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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2018 according to the IMF
  > 50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  < 2,000
  No data

This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2017, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is US$17,300.[1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Contents

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP was over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars (also known as international dollars), and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2018)[4] World Bank (2017)[5][6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1   Qatar 130,475
  Macau 116,808
2   Luxembourg 106,705
3   Singapore 100,345
4   Brunei 79,530
5   Ireland 78,785
6   Norway 74,356
7   United Arab Emirates 69,382
8   Kuwait 67,000
9    Switzerland 64,649
  Hong Kong 64,216
10   United States 62,606
11   San Marino 60,313
12   Netherlands 56,383
13   Saudi Arabia 55,944
14   Iceland 55,917
  Taiwan 53,023
15   Sweden 52,984
16   Germany 52,559
17   Australia 52,373
18   Austria 52,137
19   Denmark 52,121
20   Bahrain 50,057
21   Canada 49,651
22   Belgium 48,245
23   Oman 46,584
24   Finland 46,430
25   France 45,775
26   United Kingdom 45,705
27   Malta 45,606
28   Japan 44,227
29   Korea, South 41,351
30   Spain 40,139
31   New Zealand 40,135
32   Cyprus 39,973
  Puerto Rico 39,737
33   Italy 39,637
34   Israel 37,972
35   Czech Republic 37,371
36   Slovenia 36,746
37   Slovakia 35,130
38   Lithuania 34,826
39   Estonia 34,096
40   Bahamas, The 33,494
41   Trinidad and Tobago 32,254
42   Portugal 32,006
43   Poland 31,939
44   Hungary 31,903
45   Malaysia 30,860
46   Seychelles 30,505
47   Latvia 29,901
48   Saint Kitts and Nevis 29,820
49   Russia 29,267
50   Greece 29,123
51   Antigua and Barbuda 27,981
52   Turkey 27,956
53   Kazakhstan 27,550
54   Romania 26,447
55   Croatia 26,221
56   Chile 25,978
57   Panama 25,674
58   Mauritius 23,699
59   Uruguay 23,274
60   Bulgaria 23,156
61   Equatorial Guinea 22,710
62   Maldives 21,760
63   Mexico 20,602
64   Argentina 20,537
65   Belarus 20,003
66   Iran 19,557
67   Turkmenistan 19,527
68   Thailand 19,476
69   Montenegro 19,043
70   Barbados 18,534
71   Gabon 18,496
72   Dominican Republic 18,424
73   China 18,110
74   Azerbaijan 18,076
75   Botswana 17,965
76   Iraq 17,659
77   Costa Rica 17,559
78   Serbia 17,555
 World[n 1] 16,779
79   Grenada 16,167
80   Brazil 16,154
81   North Macedonia 15,709
82   Algeria 15,440
83   Suriname 15,105
84   Palau 14,952
85   Colombia 14,943
86   Lebanon 14,684
87   Saint Lucia 14,355
88   Peru 14,224
89   South Africa 13,675
90   Bosnia and Herzegovina 13,491
91   Mongolia 13,447
92   Sri Lanka 13,397
93   Paraguay 13,395
94   Egypt 13,366
95   Albania 13,345
96   Indonesia 13,230
97   Tunisia 12,372
98   Nauru 12,326
99   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,956
100   Ecuador 11,718
  Kosovo 11,552
101   Georgia 11,485
102   Libya 11,469
103   Namibia 11,229
104   Eswatini 11,020
105   Fiji 10,234
106   Armenia 10,176
107   Dominica 9,886
108   Bhutan 9,540
109   Jamaica 9,447
110   Jordan 9,433
111   Ukraine 9,283
112   Philippines 8,936
113   Morocco 8,933
114   Guyana 8,519
115   Belize 8,501
116   Guatemala 8,436
117   El Salvador 8,041
118   Laos 7,925
119   India 7,874
120   Uzbekistan 7,665
121   Vietnam 7,510
122   Bolivia 7,477
123   Cape Verde 7,316
124   Moldova 7,305
125   Angola 6,814
126   Congo, Republic of the 6,799
127   Myanmar 6,511
128   Ghana 6,452
129   Tonga 6,111
130   Nigeria 6,027
131   Samoa 5,890
132   Nicaragua 5,683
133   Pakistan 5,680
134   Timor-Leste 5,242
135   Honduras 5,212
136   Bangladesh 4,620
137   Cambodia 4,335
138   Sudan 4,232
139   Côte d'Ivoire 4,178
140   Zambia 4,104
141   Tuvalu 4,052
142   Mauritania 3,990
143   Kyrgyzstan 3,844
144   Cameroon 3,828
145   Djibouti 3,786
146   Marshall Islands 3,697
147   Kenya 3,691
148   Papua New Guinea 3,662
149   Senegal 3,651
150   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,482
151   Tanzania 3,444
152   Tajikistan 3,416
153   Lesotho 3,494
154   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,324
155     Nepal 2,905
156   Vanuatu 2,862
157   Gambia, The 2,792
158   Zimbabwe 2,788
159   Uganda 2,498
160   Benin 2,426
161   Chad 2,415
162   Mali 2,384
163   Yemen 2,377
164   Ethiopia 2,332
165   Guinea 2,310
166   Rwanda 2,280
167   Solomon Islands 2,242
168   Kiribati 2,086
169   Afghanistan 2,017
170   Burkina Faso 1,996
171   Guinea-Bissau 1,937
172   Haiti 1,864
173   Togo 1,746
174   Eritrea 1,657
175   Comoros 1,632
176   Madagascar 1,630
177   Sierra Leone 1,620
178   South Sudan 1,502
179   Liberia 1,418
180   Mozambique 1,291
181   Niger 1,217
182   Malawi 1,199
183   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 767
184   Burundi 732
185   Central African Republic 712
  Syria n/a
  Venezuela n/a
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1   Qatar 128,378
  Macau 115,123
2   Luxembourg 103,662
3   Singapore 93,905
4   Brunei 78,836
5   Ireland 76,305
