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East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a term used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.[24][25]

CultureEdit

The major East Asian language families are the Sinitic, Japonic, and Koreanic families.[26][27][28][29] Other language families include the Tibeto-Burman, Ainu languages, Mongolic, Tungusic, Turkic, Miao–Yao, Tai–Kadai, Austronesian and Mon–Khmer.[30]

Throughout the ages, the greatest influence on East Asia historically has been from China, where the span of its cultural influence is generally known as the Sinosphere laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[31] Chinese culture not only served as the foundation for its own society and civilization, but for also that of its East Asian neighbors, Japan and Korea.[32] The knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar systems, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and culture, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[33][34][35][31][36][37][38] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[37] Major characteristics exported by China towards Japan and Korea include shared Chinese-derived language characteristics, as well as similar social and moral philosophies derived from Confucianist thought.[38][36][39]

The script of the Han Chinese characters has long been a unifying feature in East Asia as the vehicle for exporting Chinese culture to its East Asian neighbors.[39] Chinese characters became the unifying language of bureaucratic politics and religious expression in East Asia.[39] The Chinese script was passed on first to Korea and then to Japan, where it forms a major component of the Japanese writing system. In Korea, however, Sejong the Great invented the hangul alphabet, which has since been used as the main orthographic system for the Korean language.[40] In Japan, much of the Japanese language is written in hiragana, katakana in addition to Chinese characters.[38]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Introducing East Asian Peoples" (PDF). International Mission Board. September 10, 2016.
  2. ^ Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. xx. ISBN 978-1610690171.
  3. ^ "How Asians view each other". The Economist. September 18, 2015.
  4. ^ Khoo, Isabelle (May 30, 2017). "The Difference Between East Asians And South Asians Is Pretty Simple". Huffington Post.
  5. ^ Silberman, Neil (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press (published December 5, 1996). p. 151. ISBN 978-0195076189.
  6. ^ Lim, SK (2011-11-01). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 56. ISBN 978-9812295941.
  7. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations" (PDF). Hereditas. SpringerLink. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  8. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (April 6, 2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas. SpringerLink. 155. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMID 29636655.
  9. ^ "Introducing East Asian Peoples" (PDF). International Mission Board. September 10, 2016.
  10. ^ Sloan, Kathleen; Krimsky, Sheldon (2011). Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture. Columbia University Pres. p. 156. ISBN 978-0231156967.
  11. ^ Herreria, Carla (May 17, 2017). "Basically Nobody Knows Who Counts As An Asian Person". The Huffington Post.
  12. ^ Lin, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mao-Jiun J.; Wang, Eric M. (June 23, 2003) [2003]. "The comparisons of anthropometric characteristics among four peoples in East Asia" (PDF). Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management. Elsevier Ltd.: 173.
  13. ^ Machery, Edouard; O'Neill, Elizabeth (2014). Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy (Current Controversies in Philosophy). Routledge (published February 28, 2014). p. 6. ISBN 978-0415519670.
  14. ^ Ludwig, Theodore M. (2003). Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice. LWW. p. 165. ISBN 978-0781740968.
  15. ^ Shaules, Joseph (2007). Deep Culture: The Hidden Challenges of Global Living. Multilingual Matters. p. 43. ISBN 978-1847690173.
  16. ^ Kowner, Rotem; Demel, Walter (2014). Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Western and Eastern Constructions (1st ed.). Brill Academic Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 978-9004285507.
  17. ^ Leach, Mark M. (2006). Cultural Diversity and Suicide: Ethnic, Religious, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Perspectives. Routledge. p. 127. ISBN 978-0789030184.
  18. ^ Leibo, Steve (2016). East and Southeast Asia 2016-2017. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 1. ISBN 978-1475829068.
  19. ^ Steinberg, Shirley R.; Kehler, Michael; Cornish, Lindsay (June 17, 2010). Boy Culture: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Greenwood. p. 58. ISBN 978-0313350801.
  20. ^ Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Sage Publications. p. 56. ISBN 978-1412916882.
  21. ^ Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. xx–xxvi. ISBN 978-1610690171.
  22. ^ Stodolska, Monika (2013). Race, Ethnicity, and Leisure: Perspectives on Research, Theory, and Practice. Human Kinetics. p. 229. ISBN 978-0736094528.
  23. ^ Lim, SK (2011-11-01). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 56. ISBN 978-9812295941.
  24. ^ Vickers, Edward (2010). History Education and National Identity in East Asia (published October 21, 2010). p. 125. ISBN 978-0415948081.
  25. ^ Demel, Walter; Kowner, Rotem (2015). Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Interactions, Nationalism, Gender and Lineage. Brill (published April 23, 2015). p. 255. ISBN 978-9004292925.
  26. ^ Sinitic means relating to China or the Chinese. It is derived from the Greco-Latin word Sīnai ('the Chinese'), probably from Arabic Ṣīn ('China'), from the Chinese dynastic name Qín. (OED)
  27. ^ Shimabukuro, Moriyo. (2007). The Accentual History of the Japanese and Ryukyuan Languages: a Reconstruction, p. 1.
  28. ^ Miyake, Marc Hideo. (2008). Old Japanese: a Phonetic Reconstruction. p. 66., p. 66, at Google Books
  29. ^ Kim, Chin-Wu (1974). The Making of the Korean Language. Center for Korean Studies, University of Hawai'i.
  30. ^ Miller, David (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge (published December 15, 2007). p. 7–8. ISBN 978-0765618221.
  31. ^ a b Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 2.
  32. ^ Hayes, Louis D (2009). Political Systems of East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan. Greenlight. pp. xi. ISBN 978-0765617866.
  33. ^ Hazen, Dan; Spohrer, James H. (2005). Building Area Studies Collections. Otto Harrassowitz (published December 31, 2005). p. 1. ISBN 978-3447055123.
  34. ^ Richter, Frank-Jurgen (2002). Redesigning Asian Business: In the Aftermath of Crisis. Quorum Books. p. 15. ISBN 978-1567205251.
  35. ^ Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0231153195.
  36. ^ a b Lewis, Mark Edward (2012). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Belknap Press (published April 9, 2012). p. 156. ISBN 978-0674064010.
  37. ^ a b Edwin O. Reischauer, "The Sinic World in Perspective," Foreign Affairs 52.2 (January 1974): 341—348. JSTOR Archived 2017-01-15 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ a b c Lim, SK (2011-11-01). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 89. ISBN 978-9812295941.
  39. ^ a b c Goscha, Christopher (2016). The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam: A History. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1846143106.
  40. ^ "How was Hangul invented?". The Economist. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.