modernity transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[29][10] The modern and powerful Japan would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world.[29] With its newly found international status, Japan would begin to inextricably take a more active position in East Asia and leading role in world affairs at large. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.[30][28] Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan and Korea.[29] During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia under its control.[31] After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia saw the defeat and occupation of Japan by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China and Korea during the Cold War. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan, the economic rise of South Korea and Taiwan, and the integration of Mainland China into the global economy through its entry in the World Trade Organization while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power.[5][32]

United Nations Statistics DivisionEdit

In common usage, the term East Asia typically refers to a region including China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[33][34][35]

Broader definitions, such as that used by the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia.[36] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[37] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[38]

The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[39]
  East Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,[39] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China (including Mainland, Hong Kong, Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.[3][40]

Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere).[4][41][42][43]

Alternative definitionsEdit

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[44][45][46] The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.[37]


State/Territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)[47]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017)[47]
billions of USD (2017)[47]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017)[47]
  China 11,937.562 8,583 23,122.027 16,624
  Hong Kong 334.104 44,999 453.019 61,015
  Macau 51.160 79,563 73.579 114,430
  Japan 4,884.489 38,550 5,405.072 42,659
  North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A
  South Korea 1,529.743 29,730 2,026.651 39,387
  Mongolia 10.869 3,553 38.395 12,551
  Taiwan 571.453 24,227 1,175.308 49,827

Territorial and regional dataEdit


Flag Common Name Official Name
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym
  China 中国 People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国
  Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People’s Republic of China
  Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People’s Republic of China
Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
da República Popular da China
  Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国
  Mongolia Монгол улс Mongolia Монгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ
  North Korea 조선 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)
  South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國)
  Taiwan[48] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國


State/Territory Area km2 Population[49]
Population density
per km2
HDI Capital
  China 9,640,011[50] 1,403,500,365 138 0.727 Beijing
  Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.912 Hong Kong
  Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.892 Macau
  Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.891 Tokyo
  North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.595 Pyongyang[51]
  South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.898 Seoul
  Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.698 Ulaanbaatar
  Taiwan 36,188 23,556,706 639 0.884 Taipei[52]

Major ethnic groupsEdit

Ethnicity Native name Population Language(s) Writing system(s) Major states/territories* Physical Appearance
Han/Chinese 漢人 or 汉人, 漢族 or 汉族 1,220,000,000[53] Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters   (  )    
Yamato/Japanese 日本族 (にほんぞく)
大和民族 (やまとみんぞく)
125,117,000[54] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana  
Joseon/Korean 한민족 (韓民族)
조선족 (朝鮮族)
79,432,225[55] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja)     
Mongols Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script   
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000[56] Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script  
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ 10,422,873[57] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol script  
Hui 回族/回回 10,586,087[58] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc. Simplified Han characters  
Uyghurs ئۇيغۇر 10,069,346[59] Uyghur Arabic script,Latin script(auxiliary)[60]  [61]
Hmong/Miao Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007[62] Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters  
Tibetans བོད་པ་ 6,500,000 Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script  
Bai 白族 1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters  
Yi ꆈꌠ/彝族 8,714,393 Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters  
Tujia 土家族 8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han characters  
Kam Gaeml 2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script  
Tu 土族/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters  
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ 131,992 Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol script, Simplified Han characters   
Russians русские 15,393 Russian, Northwestern Mandarin Cyrillic script, Simplified Han characters  
Mountain Tajiks تاجيک 3,556 Sarikoli, Wakhi Arabic script  
Taiwanese Aborigines Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters  

*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.



The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[63] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and culture, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[64][24][65][66][67][68][69] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.[70][71] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over 2000 years due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[27][71] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[68][66][71][64]


Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Ethnic groups States/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc. Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[72][73] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)   (   )  
Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000[73] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia   (   )  
Confucianism 儒教 Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang Four Books and Five Classics Immanent transcendence/pantheism N/A Han, Joseon, Yamato   (   )      
East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God ~300,000,000 Han, Joseon, Yamato   (   )      
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols    
Shamanism[74] and Bon, etc. Бөө мөргөл , བོན N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen    
Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism N/A Yamato  
Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교 Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Joseon  


Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Joseon, Manchus etc.  (  )        
New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A  (  )          
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan–2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.   
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival (上元节) Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb–6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han, Joseon, Yamato  (  )        *
Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节 Tomb Sweeping Day Solar 15th day since March equinox 4 Apr–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money Cold Food Han, Joseon, Mongols  (  )      
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 Duanwu Festival Chinese Month 5 Day 5 Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door. Worship various Gods Zongzi Han, Joseon, Yamato  (  )        *
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer Han, Joseon, Yamato  (  )        *
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han, Joseon, Yamato  (  )        *
Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Positive Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods Han, Joseon, Yamato  (  )        *
Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han, Joseon  (  )      
Small New Year 小年 Jizao (祭灶) Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols  (  )    
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A  (  )    
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A  (  )      

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.


East Asian Youth GamesEdit

Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. All nigh East Asian States/Territories join this Game.

Free trade agreementsEdit

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status
China–South Korea FTA     Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA       Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA     Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA     Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed
Mainland-HK CEPA     Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced
Mainland-Macau CEPA     Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA     Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA     Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA)     Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA)     Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliancesEdit

Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO  (  )
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA   
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty -  (  )  
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan -  (  )  
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea -  (  )  
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT)  (  )  
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) -   (  )    [75]

Major cities and townsEdit

Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea & South Korea, Chinese Taiwan and Japan as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
  2. ^ The population figure is the combined populations of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Republic of China (Taiwan) as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects


  1. ^ Officially known as the Republic of China
  2. ^ Non-United Nations member state
  3. ^ a b c "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan. 
  4. ^ a b Columbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
  5. ^ a b Kort, Michael (2005). The Handbook Of East Asia. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0761326724. 
  6. ^ "Country Profiles: East Asia". Children and Armed Conflict Unit at the University of Essex. 
  7. ^ "East Asia". Springer Netherlands. 
  8. ^ "East Asia". 
  9. ^ Seybolt, Peter J. "China, Korea and Japan: Forgiveness and Mourning". Center for Asian Studies. Center for Asian Studies. 
  10. ^ a b Asian History Module Learning. Rex Bookstore Inc. 2002. p. 186. ISBN 978-9712331244. 
  11. ^ Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Sage Publications. p. 56. ISBN 978-1412916882. 
  12. ^ Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (2012). Towards a Sustainable Asia: The Cultural Perspectives. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-3642166686. 
  13. ^ Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. xx–xxvi. ISBN 978-1610690171. 
  14. ^ Zaharna, R.S.; Arsenault, Amelia; Fisher, Ali (2013). Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift (1st ed.). Routledge (published May 1, 2013). p. 93. ISBN 978-0415636070. 
  15. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1107544895. 
  16. ^ Szonyi, Michael (2017). A Companion to Chinese History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 90. ISBN 978-1118624609. 
  17. ^ include Tibetan Buddhism
  18. ^ Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Sage Publications. p. 56. ISBN 978-1412916882. 
  19. ^ Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
  20. ^ Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
  21. ^ a b Ellington, Lucien (2009). Japan (Nations in Focus). p. 21. 
  22. ^ Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 119. 
  23. ^ a b Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC. p. 121. ISBN 978-1594205460. 
  24. ^ a b c Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0231153195. 
  25. ^ Fagan, Brian M. (1999). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0195076189. 
  26. ^ Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs. Createspace Independent. p. 33. ISBN 978-1419648939. 
  27. ^ a b Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ISBN 0231101082
  28. ^ a b Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 926. ISBN 978-0393934083. 
  29. ^ a b c Batty, David (January 17, 2005). Japan's War in Colour (Documentary). TWI. 
  30. ^ "The Japanese Economy". Walk Japan. 
  31. ^ Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 1147. ISBN 978-0393934083. 
  32. ^ Northrup, Cynthia Clark; Bentley, Jerry H.; Eckes Jr., Alfred E. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 978-0765680587. 
  33. ^ Gilbet Rozman (2004), Northeast asia's stunted regionalism: bilateral distrust in the shadow of globalization. Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-4
  34. ^ "Northeast Asia dominates patent filing growth." Retrieved on August 8, 2001.
  35. ^ "Paper: Economic Integration in Northeast Asia." Retrieved on August 8, 2011.
  36. ^ Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis. "Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements" (PDF). Policy Research Working Paper. World Bank. 
  37. ^ a b "Northeast Asia." Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
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