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Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2019
according to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2018

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing the quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2018 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2019. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2018, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity has also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Contents

ListsEdit

All figures are in current international dollars (Int$).

List by the International Monetary Fund (2018)[5] List by the World Bank (2018)[6][7] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[8]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
 World 135,178.32
1   China[n 1] 25,270.066
  European Union[n 2] 22,023.14
2   United States 20,494.050
3   India 10,505.288
4   Japan 5,594.452
5   Germany 4,356.353
6   Russia 4,213.403
7   Indonesia 3,494.737
8   Brazil 3,365.343
9   United Kingdom 3,037.787
10   France 2,962.799
11   Mexico 2,569.806
12   Italy 2,397.403
13   Turkey 2,292.511
14   South Korea 2,136.315
15   Spain 1,864.419
16   Saudi Arabia 1,857.525
17   Canada 1,836.816
18   Iran 1,610.677
19   Thailand 1,320.364
20   Australia 1,318.153
21   Egypt 1,296.286
  Taiwan 1,234.860
22   Poland 1,212.925
23   Nigeria 1,168.515
24   Pakistan 1,141.403
25   Malaysia 999.397
26   Netherlands 969.228
27   Philippines 952.569
28   Argentina 915.125
29   South Africa 789.423
30   Bangladesh 761.699
31   Colombia 744.696
32   United Arab Emirates 723.676
33   Vietnam 710.307
34   Iraq 673.251
35   Algeria 657.462
36   Singapore 565.811
37   Belgium 550.501
38    Switzerland 548.483
39   Sweden 542.037
40   Romania 516.336
41   Kazakhstan 508.642
42   Chile 481.756
  Hong Kong 480.494
43   Austria 463.220
44   Peru 457.483
45   Czech Republic 395.868
46   Norway 395.867
47   Ukraine 390.336
48   Ireland 385.851
49   Qatar 354.762
50   Myanmar 344.005
51   Israel 337.231
52   Venezuela 330.984
53   Portugal 329.241
54   Morocco 314.605
55   Greece 312.661
56   Hungary 311.944
57   Kuwait 306.441
58   Denmark 301.319
59   Sri Lanka 290.561
60   Finland 256.456
61   Uzbekistan 250.328
62   Ethiopia 219.545
63   Ecuador 199.481
64   Angola 199.319
65   Oman 198.486
66   New Zealand 197.827
67   Slovak Republic 191.216
68   Ghana 190.677
69   Dominican Republic 189.237
70   Belarus 189.178
71   Azerbaijan 179.673
72   Sudan 177.678
73   Kenya 177.285
74   Tanzania 175.785
75   Bulgaria 162.318
76   Guatemala 145.635
77   Tunisia 144.244
  Puerto Rico 129.822
78   Serbia 122.759
79   Turkmenistan 112.666
80   Croatia 107.406
81   Côte d'Ivoire 106.984
82   Panama 106.775
83   Lithuania 97.006
84   Uganda 96.963
85   Cameroon 95.262
86   Paraguay 94.477
87   Jordan 93.427
88   Lebanon 89.478
89   Costa Rica 88.220
90     Nepal 86.073
91   Bolivia 84.099
92   Uruguay 81.599
  Macau 77.334
93   Slovenia 75.976
94   Libya 74.693
95   Bahrain 74.146
96   Yemen 73.258
97   Zambia 72.932
98   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72.924
99   Afghanistan 72.648
100   Cambodia 70.452
101   Luxembourg 64.237
102   Senegal 59.521
103   Latvia 57.840
104   Laos 53.701
105   El Salvador 53.401
106   Honduras 49.157
107   Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.266
108   Estonia 44.955
109   Trinidad and Tobago 44.357
110   Mali 44.203
111   Mongolia 43.544
112   Madagascar 42.917
113   Georgia 42.606
114   Zimbabwe 42.547
115   Botswana 41.944
116   Mozambique 39.181
117   Burkina Faso 38.845
118   Albania 38.356
119   Gabon 37.968
120   Nicaragua 35.733
121   Brunei Darussalam 34.552
122   Cyprus 34.546
123   North Macedonia 32.627
124   Tajikistan 31.108
125   Papua New Guinea 30.855
126   Guinea 30.705
127   Armenia 30.438
128   Republic of Congo 30.297
129   Chad 30.166
130   Mauritius 29.994
131   Equatorial Guinea 29.838
132   Benin 27.718
133   Rwanda 27.405
134   Namibia 27.106
135   Jamaica 27.016
136   Moldova 25.888
137   Kyrgyzstan 24.531
138   Malawi 23.653
139   Niger 23.531
140   Malta 21.298
141   Somalia 21.155
  Kosovo 20.942
142   Haiti 20.726
143   South Sudan 19.491
144   Iceland 19.484
145   Mauritania 18.138
146   Togo 13.954
147   Bahamas, The 12.612
148   Sierra Leone 12.265
149   Eswatini 12.132
150   Montenegro 11.891
151   Eritrea 10.017
152   Fiji 9.106
153   Suriname 8.927
154   Burundi 8.200
155   Maldives 7.956
156   Bhutan 7.794
157   Lesotho 6.906
158   Guyana 6.664
159   Timor-Leste 6.653
160   Liberia 6.327
161   Gambia, The 6.057
162   Barbados 5.309
163   Cape Verde 4.045
164   Djibouti 3.971
165   Central African Republic 3.617
166   Guinea-Bissau 3.366
167   Belize 3.365
168   Seychelles 2.913
169   Antigua and Barbuda 2.580
170   St. Lucia 2.536
171   San Marino 2.019
172   Grenada 1.751
173   St. Kitts and Nevis 1.669
174   Solomon Islands 1.406
175   Comoros 1.386
176   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.319
177   Samoa 1.174
178   Vanuatu 0.816
179   São Tomé and Príncipe 0.723
180   Dominica 0.699
181   Tonga 0.616
182   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.356
183   Palau 0.276
184   Kiribati 0.240
185   Marshall Islands 0.207
186   Nauru 0.159
187   Tuvalu 0.044
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1   China[n 1] 23,300,783
2   United States 19,390,604
3   India 11,948,659
4   Japan 5,487,161
5   Germany 4,187,583
6   Russia 3,817,201
7   Indonesia 3,242,769
8   Brazil 3,240,524
9   United Kingdom 2,896,833
10   France 2,871,264
11   Italy 2,410,985
12   Mexico 2,344,197
13   Turkey 2,254,114
14   Korea, South 1,969,106
15   Spain 1,773,972
16   Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17   Canada 1,702,435
18   Iran 1,700,356
19   Thailand 1,233,736
20   Australia 1,157,298
21   Egypt 1,129,919
22   Nigeria 1,118,755
23   Poland 1,112,364
24   Pakistan 1,088,982
25   Malaysia 930,749
26   Argentina 920,248
27   Netherlands 907,032
28   Philippines 875,311
29   South Africa 765,567
30   Colombia 714,003
31   United Arab Emirates 694,468
32   Iraq 658,200
33   Vietnam 647,368
34   Bangladesh 637,078
35   Algeria 631,150
36    Switzerland 550,346
37   Belgium 540,867
38   Singapore 527,021
39   Romania 506,132
40   Sweden 504,088
41   Kazakhstan 476,366
42   Austria 462,990
  Hong Kong 454,886
43   Chile 434,848
44   Peru 432,115
45   Venezuela 409,389
46   Czech Republic 390,989
47   Ukraine 368,217
48   Ireland 367,301
49   Qatar 338,817
50   Israel 334,667
51   Portugal 331,445
52   Myanmar 327,629
53   Norway 322,101
54   Greece 299,241
55   Morocco 298,230
56   Kuwait 297,594
57   Denmark 291,600
58   Hungary 277,543
59   Sri Lanka 274,718
60   Finland 249,065
61   Uzbekistan 222,338
62   Ethiopia 199,336
63   Sudan 198,758
64   New Zealand 196,152
65   Oman 193,218
66   Ecuador 193,138
67   Angola 190,290
68   Belarus 179,203
69   Slovakia 174,678
70   Dominican Republic 172,591
71   Azerbaijan 171,588
72   Tanzania 163,886
73   Kenya 163,309
74   Bulgaria 143,850
75   Guatemala 137,849
76   Tunisia 137,358
