List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2019 according to the IMF
  >50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  <2,000
  Data unavailable

This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates)[5] World Bank (2019)[6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1   Qatar 138,910
  Macau 113,352
2   Luxembourg 112,045
3   Singapore 105,689
4   Ireland 86,988
5   Brunei 85,011
6   Norway 79,638
7   United Arab Emirates 70,441
8   Kuwait 67,891
9    Switzerland 67,558
10   United States 67,426
  Hong Kong 66,527
11   San Marino 62,913
12   Netherlands 60,299
  Taiwan 57,214
13   Iceland 56,974
14   Saudi Arabia 56,912
15   Sweden 55,989
16   Denmark 55,675
17   Germany 55,306
18   Austria 55,171
19   Australia 54,799
20   Canada 52,144
21   Bahrain 51,991
22   Belgium 50,904
23   Malta 49,589
24   Finland 49,548
25   France 48,640
26   Oman 48,593
27   United Kingdom 48,169
28   Japan 46,827
29   Korea, South 46,452
30   Spain 43,007
31   Cyprus 42,956
32   New Zealand 42,045
33   Italy 41,582
  Puerto Rico 41,198
34   Czech Republic 40,585
35   Slovenia 40,344
36   Israel 40,337
37   Lithuania 38,751
38   Slovakia 38,321
39   Estonia 37,606
40   Hungary 35,941
41   Poland 35,651
42   Portugal 34,936
43   Malaysia 34,567
44   Trinidad and Tobago 33,713
45   Bahamas, The 33,432
46   Seychelles 33,118
47   Latvia 32,987
48   Saint Kitts and Nevis 31,950
49   Greece 31,616
50   Russia 30,820
51   Antigua and Barbuda 30,593
52   Kazakhstan 30,178
53   Romania 29,555
54   Turkey 29,327
55   Croatia 29,207
56   Panama 28,456
57   Chile 27,150
58   Mauritius 26,461
59   Bulgaria 26,034
60   Maldives 24,796
61   Uruguay 24,516
62   Montenegro 21,977
63   Turkmenistan 21,855
64   Mexico 21,363
65   Thailand 21,361
66   Belarus 21,224
67   People's Republic of China 20,984
68   Dominican Republic 20,625
69   Argentina 19,971
70   Equatorial Guinea 19,961
71   Gabon 19,839
72   Serbia 19,767
73   Botswana 19,388
74   Barbados 19,364
75   Azerbaijan 19,156
76   Iraq 18,755
77   Costa Rica 18,651
  World[n 2] 18,391
78   Iran 17,832
79   Grenada 17,434
80   North Macedonia 17,378
81   Guyana 17,163
82   Brazil 17,106
83   Palau 16,855
84   Colombia 16,265
85   Algeria 16,091
86   Suriname 16,044
87   Lebanon 15,599
88   Peru 15,399
89   Saint Lucia 15,159
90   Mongolia 15,089
91   Bosnia and Herzegovina 14,894
92   Albania 14,866
93   Indonesia 14,841
94   Egypt 14,800
95   Sri Lanka 14,509
96   South Africa 13,965
97   Paraguay 13,213
98   Georgia 13,200
99   Tunisia 13,093
  Kosovo 13,017
100   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,983
101   Dominica 12,851
102   Fiji 12,689
103   Ecuador 11,866
104   Armenia 11,845
105   Namibia 11,451
106   Eswatini 11,139
107   Bhutan 10,627
108   Ukraine 10,130
109   Philippines 10,094
110   Jordan 9,939
111   Jamaica 9,932
112   Morocco 9,667
113   Uzbekistan 9,595
114   Libya 9,446
115   Nauru 9,073
116   India 9,027
117   Guatemala 9,009
118   Belize 8,791
119   Cape Verde 8,716
120   Laos 8,684
121   Vietnam 8,677
122   El Salvador 8,593
123   Bolivia 8,525
124   Moldova 8,161
125   Congo, Republic of the 7,336
126   Ghana 7,343
127   Myanmar 7,220
128   Tonga 6,867
129   Angola 6,763
130   Samoa 6,493
131   Nigeria 6,172
132   Pakistan 6,016
133   Djibouti 5,855
134   Honduras 5,600
135   Bangladesh 5,453
136   Timor-Leste 5,321
137   Nicaragua 5,297
