List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita, but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int\$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be reranked by either of the sources.

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory or non IMF members
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
Luxembourg * Europe 143,304 2023 142,214 2022 115,700 2021
Ireland * Europe 137,638 2023 126,905 2022 102,500 2021
Singapore * Asia 133,108 2023 127,565 2022 106,000 2021
Liechtenstein * Europe 139,100 2009
Qatar * Asia 114,210 2023 114,648 2022 92,200 2021
Monaco * Europe 115,700 2015
Macau * Asia 98,157 2023 55,344 2022 64,800 2021
Switzerland * Europe 89,537 2023 83,598 2022 71,000 2021
United Arab Emirates * Asia 88,962 2023 87,729 2022 69,700 2021
Bermuda * Americas 95,837 2022 80,300 2021
Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
San Marino * Europe 84,135 2023 59,451 2020 56,400 2020
Norway * Europe 82,236 2023 114,899 2022 65,700 2021
United States * Americas 80,412 2023 76,399 2022 63,700 2021
Denmark * Europe 74,958 2023 74,005 2022 58,000 2021
Netherlands * Europe 73,317 2023 69,577 2022 56,600 2021
Hong Kong * Asia 72,861 2023 69,049 2022 60,000 2021
Brunei * Asia 72,610 2023 69,275 2022 60,100 2021
Cayman Islands * Americas 74,155 2021 67,500 2021
Taiwan * Asia 72,485 2023 50,500 2017
Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
Iceland * Europe 69,833 2023 69,081 2022 53,600 2020
Austria * Europe 69,069 2023 67,936 2022 54,100 2021
Saudi Arabia * Asia 68,453 2023 59,065 2022 44,300 2021
Andorra * Europe 68,232 2023 49,900 2015
Sweden * Europe 66,209 2023 64,578 2022 53,600 2021
Germany * Europe 66,038 2023 63,150 2022 53,100 2021
Belgium * Europe 65,813 2023 65,027 2022 51,700 2021
Australia * Oceania 64,675 2023 62,625 2022 49,800 2021
Malta * Europe 63,481 2023 55,928 2022 44,700 2021
Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
Guyana * Americas 61,099 2023 40,642 2022 21,900 2021
Bahrain * Asia 60,715 2023 61,228 2022 49,400 2021
Finland * Europe 59,869 2023 59,027 2022 48,800 2021
Canada * Americas 59,813 2023 58,400 2022 47,900 2021
France * Europe 58,765 2023 55,493 2022 45,000 2021
European Union *[n 1] Europe 56,970 2023 54,249 2022 44,436 2019
United Kingdom * Europe 56,836 2023 54,603 2022 45,000 2021
South Korea * Asia 56,709 2023 50,070 2022 44,200 2021
Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
Israel * Asia 54,771 2023 49,509 2022 42,100 2021
Italy * Europe 54,259 2023 51,865 2022 41,900 2021
Cyprus * Asia 53,931 [n 2]2023 49,931 [n 2]2022 41,700 [n 2]2021
New Zealand * Oceania 53,809 2023 51,967 2022 42,900 2021
Japan * Asia 52,120 2023 45,573 2022 40,800 2021
Kuwait * Asia 51,765 2023 58,056 2022 43,900 2020
Slovenia * Europe 51,407 2023 50,032 2022 40,000 2021
Aruba * Americas 51,352 2023 42,698 2021 38,900 2021
Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
Spain * Europe 50,472 2023 45,825 2022 37,900 2021
Lithuania * Europe 49,245 2023 48,397 2022 39,300 2021
Czech Republic * Europe 49,025 2023 49,946 2022 40,700 2020
Poland * Europe 45,538 2023 43,269 2022 34,900 2021
Estonia * Europe 45,236 2023 46,697 2022 38,700 2021
Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
Portugal * Europe 45,227 2023 41,452 2022 33,700 2021
Bahamas * Americas 44,950 2023 40,379 2022 30,200 2021
Hungary * Europe 43,601 2023 41,907 2022 33,600 2021
Croatia * Europe 42,873 2023 40,380 2022 31,600 2021
Panama * Americas 42,738 2023 39,280 2022 29,000 2021
Slovakia * Europe 42,228 2023 37,459 2022 31,900 2021
Turkey * Asia 41,888 2023 37,274 2022 31,500 2021
Seychelles * Africa 41,829 2023 35,228 2022 28,800 2021
Puerto Rico * Americas 41,682 2023 40,498 2022 32,600 2021