77   Ghana 133,826
78   Libya 125,142
79   Serbia 105,966
80   Croatia 104,233
81   Turkmenistan 103,604
82   Panama 100,194
83   Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84   Lithuania 90,749
85   Lebanon 89,263
86   Cameroon 88,859
87   Jordan 88,809
88   Costa Rica 83,615
89   Bolivia 83,546
90   Uganda 79,889
91     Nepal 78,591
92   Uruguay 77,992
93   Yemen 75,346
94   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95   Slovenia 71,926
  Macau 71,672
96   Bahrain 70,937
97   Afghanistan 70,368
98   Zambia 69,235
99   Paraguay 66,007
100   Cambodia 64,050
101   Luxembourg 62,139
102   Latvia 53,561
103   El Salvador 51,061
104   Laos 48,167
105   Honduras 46,198
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107   Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108   Senegal 42,992
109   Estonia 41,619
110   Mali 41,004
111   Mongolia 39,982
112   Botswana 39,770
113   Georgia 39,768
114   Madagascar 39,764
115   Mozambique 37,005
116   Gabon 36,823
117   Nicaragua 36,324
118   Burkina Faso 35,887
119   Papua New Guinea 34,633
120   Albania 34,541
121   Zimbabwe 34,476
122   Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123   North Macedonia 31,729
124   Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125   Cyprus 29,606
126   Guinea 29,056
127   Chad 28,924
128   Tajikistan 28,373
129   Armenia 28,271
130   Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131   Mauritius 28,174
132   Namibia 26,542
133   Jamaica 25,999
134   Benin 25,327
135   Rwanda 24,852
136   Kyrgyzstan 23,104
137   West Bank and Gaza 22,886
138   Malawi 22,387
139   Niger 21,834
140   Moldova 20,226
141   Haiti 19,930
  Kosovo 19,688
142   Malta 18,395
143   Iceland 18,265
144   Mauritania 17,458
145   Togo 12,240
146   Bahamas, The 12,031
147   Montenegro 11,681
148   Eswatini 11,617
149   Sierra Leone 10,264
150   Timor-Leste 9,350
151   Fiji 8,652
153   Suriname 8,515
153   Burundi 8,376
154   Bhutan 7,721
155   Maldives 7,273
156   Lesotho 6,991
157   Guyana 6,349
158   Barbados 5,326
159   Liberia 3,911
160   Cape Verde 3,733
161   Djibouti 3,716
162   Gambia, The 3,602
163   Central African Republic 3,382
164   Belize 3,219
165   Guinea-Bissau 3,165
166   Seychelles 2,776
167   Saint Lucia 2,543
168   Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
169   San Marino 2,085
170   Grenada 1,609
171   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
172   Solomon Islands 1,480
173   Samoa 1,299
174   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
175   Comoros 1,263
176   Vanuatu 886
177   Dominica 785
178   Sao Tome and Principe 685
179   Tonga 643
180   Micronesia, Federated States of 382
181   Palau 316
182   Kiribati 253
183   Marshall Islands 223
184   Nauru 193
185   Tuvalu 44
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1   China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
  European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2   United States 19,360 2017 est.
3   India 11,947 2017 est.
4   Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5   Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6   Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7   Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8   Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10   France 2,826 2017 est.
11   Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12   Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13   Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14   Korea, South 2,027 2017 est.
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16   Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17   Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18   Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19   Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20   Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21   Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
  Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
22   Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
23   Poland 1,111 2017 est.
24   Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
25   Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
26   Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
27   Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
28   Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
29   South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
30   Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
31   United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
32   Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
33   Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
34   Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
35   Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
36   Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
37   Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
38    Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
39   Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
40   Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
41   Romania 474.0 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
42   Chile 452.1 2017 est.
43   Austria 434.1 2017 est.
44   Peru 424.6 2017 est.
45   Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
46   Norway 375.9 2017 est.
47   Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
48   Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
49   Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
50   Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
51   Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
52   Israel 315.6 2017 est.
53   Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
54   Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
55   Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
56   Greece 299.5 2017 est.
57   Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
58   Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
59   Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
60   Finland 242.4 2017 est.
61   Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
62   Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
63   Angola 192.0 2017 est.
64   Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
65   Oman 187.9 2017 est.
66   Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
67   New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
68   Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
69   Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
70   Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
71   Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
72   Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
73   Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
74   Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
75   Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
76   Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
77   Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
78   Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
  Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