138   Mauritania 5,158
139   Cambodia 5,004
140   Côte d'Ivoire 4,754
141   Tuvalu 4,535
142   Kyrgyzstan 4,193
143   Zambia 4,174
144   Cameroon 4,099
145   Papua New Guinea 4,081
146   Senegal 4,079
147   Kenya 4,078
148   Sudan 3,986
149   Marshall Islands 3,972
150   Tajikistan 3,751
151   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,657
152   Lesotho 3,655
153   Tanzania 3,652
154   Benin 3,648
155     Nepal 3,550
156   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,499
157   Vanuatu 3,039
158   Comoros 2,898
159   Gambia, The 2,892
160   Zimbabwe 2,778
161   Uganda 2,753
162   Ethiopia 2,702
163   Rwanda 2,642
164   Chad 2,603
165   Guinea 2,574
166   Mali 2,569
167   Solomon Islands 2,363
168   Yemen 2,312
169   Kiribati 2,193
170   Afghanistan 2,182
171   Burkina Faso 2,181
172   Guinea-Bissau 2,113
173   Haiti 1,916
174   Togo 1,913
175   Madagascar 1,776
176   Sierra Leone 1,765
177   South Sudan 1,715
178   Liberia 1,428
179   Mozambique 1,372
180   Malawi 1,292
181   Niger 1,152
182   Eritrea 1,103
183   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 873
184   Central African Republic 864
185   Burundi 724
  Syria n/a
  Venezuela n/a
Rank Country/Territory Int$
  Macau 129,103
1   Luxembourg 121,293
2   Singapore 101,376
3   Qatar 96,491
4   Ireland 88,241
  Cayman Islands (2018) 72,481
5    Switzerland 70,989
6   United Arab Emirates 69,901
7   Norway 66,832
8   United States 65,281
9   Brunei 64,673
  Hong Kong 62,375
10   San Marino (2018) 60,750
11   Iceland 60,061
12   Denmark 59,830
13   Netherlands 59,687
  Bermuda (2013) 59,483
14   Austria 59,111
15   Germany 56,052
16   Sweden 55,815
  Taiwan 55,078
17   Belgium 54,545
18   Australia 53,320
19   Kuwait 51,912
20   Canada 51,342
21   Finland 51,324
22   France 49,435
23   Saudi Arabia 48,909
24   United Kingdom 48,710
25   Bahrain 46,892
26   Malta 45,652
  European Union 46,468
27   Italy 44,197
28   New Zealand 43,953
29   Japan 43,236
30   Korea, South 43,029
31   Czech Republic 42,576
32   Spain 42,214
33   Israel 42,194
34   Cyprus 41,254
35   Slovenia 40,657
36   Estonia 38,811
  Aruba (2017) 38,442
37   Lithuania 38,214
38   Bahamas, The 37,266
39   Portugal 36,471
  Puerto Rico 35,948
41   Poland 34,218
42   Slovakia 34,178
43   Hungary 33,979
44   Panama 32,763
45   Romania 32,297
  Sint Maarten (2017) 32,256
46   Latvia 32,205
47   Greece 31,399
48   Seychelles 30,260
49   Croatia 29,973
50   Malaysia 29,526
51   Russia 29,181
52   Oman 29,053
53   Turkey 27,875
54   Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,449
55   Kazakhstan 27,444
56   Trinidad and Tobago 27,261
  Turks and Caicos Islands 27,055
  Curaçao 25,572
57   Chile 25,155
58   Bulgaria 24,561
59   Mauritius 23,942
60   Montenegro 22,989
61   Argentina 22,947
62   Antigua and Barbuda 22,817
63   Uruguay 22,455
64   Costa Rica 20,434
65   Mexico 20,411
66   Belarus 19,943
67   Maldives 19,698
68   Equatorial Guinea 19,327
69   Thailand 19,228
70   Dominican Republic 19,182
71   Serbia 18,989
72   Botswana 18,503
73   Palau 18,496
74   Grenada 17,956
75   North Macedonia 17,815
 World 17,680
76   Venezuela (2011) 17,527
77   Suriname 17,005
78   China 16,785
79   Barbados 16,287
80   Saint Lucia 16,089
81   Libya 15,803
82   Bosnia and Herzegovina 15,792
83   Colombia 15,644
84   Georgia 15,637
85   Gabon 15,486
86   Lebanon 15,327
87   Brazil 15,259
