List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

This article is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, i.e., the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita, but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2022.
  >$60,000
  $50,000 – $60,000
  $40,000 – $50,000
  $30,000 – $40,000
  $20,000 – $30,000
  $10,000 – $20,000
  $5,000 – $10,000
  $2,500 – $5,000
  $1,500 – $2,500
  <$1,500
  No data

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int$ 18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Table

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available estimates, and can be reranked by either of the sources

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (US$ PPP) by country or  territory or non IMF members 
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
  Monaco * Europe 190,513 2019 115,700 2015
  Liechtenstein * Europe 180,367 2018 139,100 2009
  Luxembourg * Europe 140,694 2022 118,360 2020 110,300 2020
  Singapore * Asia 131,580 2022 98,526 2020 93,400 2020
  Ireland * Europe 124,596 2022 93,612 2020 89,700 2020
  Qatar * Asia 112,789 2022 89,949 2020 85,300 2020
  Macau * Asia 85,612 2022 57,807 2020 54,800 2020
  Switzerland * Europe 84,658 2022 71,352 2020 68,400 2020
  Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
  Bermuda * Americas 80,830 2020 81,800 2019
  United Arab Emirates * Asia 78,255 2022 69,958 2019 67,100 2019
  Norway * Europe 77,808 2022 63,198 2020 63,600 2020
  United States * Americas 76,027 2022 63,544 2020 60,200 2020
  Brunei * Asia 74,953 2022 65,662 2020 62,200 2020
  Cayman Islands * Americas 71,594 2020 73,600 2019
  Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
  Hong Kong * Asia 70,448 2022 59,238 2020 56,200 2020
  San Marino * Europe 70,139 2022 63,420 2019 60,800 2019
  Denmark * Europe 69,273 2022 60,399 2020 55,900 2020
  Taiwan * Asia 68,730 2022 24,502 2018
  Netherlands * Europe 68,572 2022 59,229 2020 54,200 2020
  Austria * Europe 64,751 2022 55,098 2020 51,900 2020
  Iceland * Europe 64,621 2022 55,216 2020 52,300 2020
  Andorra * Europe 63,600 2022 49,900 2015
  Germany * Europe 63,271 2022 53,694 2020 50,900 2020
  Sweden * Europe 62,926 2022 54,563 2020 50,700 2020
  Australia * Oceania 61,941 2022 52,518 2020 48,700 2020
  Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
  Belgium * Europe 61,587 2022 51,968 2020 48,200 2020
  Finland * Europe 58,010 2022 51,090 2020 47,300 2020
  Canada * Americas 57,812 2022 48,073 2020 45,900 2020
  Bahrain * Asia 57,424 2022 43,181 2020 45,011 2019
  Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
  France * Europe 56,036 2022 46,227 2020 46,184 2019
  Saudi Arabia * Asia 55,368 2022 46,763 2020 46,962 2019
  United Kingdom * Europe 55,301 2022 44,916 2020 46,659 2019
  Malta * Europe 54,647 2022 42,640 2020 44,032 2019
  European Union * Europe 53,201 2022 44,491 2020 44,436 2019
  South Korea * Asia 53,051 2022 43,124 2020 42,765 2019
  Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
  Kuwait * Asia 50,919 2022 51,962 2019 49,900 2019
  New Zealand * Oceania 50,411 2022 44,252 2020 42,888 2019
  Italy * Europe 50,216 2022 41,840 2020 42,492 2019
  Israel * Asia 50,204 2022 41,855 2020 40,145 2019
  Japan * Asia 48,814 2022 42,197 2019 41,429 2019
  Slovenia * Europe 48,534 2022 39,593 2020 39,088 2019
  Cyprus * Europe 48,443 2022 38,458 2020 39,545 2019
  Czech Republic * Europe 47,527 2022 41,737 2020 40,862 2019
  Lithuania * Europe 46,479 2022 38,735 2020 37,231 2019
  Spain * Europe 46,413 2022 38,335 2020 40,903 2019
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
  Estonia * Europe 44,778 2022 38,395 2020 36,927 2019
  Puerto Rico * Americas 42,759 2022 35,279 2020 33,400 2020
  Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
  Poland * Europe 41,685 2022 34,265 2020 33,221 2019