Romania * Europe 41,029 2023 41,888 2022 30,800 2021
Latvia * Europe 40,892 2023 39,956 2022 32,100 2021
Greece * Europe 39,864 2023 36,835 2022 29,500 2021
Oman * Asia 39,336 2023 41,724 2022 34,300 2021
Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
Maldives * Asia 37,094 2023 24,772 2022 18,800 2021
Malaysia * Asia 37,083 2023 33,434 2022 26,300 2021
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 41,812 2022 35,300 2018
Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
Russia * Europe 35,310 2023 36,485 2022 28,000 2021
British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
Bulgaria * Europe 33,780 2023 33,582 2022 24,400 2020
Kazakhstan * Asia 32,712 2023 30,810 2022 26,100 2021
Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 30,719 2023 27,778 2022 23,000 2021
New Caledonia * Oceania 31,100 2015
Chile * Americas 29,935 2023 30,209 2022 25,400 2021
Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 29,893 2023 34,052 2022 26,500 2021
Mauritius * Africa 29,349 2023 26,906 2022 21,000 2021
Uruguay * Americas 28,984 2023 28,842 2022 22,800 2021
Montenegro * Europe 28,002 2023 26,984 2022 20,600 2021
Costa Rica * Americas 26,809 2023 24,923 2022 21,200 2021
Argentina * Americas 26,506 2023 26,505 2022 21,500 2021
Serbia * Europe 26,074 2023 23,911 2022 19,800 2021
Dominican Republic * Americas 25,523 2023 22,834 2022 18,600 2021
Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 25,449 2023 25,337 2022 19,100 2021
Mexico * Americas 24,976 2023 21,512 2022 19,100 2021
Libya * Africa 24,382 2023 23,375 2022 22,000 2021
Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
Belarus * Europe 24,017 2023 22,591 2022 19,800 2021
China * Asia 23,309 [n 3]2023 21,476 [n 4]2022 17,600 [n 3]2021
Curaçao * Americas 22,832 2021 20,800 2021
Thailand * Asia 22,491 2023 20,672 2022 17,100 2021
World 22,226 [i]2023 20,645 2022 17,500 2017
Georgia * Asia 22,357 [n 5]2023 20,113 [n 5]2022 15,500 [n 5]2021
North Macedonia * Europe 21,391 2023 20,162 2022 16,500 2021
Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 22,915 2022 18,500 2021
Grenada * Americas 20,195 2023 16,987 2022 13,700 2021
Brazil * Americas 20,079 2023 17,822 2022 14,100 2020
Iran * Asia 19,942 2023 18,075 2022 12,400 2020
Turkmenistan * Asia 19,939 2023 15,625 2019 15,000 2019
Armenia * Asia 19,745 2023 18,942 2022 14,200 2021
Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 19,634 2023 20,377 2022 15,700 2021
Albania * Europe 19,566 2023 18,552 2022 14,500 2021
Colombia * Americas 19,482 2023 20,287 2022 14,600 2021
Botswana * Africa 19,394 2023 18,323 2022 14,800 2021
Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 19,300 2005
Gabon * Africa 19,165 2023 16,471 2022 13,800 2021
Saint Lucia * Americas 18,973 2023 17,756 2022 13,000 2021
Barbados * Americas 18,738 2023 17,837 2022 13,800 2021
Azerbaijan * Asia 18,694 2023 17,764 2022 14,400 2021
Equatorial Guinea * Africa 18,362 2023 17,396 2022 14,600 2021
Suriname * Americas 18,311 2023 17,620 2022 14,800 2021
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 17,840 2023 17,207 2022 13,700 2021
French Polynesia * Oceania 17,000 2015
Egypt * Africa 17,123 2023 15,091 2022 11,600 2021
Moldova * Europe 16,916 [n 6]2023 15,238 [n 6]2022 14,000 [n 6]2021
Cook Islands * Oceania 16,700 2016
Fiji * Oceania 16,564 2023 14,125 2022 10,400 2021
South Africa * Africa 16,211 2023 15,905 2022 13,300 2021
Peru * Americas 15,894 2023 15,048 2022 12,500 2021
Indonesia * Asia 15,834 2023 14,653 2022 11,900 2021
Kosovo * Europe 15,767 2023 14,723 2022 11,900 2021
Paraguay * Americas 15,533 2023 15,977 2022 13,700 2021
Palau * Oceania 15,169 2023 15,145 2021 13,800 2021
Mongolia * Asia 15,088 2023 14,230 2022 11,700 2021