88   Turkmenistan 15,196
89   Azerbaijan 15,001
90   Iran (2017) 14,536
91   Albania 14,495
92   Fiji 14,428
93   Armenia 14,220
94   Sri Lanka 13,620
95   Moldova 13,620
96   Peru 13,380
97   Ukraine 13,341
98   Paraguay 13,210
99   South Africa 12,999
100   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,983
101   Mongolia 12,820
102   Dominica 12,659
103   Indonesia 12,302
104   Egypt 12,251
105   Nauru 12,080
106   Ecuador 11,847
  Kosovo 11,839
107   Algeria 11,820
108   Bhutan 11,613
109   Iraq 11,332
110   Tunisia 11,201
111   Jordan 10,316
112   Jamaica 10,166
113   Guyana 10,105
114   Namibia 10,037
115   Philippines 9,277
116   El Salvador 9,139
117   Bolivia 9,086
118   Eswatini 9,048
119   Guatemala 8,995
120   Vietnam 8,374
121   Laos 8,150
122   Morocco 7,826
123   Cape Verde 7,469
124   Belize 7,295
125   Uzbekistan 7,288
126   India 7,034
127   Angola 6,929
128   Samoa 6,787
129   Tonga 6,414
130   Honduras 5,965
  West Bank and Gaza (2018) 5,795
131   Djibouti 5,748
132   Ghana 5,637
133   Nicaragua 5,631
134   Kyrgyzstan 5,470
135   Côte d'Ivoire 5,455
136   Mauritania 5,412
137   Myanmar 5,355
138   Nigeria 5,348
139   Bangladesh 4,950
140   Pakistan 4,884
141   Cambodia 4,570
142   Papua New Guinea 4,569
143   Kenya 4,509
144   Tuvalu 4,465
145   São Tomé and Príncipe 4,128
146   Sudan 4,122
147   Marshall Islands 3,986
148   Cameroon 3,804
149   Yemen (2013) 3,688
150   Zambia 3,623
151     Nepal 3,558
152   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,550
153   Senegal 3,535
154   Tajikistan 3,519
155   Congo, Republic of the 3,434
156   Benin 3,423
157   Vanuatu 3,273
158   Timor-Leste 3,252
159   Comoros 3,209
160   Zimbabwe 2,953
161   Lesotho 2,882
162   Tanzania 2,770
163   Guinea 2,670
164   Solomon Islands 2,465
165   Mali 2,423
166   Kiribati 2,369
167   Rwanda 2,318
168   Ethiopia 2,311
169   Gambia, The 2,298
170   Afghanistan 2,293
171   Burkina Faso 2,280
172   Uganda 2,271
173   Guinea-Bissau 2,071
174   Haiti 1,800
175   Sierra Leone 1,789
176   Madagascar 1,714
177   Togo 1,662
178   Chad 1,645
179   Eritrea (2011) 1,625
180   South Sudan (2014) 1,495
181   Liberia 1,533
182   Mozambique 1,333
183   Niger 1,269
184   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1,143
185   Malawi 1,143
186   Central African Republic 984
187   Burundi 782
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1   Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2   Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3   Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
  Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4   Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5   Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
  Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
  Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6   Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7   Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8   Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9   Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10   United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
  Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
  Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11    Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12   San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13   United States 59,500 2017 est.