  Hungary * Europe 40,944 2022 33,084 2020 32,945 2019
  Portugal * Europe 40,805 2022 34,496 2020 34,894 2019
  Bahamas * Americas 40,274 2022 32,454 2020 30,800 2020
  Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
  Aruba * Americas 39,508 2022 38,897 2017 37,500 2017
  Slovakia * Europe 38,620 2022 31,832 2020 32,730 2019
  Guyana * Americas 38,258 2022 19,706 2020 13,082 2019
  Turkey * Asia 37,488 2022 28,120 2020 28,424 2019
  Latvia * Europe 37,330 2022 32,019 2020 30,898 2019
  U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
  Romania * Europe 36,622 2022 31,946 2020 29,941 2019
  Croatia * Europe 36,201 2022 28,504 2020 28,602 2019
  Panama * Americas 36,085 2022 26,776 2020 31,459 2019
  Sint Maarten * Americas 35,977 2018 35,300 2018
  Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
  Greece * Europe 35,596 2022 28,464 2020 29,799 2019
  Oman * Asia 35,286 2022 28,449 2019 27,299 2019
  Seychelles * Africa 35,272 2022 25,700 2020 29,223 2019
  British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
  Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
  Malaysia * Asia 32,901 2022 27,887 2020 28,364 2019
  New Caledonia * Oceania 31,100 2015
  Kazakhstan * Asia 30,502 2022 26,729 2020 26,351 2019
  Russia * Europe 30,013 2022 28,213 2020 27,044 2019
  Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 29,884 2022 25,031 2020 23,700 2020
  Maldives * Asia 29,133 2022 13,766 2020 19,531 2019
  Bulgaria * Europe 28,593 2022 24,367 2020 23,174 2019
  Chile * Americas 28,526 2022 25,068 2020 24,226 2019
  Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 27,608 2022 24,537 2020 23,300 2020
  Uruguay * Americas 26,663 2022 22,795 2020 21,561 2019
  Argentina * Americas 25,822 2022 20,768 2020 22,064 2019
  Mauritius * Africa 25,043 2022 20,539 2020 22,870 2019
  Montenegro * Europe 24,878 2022 20,567 2020 21,470 2019
  Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
  Costa Rica * Americas 24,490 2022 21,032 2020 19,700 2020
  Dominican Republic * Americas 23,983 2022 17,937 2020 17,000 2020
  Serbia * Europe 23,904 2022 19,231 2020 18,233 2019
  Turks and Caicos Islands Americas 22,286 2020 21,100 2020
  Mexico * Americas 22,216 2022 18,833 2020 19,796 2019
  Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 21,890 2022 18,942 2020 18,000 2020
  Belarus * Europe 21,686 2022 20,200 2020 19,150 2019
  Curaçao * Americas 21,423 2020 24,500 2019
  China * Asia 21,364 2022 17,312 2020 16,117 2019
  Thailand * Asia 21,057 2022 18,236 2020 18,460 2019
  North Macedonia * Europe 19,726 2022 16,927 2020 16,479 2019
  Saint Martin * Americas 19,300 2005
  Botswana * Africa 19,287 2022 16,921 2020 17,767 2019
  Equatorial Guinea * Africa 19,036 2022 17,942 2020 18,558 2019
  Turkmenistan * Asia 18,857 2022 16,196 2019 14,845 2018
  Georgia * Asia 18,594 2022 14,863 2020 14,992 2019
  Libya * Africa 18,345 2022 10,847 2020 15,174 2019
  Iran * Asia 18,332 2022 13,116 2020 12,389 2019
  Grenada * Americas 18,293 2022 15,893 2020 15,100 2020
  Colombia * Americas 18,225 2022 14,565 2020 14,722 2019
  Gabon * Africa 17,848 2022 15,191 2020 14,950 2019
  Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 17,471 2022 15,612 2020 14,912 2019
  Barbados * Americas 17,408 2022 13,577 2020 12,900 2020
  Albania * Europe 17,383 2022 13,818 2020 13,965 2019
  Suriname * Americas 17,300 2022 17,016 2020 16,525 2019
  Brazil * Americas 17,208 2022 14,836 2020 14,652 2019
  Azerbaijan * Asia 17,153 2022 14,452 2020 14,404 2019
 World 17,110 2020 17,500 2017
  French Polynesia * Oceania 17,000 2015
  Moldova * Europe 16,719 2022 13,002 2020 13,050 2019
  Cook Islands * Oceania 16,700 2016
  Saint Lucia * Americas 16,509 2022 12,944 2020 12,300 2020
  Armenia * Asia 15,818 2022 13,284 2020 13,654 2019