6   United Arab Emirates 73,879
7   Kuwait 71,943
8    Switzerland 65,006
9   San Marino 62,425
  Hong Kong 61,540
10   Norway 60,978
11   United States 59,532
12   Saudi Arabia 53,845
13   Iceland 53,518
14   Netherlands 52,941
15   Austria 52,558
16   Germany 50,715
17   Denmark 50,541
18   Sweden 50,070
19   Belgium 47,561
20   Bahrain 47,527
21   Australia 47,047
22   Canada 46,378
23   Finland 45,192
24   United Kingdom 43,877
25   Japan 43,876
26   France 42,779
27   Oman 41,675
  European Union 41,091
28   New Zealand 40,917
29   Italy 39,817
30   Malta 39,534
31   Korea, South 38,335
32   Israel 38,267
33   Spain 38,091
34   Czech Republic 36,916
35   Slovenia 34,802
36   Cyprus 34,504
37   Portugal 32,199
38   Slovakia 32,111
39   Lithuania 32,093
40   Estonia 31,638
41   Trinidad and Tobago 31,578
42   Bahamas, The 30,430
43   Malaysia 29,432
44   Poland 29,291
45   Seychelles 28,964
46   Hungary 28,375
47   Turkey 27,916
48   Greece 27,809
49   Latvia 27,598
50   Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,067
51   Kazakhstan 26,410
52   Romania 25,841
53   Russia 25,533
54   Croatia 25,264
55   Equatorial Guinea 24,817
56   Panama 24,446
57   Chile 24,085
58   Antigua and Barbuda 23,594
59   Uruguay 22,563
60   Mauritius 22,279
61   Iran 20,950
62   Argentina 20,787
63   Bulgaria 20,329
64   Libya 19,631
65   Belarus 18,848
66   Montenegro 18,765
67   Barbados 18,640
68   Gabon 18,183
69   Mexico 18,149
70   Turkmenistan 17,993
71   Thailand 17,871
72   Azerbaijan 17,398
73   Botswana 17,354
74   Iraq 17,197
75   Costa Rica 17,044
 World 16,961
76   China 16,807
77   Maldives 16,669
78   Dominican Republic 16,030
79   Brazil 15,484
80   Algeria 15,275
81   North Macedonia 15,231
82   Suriname 15,114
83   Serbia 15,090
84   Grenada 14,924
85   Lebanon 14,676
86   Colombia 14,552
87   Palau 14,536
88   Saint Lucia 14,219
89   Nauru 14,158
90   South Africa 13,498
91   Peru 13,434
92   Mongolia 13,000
93   Bosnia and Herzegovina 12,876
94   Sri Lanka 12,811
95   Indonesia 12,284
96   Albania 12,021
97   Tunisia 11,911
98   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,777
99   Ecuador 11,617
100   Egypt 11,583
  Kosovo 10,754
101   Georgia 10,699
102   Dominica 10,620
103   Namibia 10,476
104   Paraguay 9,691
105   Armenia 9,648
106   Bhutan 9,561
107   Fiji 9,555
108   Jordan 9,153
109   Jamaica 8,995
110   Ukraine 8,667
111   Belize 8,590
112   Eswatini 8,496
113   Philippines 8,342
114   Morocco 8,218
115   Guyana 8,163
116   Guatemala 8,150
117   El Salvador 8,006
118   Bolivia 7,560
119   Timor-Leste 7,213
120   India 7,056
121   Laos 7,023
122   Uzbekistan 6,865
123   Cape Verde 6,832
124   Vietnam 6,775
125   Samoa 6,611
126   Angola 6,389
127   Myanmar 6,139
128   Tonga 5,957
129   Nigeria 5,861
130   Nicaragua 5,842
131   Moldova 5,698
132   Pakistan 5,527
133   Congo, Republic of the 5,359
134   Honduras 4,986
135   Sudan 4,904
  West Bank and Gaza 4,885
136   Ghana 4,641
137   Papua New Guinea 4,197
138   Marshall Islands 4,192
139   Zambia 4,050
140   Cambodia 4,002
141   Côte d'Ivoire 3,953
142   Mauritania 3,950
143   Tuvalu 3,925
144   Bangladesh 3,869
145   Kyrgyzstan 3,726
146   Cameroon 3,694
147   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,622
148   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,351
149   Kenya 3,286
150   Vanuatu 3,208
151   Tajikistan 3,180
152   Lesotho 3,130
153   Tanzania 2,946
154   Senegal 2,712
155     Nepal 2,682
156   Solomon Islands 2,422
157   Guinea 2,285
158   Benin 2,266
159   Mali 2,211
160   Kiribati 2,175
161   Zimbabwe 2,086
162   Rwanda 2,036
163   Afghanistan 1,981
164   Chad 1,941
165   Ethiopia 1,899
166   Burkina Faso 1,870
167   Uganda 1,864
168   Haiti 1,815
169   Gambia, The 1,715
170   Guinea-Bissau 1,700
171   Togo 1,570
172   Madagascar 1,555
173   Comoros 1,552
174   Sierra Leone 1,526
175   Mozambique 1,247
176   Malawi 1,202
177   Niger 1,017
178   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 887
179   Liberia 827
180   Burundi 771
181   Central African Republic 726
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1   Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2   Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3   Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
  Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4   Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5   Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
  Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
  Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6   Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7   Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8   Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9   Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10   United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
  Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
  Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11    Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12   San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13   United States 59,500 2017 est.