14   Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15   Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
  Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16   Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17   Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18   Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19   Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20   Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21   Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
  Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
22   Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
  Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
23   Austria 49,200 2017 est.
24   Canada 48,100 2017 est.
25   Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
26   Oman 45,500 2017 est.
27   Finland 44,000 2017 est.
  Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
28   France 43,600 2017 est.
29   United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
30   Japan 42,700 2017 est.
31   Malta 42,500 2017 est.
  British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
  European Union 40,900 2017 est.
  Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
32   Korea, South 39,400 2017 est.
33   New Zealand 38,900 2017 est.
34   Spain 38,300 2017 est.
35   Italy 38,100 2017 est.
  Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
  Puerto Rico 37,300 2017 est.
36   Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
37   Israel 36,200 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
38   Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
39   Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
40   Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
41   Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
42   Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
43   Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
44   Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
  Guam 30,500 2013 est.
45   Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
46   Poland 29,300 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
47   Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
48   Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
49   Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
50   Russia 27,900 2017 est.
51   Greece 27,800 2017 est.
52   Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
53   Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
54   Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
55   Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
56   Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
  Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
57   Bahamas, The 25,100 2017 est.
58   Chile 24,600 2017 est.
59   Panama 24,300 2017 est.
60   Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
61   Romania 24,000 2017 est.
62   Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
63   Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
64   Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
65   Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
66   Iran 20,000 2017 est.
67   Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
68   Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
69   Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
70   Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
71   Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
72   Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
73   Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
74   Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
75   Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
76   Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
77   Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
78   Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
79   Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
80   Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
81   Palau 16,700 2017 est.
82   People's Republic of China 16,600 2017 est.
83   Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
84   Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
85   North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
86   Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
  Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
87   Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
88   Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
89   Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
90   Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
91   South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
92   Peru 13,300 2017 est.
93   Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
  American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
94   Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
95   Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
96   Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
97   Albania 12,500 2017 est.
98   Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
99   Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
  Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
100   Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
  Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
101   Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
102   Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
103   Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
104   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
105   Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
107   Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
108   Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
  Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
109   Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
110   Eswatini 9,900 2017 est.
111   Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
112   Libya 9,800 2017 est.
113   Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
114   Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
115   El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
116   Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
117   Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
118   Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
  Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
119   Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
120   Belize 8,300 2017 est.
121   Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
122   Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123   Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
124   Laos 7,400 2017 est.
125   India 7,200 2017 est.
126   Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
127   Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
128   Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
129   Angola 6,800 2017 est.
130   Congo, Republic of the 6,700 2017 est.
131   Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132   Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133   Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
  Niue 5,800 2003 est.
134   Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
135   Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
136   Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
137   Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138   Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139   Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140   Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141   Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142   Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
  West Bank 4,300 2014 est.
143   Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144   Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145   Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146   Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147   Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148   Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149   Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150   Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151   Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152   Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153   Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154   Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,400 2017 est.
156   Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158   Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159   Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160   Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161     Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162   Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163   Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164   Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165   Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166   Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167   Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168   Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169   Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170   Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171   Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172   Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173   Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174   Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175   Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176   Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177   Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178   Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179   Korea, North 1,700 2015 est.
180   Gambia, The 1,700 2017 est.
181   Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182   Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183   Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184   South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185   Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186   Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187   Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188   Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
  Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189   Liberia 900 2017 est.
190   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 800 2017 est.
191   Burundi 800 2017 est.
192   Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193   Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016–2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[6][13]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]
  2. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  13. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.