Dominica * Americas 14,348 2023 13,573 2022 10,900 2021
Ukraine * Europe 14,304 [n 7]2023 12,671 [n 7]2022 12,900 [n 7]2021
Bhutan * Asia 14,297 2023 11,983 2021 10,900 2021
Vietnam * Asia 14,285 2023 13,457 2022 10,600 2021
Sri Lanka * Asia 14,267 2022 14,405 2022 13,400 2021
Algeria * Africa 13,682 2023 13,210 2022 11,000 2021
Ecuador * Americas 13,285 2023 12,822 2022 10,700 2021
Tunisia * Africa 13,249 2023 12,490 2022 10,400 2021
Jamaica * Americas 12,995 2023 11,822 2022 9,600 2021
Jordan * Asia 12,809 2023 11,003 2022 9,200 2021
Eswatini * Africa 11,859 2023 10,782 2022 8,900 2021
Lebanon * Asia 11,794 2022 14,257 2021 13,000 2021
Iraq * Asia 11,742 2023 10,862 2022 9,000 2021
Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
El Salvador * Americas 11,717 2023 11,096 2022 9,100 2021
Namibia * Africa 11,603 2023 11,206 2022 9,100 2021
Philippines * Asia 11,326 2023 10,133 2022 8,100 2021
Nauru * Oceania 11,169 2023 13,118 2022 11,900 2021
American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
Belize * Americas 11,166 2023 11,451 2022 8,800 2021
Guatemala * Americas 10,595 2023 10,818 2022 8,900 2021
Morocco * Africa 10,408 2023 9,519 2022 8,100 [n 8]2021
Bolivia * Americas 10,340 2023 9,684 2022 8,100 2021
Uzbekistan * Asia 10,316 2023 9,533 2022 7,700 2021
Cape Verde * Africa 9,909 [n 9]2023 9,083 [n 9]2022 6,100 [n 9]2021
Laos * Asia 9,787 2023 9,384 2022 7,800 2021
India * Asia 9,183 2023 8,379 2022 6,600 2021
Bangladesh * Asia 8,673 2023 7,395 2022 5,900 2021
Venezuela * Americas 7,985 2023 17,402 2011 7,704 2018
Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
Africa 7,800 2010
Nicaragua * Americas 7,642 2023 6,875 2022 5,600 2021
Mauritania * Africa 7,542 2023 6,424 2022 5,300 2021
Honduras * Americas 7,163 2023 6,741 2022 5,600 2021
Tonga * Oceania 7,127 2023 6,749 2021 6,100 2021
Angola * Africa 7,077 2023 6,974 2022 5,900 2021
Djibouti * Africa 6,985 2023 5,893 2022 4,900 2021
Ivory Coast * Africa 6,960 2023 6,538 2022 5,300 2021
Ghana * Africa 6,905 2023 6,498 2022 5,400 2021
Pakistan * Asia 6,773 2023 6,437 2022 5,200 2021
Palestine * Asia 6,642 [n 10]2023 6,200 [n 10]2021 5,600 [n 11]2021
Kenya * Africa 6,577 2023 5,764 2022 4,700 2021
Samoa * Oceania 6,544 2023 6,041 2022 5,500 2021
Kyrgyzstan * Asia 6,438 2023 6,133 2022 4,800 2021
Nigeria * Africa 6,148 2023 5,860 2022 4,900 2021
Marshall Islands * Oceania 5,823 2023 7,228 2022 6,000 2021
Cambodia * Asia 6,087 2023 5,349 2022 4,400 2021
Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
Niue * Oceania 5,800 2003
Tuvalu * Oceania 5,766 2023 5,421 2022 4,900 2021
Congo * Africa 5,552 2023 3,791 2022 3,200 2021
Tajikistan * Asia 5,361 2023 4,885 2022 3,900 2021
Myanmar * Asia 5,124 2023 4,870 2022 4,400 [n 12]2021
Nepal * Asia 4,934 2023 4,725 2022 3,800 2021
Cameroon * Africa 4,661 2023 4,408 2022 3,700 2021
Senegal * Africa 4,325 2023 4,209 2022 3,500 2021
Benin * Africa 4,305 2023 4,056 2022 3,300 2021
São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,147 2023 4,738 2022 4,100 2020
Zambia * Africa 4,068 2023 3,894 2022 3,200 2021
Micronesia * Oceania 3,922 2023 3,855 2022 3,300 2021
East Timor * Asia 3,747 2023 4,828 2022 5,000 2021
Ethiopia * Africa 3,719 2023 2,812 2022 2,300 2021
Sudan * Africa 3,605 2023 4,216 2022 3,700 2021
Tanzania * Africa 3,595 2023 3,097 2022 2,600 2021
Comoros * Africa 3,464 2023 3,832 2022 3,200 2021
Papua New Guinea * Oceania 3,403 2023 4,447 2022 3,700 2022
Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
Guinea * Africa 3,241 2023 3,187 2022 2,600 2021
Lesotho * Africa 3,235 2023 2,695 2022 2,300 2021
Uganda * Africa 3,222 2023 2,694 2022 2,200 2021
Haiti * Americas 3,186 2023 3,305 2022 2,900 2021
Rwanda * Africa 3,137 2023 2,792 2022 2,200 2021