14   Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15   Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
  Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16   Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17   Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18   Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19   Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20   Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21   Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
  Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
22   Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
  Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
23   Austria 49,200 2017 est.
24   Canada 48,100 2017 est.
25   Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
26   Oman 45,500 2017 est.
27   Finland 44,000 2017 est.
  Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
28   France 43,600 2017 est.
29   United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
30   Japan 42,700 2017 est.
31   Malta 42,500 2017 est.
  British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
  European Union 40,900 2017 est.
  Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
32   Korea, South 39,400 2017 est.
33   New Zealand 38,900 2017 est.
34   Spain 38,300 2017 est.
35   Italy 38,100 2017 est.
  Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
  Puerto Rico 37,300 2017 est.
36   Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
37   Israel 36,200 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
38   Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
39   Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
40   Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
41   Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
42   Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
43   Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
44   Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
  Guam 30,500 2013 est.
45   Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
46   Poland 29,300 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
47   Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
48   Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
49   Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
50   Russia 27,900 2017 est.
51   Greece 27,800 2017 est.
52   Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
53   Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
54   Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
55   Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
56   Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
  Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
57   Bahamas, The 25,100 2017 est.
58   Chile 24,600 2017 est.
59   Panama 24,300 2017 est.
60   Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
61   Romania 24,000 2017 est.
62   Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
63   Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
64   Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
65   Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
66   Iran 20,000 2017 est.
67   Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
68   Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
69   Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
70   Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
71   Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
72   Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
73   Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
74   Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
75   Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
76   Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
77   Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
78   Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
79   Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
80   Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
81   Palau 16,700 2017 est.
82   China 16,600 2017 est.
83   Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
84   Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
85   North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
86   Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
  Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
87   Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
88   Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
89   Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
90   Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
91   South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
92   Peru 13,300 2017 est.
93   Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
  American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
94   Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
95   Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
96   Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
97   Albania 12,500 2017 est.
98   Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
99   Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
  Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
100   Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
  Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
101   Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
102   Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
103   Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
104   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
105   Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
107   Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
108   Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
  Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
109   Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
110   Eswatini 9,900 2017 est.
111   Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
112   Libya 9,800 2017 est.
113   Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
114   Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
115   El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
116   Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
117   Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
118   Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
  Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
119   Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
120   Belize 8,300 2017 est.
121   Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
122   Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123   Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
124   Laos 7,400 2017 est.
125   India 7,200 2017 est.
126   Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
127   Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
128   Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
129   Angola 6,800 2017 est.
130   Congo, Republic of the 6,700 2017 est.
131   Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132   Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133   Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
  Niue 5,800 2003 est.
134   Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
135   Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
136   Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
137   Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138   Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139   Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140   Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141   Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142   Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
  Palestine, State of 4,300 2014 est.
143   Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144   Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145   Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146   Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147   Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148   Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149   Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150   Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151   Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152   Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153   Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154   Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155   Micronesia, Federated States of 3,400 2017 est.
156   Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158   Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159   Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160   Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161     Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162   Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163   Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164   Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165   Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166   Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167   Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168   Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169   Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170   Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171   Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172   Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173   Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174   Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175   Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176   Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177   Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178   Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179   Korea, North 1,700 2015 est.
180   Gambia, The 1,700 2017 est.
181   Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182   Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183   Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184   South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185   Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186   Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187   Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188   Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
  Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189   Liberia 900 2017 est.
190   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 800 2017 est.
191   Burundi 800 2017 est.
192   Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193   Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called Modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[5][6]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Calculated by dividing total world GDP according to IMF by total world population based on 2017 projection published by the United Nations.

References

  1. ^ "World GDP – per capita (PPP) – Economy". www.indexmundi.com.
  2. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  3. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  4. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019, International Monetary Fund. Database updated in April 2019. Accessed on 12 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  6. ^ a b "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?". Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.