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 15,505 2022 12,770 2020 12,100 2020
  Sri Lanka * Asia 15,387 2022 13,225 2020 13,078 2019
  South Africa * Africa 15,361 2022 12,096 2020 12,482 2019
  Peru * Americas 15,035 2022 11,879 2020 12,848 2019
  Egypt * Africa 14,928 2022 12,608 2020 11,763 2019
  Indonesia * Asia 14,535 2022 12,074 2020 11,812 2019
  Dominica * Americas 14,491 2022 10,435 2020 9,900 2020
  Paraguay * Americas 14,430 2022 13,013 2020 12,685 2019
  Ukraine * Europe 14,325 2021 13,057 2020 12,810 2019
  Kosovo * Europe 13,964 2022 11,368 2020 11,368 2019
  Palau * Oceania 13,652 2022 18,316 2019 17,579 2019
  Fiji * Oceania 13,598 2022 11,601 2020 13,684 2019
  Mongolia * Asia 13,350 2022 12,101 2020 12,317 2019
  Algeria * Africa 13,002 2022 11,268 2020 11,511 2019
  Bhutan * Asia 12,967 2022 11,508 2020 11,832 2019
  Vietnam * Asia 12,881 2022 8,651 2020 8,041 2019
  Ecuador * Americas 12,664 2022 10,896 2020 11,375 2019
  Tunisia * Africa 12,300 2022 10,262 2020 10,756 2019
  Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
  Lebanon * Asia 12,035 2020 12,289 2020 14,552 2019
  Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
  Iraq * Asia 12,141 2022 9,764 2020 10,881 2019
  Jordan * Asia 11,861 2022 10,356 2020 10,071 2019
  Jamaica * Americas 11,802 2022 9,222 2020 8,700 2020
  American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
  Nauru * Oceania 10,750 2022 14,100 2019 11,583 2019
  El Salvador * Americas 10,581 2022 8,499 2020 8,100 2020
  Namibia * Africa 10,448 2022 9,382 2020 9,637 2019
  Eswatini * Africa 10,411 2022 8,854 2020 8,622 2019
  Philippines * Asia 10,237 2022 8,390 2020 8,908 2019
  Guatemala * Americas 9,911 2022 8,854 2020 8,400 2020
  Bolivia * Americas 9,856 2022 8,367 2020 8,724 2019
  Uzbekistan * Asia 9,243 2022 7,378 2020 6,999 2019
  Laos * Asia 9,184 2022 8,235 2020 7,826 2019
  Morocco * Africa 9,041 2022 7,296 2020 7,515 2019
  India * Asia 8,358 2022 6,454 2020 6,700 2019
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Africa 7,800 2010
  Cape Verde * Africa 7,740 2022 6,377 2020 7,172 2019
  Angola * Africa 7,360 2022 6,539 2020 6,670 2019
  Belize * Americas 7,147 2022 6,456 2020 6,100 2020
  Nicaragua * Americas 7,071 2022 5,570 2020 5,300 2020
  Mauritania * Africa 6,920 2022 5,257 2020 5,197 2019
  Tonga * Oceania 6,783 2022 6,648 2019 6,383 2019
  Ghana * Africa 6,754 2022 5,596 2020 5,413 2019
  Honduras * Americas 6,740 2022 5,421 2020 5,100 2020
  Djibouti * Africa 6,667 2022 5,782 2020 5,535 2019
  Bangladesh * Asia 6,633 2022 5,083 2020 4,754 2019
  Pakistan * Asia 6,470 2022 6,370 2020 5,820 2019
  Syria * Asia 6,374 2010 2,900 2015
  Ivory Coast * Africa 6,345 2022 5,458 2020 5,213 2019
  Palestine * Asia 6,243 [n 2]2022 5,690 [n 3]2020 5,400
6,220
[n 4]2020
2019
  Kenya * Africa 6,061 2022 4,452 2020 4,330 2019
  Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
  Venezuela * Americas 5,949 2022 17,528 2011 7,704 2018
  Samoa * Oceania 5,935 2022 6,778 2019 6,521 2019
  Nigeria * Africa 5,853 2022 5,187 2020 5,136 2019
  Niue * Oceania 5,800 2003
  Tuvalu * Oceania 5,798 2022 4,653 2020 4,281 2019
  Kyrgyzstan * Asia 5,562 2022 4,965 2020 5,253 2019
  Cambodia * Asia 5,493 2022 4,422 2020 4,389 2019
  Myanmar * Asia 4,776 2022 4,794 2020 5,142 2019
  São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,681 2022 4,274 2020 3,970 2019
  Tajikistan * Asia 4,630 2022 3,858 2020 3,380 2019
  Nepal * Asia 4,578 2022 4,009 2020 3,417 2019
  Congo * Africa 4,578 2022 3,639 2020 3,673 2019
  Sudan * Africa 4,442 2022 4,244 2020 3,958 2019
  Cameroon * Africa 4,398 2022 3,773 2020 3,642 2019
  Papua New Guinea * Oceania 4,299 2022 4,326 2020 4,355 2019
  Marshall Islands * Oceania 4,192 2022 4,200 2019 3,889 2018
  Benin * Africa 4,137 2022 3,506 2020 3,287 2019
  Senegal * Africa 4,093 2022 3,481 2020 3,395 2019
  Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
  Zambia * Africa 3,776 2022 3,450 2020 3,470 2019
  Micronesia * Oceania 3,650 2022 3,613 2019 3,464 2018
  Ethiopia * Africa 3,407 2022 2,423 2020 2,221 2019
  Tanzania * Africa 3,358 2022 2,780 2020 2,660 2019
  Comoros * Africa 3,355 2022 3,313 2020 3,060 2019
  East Timor * Asia 3,339 2022 3,356 2020 3,553 2019
  Haiti * Americas 3,189 2022 2,925 2020 2,800 2020
  Lesotho * Africa 3,034 2022 2,405 2020 2,704 2019
  Guinea * Africa 3,029 2022 2,818 2020 2,562 2019
  Uganda * Africa 2,961 2022 2,297 2020 2,187 2019
  Vanuatu * Oceania 2,851 2022 2,915 2020 3,153 2019
  Rwanda * Africa 2,808 2022 2,214 2020 2,227 2019
  Guinea-Bissau * Africa 2,784 2022 1,949 2020 1,989 2019
  Burkina Faso * Africa 2,663 2022 2,279 2020 2,178 2019
  Gambia Africa 2,646 2022 2,278 2020 2,223 2019
  Togo * Africa 2,599 2022 2,224 2020 1,597 2019
  Mali * Africa 2,575 2022 2,339 2020 2,322 2019
  Zimbabwe * Africa 2,523 2022 2,895 2020 2,836 2019
  Afghanistan * Asia 2,456 2020 2,088 2020 2,065 2019
  Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,385 2022 2,619 2020 2,663 2019
  Kiribati * Oceania 2,148 2022 2,418 2020 2,272 2019
  Eritrea * Africa 2,101 2022 1,626 2011 1,600 2019
  Yemen * Asia 2,078 2022 3,689 2013 2,500 2017
  Sierra Leone * Africa 1,958 2022 1,739 2020 1,718 2019
  Liberia * Africa 1,779 2022 1,428 2020 1,428 2019
  Madagascar * Africa 1,778 2022 1,593 2020 1,647 2019
  Chad * Africa 1,705 2022 1,603 2020 1,580 2019
  North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
  Malawi * Africa 1,603 2022 1,568 2020 1,060 2019
  Mozambique * Africa 1,439 2022 1,297 2020 1,281 2019
  Niger * Africa 1,435 2022 1,263 2020 1,225 2019
  Somalia * Africa 1,322 2022 875.2 2020 800 2020
  DR Congo * Africa 1,316 2022 1,131 2020 1,098 2019
  Central African Republic * Africa 1,102 2022 979.6 2020 945 2019
  South Sudan * Africa 928 2022 1,235 2015 1,600 2017
  Burundi * Africa 856 2022 771.2 2020 700 2020

Footnotes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]
  2. ^ The name used in IMF report is "West Bank and Gaza"
  3. ^ The name used in World Bank report is "West Bank and Gaza"
  4. ^ CIA uses two separated figures in referring to Palestinian territories, the first is for "West Bank" and the second is for "Gaza Strip"

Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 percent of GDP.[9] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[10][11][12]

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[13] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[14] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[15]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[15]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[16]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[17]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[18][19]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  6. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020–2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  8. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 12 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
  10. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
  11. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
  12. ^ "Handbook on the compilation of statistics on illegal economic activities in national accounts and balance of payments". Eurostat. 6 March 2018.
  13. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  14. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  15. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  16. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  17. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  18. ^ "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  19. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.