79   Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
80   Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
81   Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
82   Panama 99.43 2017 est.
83   Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
84   Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
85   Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
86   Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
87   Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
88   Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
89   Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
90   Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
91     Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
92   Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
  Macau 73.58 2017 est.
93   Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
94   Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
95   Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
96   Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
97   Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
98   Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
99   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
100   Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
101   Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
102   Libya 63.14 2017 est.
103   El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
104   Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
105   Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106   Laos 49.21 2017 est.
107   Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
108   Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
109   Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
110   Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
111   Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
112   Mali 40.98 2017 est.
113   Korea, North 40.00 2015 est.
114   Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
115   Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
116   Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
117   Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
118   Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
119   Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
120   Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
121   Albania 35.87 2017 est.
122   Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
123   Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
124   Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
125   North Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
126   Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
127   Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
128   Chad 29.64 2017 est.
129   Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
130   Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
131   Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
132   Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
133   Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
134   Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
135   Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
136   Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
137   Benin 25.29 2017 est.
138   Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
139   Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
140   Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
141   Niger 21.62 2017 est.
142   Palestine (west bank) 21.22 2014 est.
143   Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
144   Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
145   South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
  Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
146   Malta 18.53 2017 est.
147   Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
148   Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
149   Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
150   Togo 12.43 2017 est.
151   Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
152   Eswatini 11.34 2017 est.
153   Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
154   Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
155   Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
156   Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
157   Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
158   Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
159   Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
160   Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
161   Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
162   Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
163   Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
164   Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
165   Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
166   Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
167   Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
168   Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
169   Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
170   Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
171   Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
172   Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
173   Belize 3.230 2017 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
174   Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
175   Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
176   Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
177   Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
178   San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
179   Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
180   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
181   Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
182   Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
183   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
184   Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
185   Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
186   Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
187   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
188   Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
189   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
190   Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
191   Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192   Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193   Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194   Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
  Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[9] As the EU is not a country, the U.S is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  6. ^ ""Gross domestic product 2018, PPP", World Bank, released on 9 July 2019" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 22 July 2019..
  7. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  8. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  9. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.