Guinea-Bissau * Africa 3,088 2023 2,190 2022 1,800 2021
Vanuatu * Oceania 2,940 2023 3,289 2022 2,800 2021
Syria * Asia 6,374 [11]2010 2,900 2015
Gambia Africa 2,837 2023 2,510 2022 2,100 2021
Togo * Africa 2,768 2023 2,608 2022 2,100 2021
Burkina Faso * Africa 2,683 2023 2,546 2022 2,200 2021
Mali * Africa 2,639 2023 2,517 2022 2,100 2021
Zimbabwe * Africa 2,750 2023 2,531 2022 2,100 2021
Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,411 2023 2,654 2022 2,400 2021
Kiribati * Oceania 2,381 2023 2,365 2022 1,900 2021
Eritrea * Africa 1,629 2011 1,600 2017
Sierra Leone * Africa 2,097 2023 1,931 2022 1,600 2021
Yemen * Asia 2,053 2023 3,437 2013 2,500 2017
Somalia * Africa 1,998 2023 1,364 2022 1,100 2021
Afghanistan * Asia 1,991 2021 1,674 2021 1,500 2021
Madagascar * Africa 1,907 2023 1,774 2022 1,500 2021
Chad * Africa 1,807 2023 1,668 2022 1,400 2021
Liberia * Africa 1,789 2023 1,725 2022 1,400 2021
North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
Malawi * Africa 1,668 2023 1,732 2022 1,500 2021
Niger * Africa 1,579 2023 1,505 2022 1,200 2021
Mozambique * Africa 1,584 2023 1,468 2022 1,200 2021
DR Congo * Africa 1,510 2023 1,337 2022 1,100 2021
Central African Republic * Africa 1,109 2023 967 2022 800 2021
Burundi * Africa 890 2023 836 2022 700 2021
South Sudan * Africa 476 2023 1,182 2015 1,600 2017

Footnotes

1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" World estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the global population according to the IMF.[12]
1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
3. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
4. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
5. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 percent of GDP.[13] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[14][15][16]

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in oil and gas tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[17] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[18] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[19]

A stunning \$12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[19]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[20]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[21]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[22][23]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

Notes

1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
3. ^
4. ^
5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
6. ^ a b "WEO Database, October 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, EU". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
8. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 19 October 2022.
9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
11. ^ "WEO Database, October 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Syria". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
12. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (October 2023) / Population". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
13. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
14. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
15. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
16. ^
17. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
18. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
19. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, Finance & Development, June 2018, Vol. 55, No. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
20. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
21. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
22. ^ "PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
23. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.