List of countries by GDP (PPP)

Wikimedia list article
For countries by nominal GDP, see List of countries by GDP (nominal).
Largest economies by GDP PPP in 2017.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
The top ten largest economies by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The GDP dollar (INT$) data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations.

Comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than nominal when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2016, for all current 187 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list uses "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars and were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015. The second table includes data mostly for the year 2015 for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states, as well as the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau). Data are in billions of international dollars and were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Purchasing Power Parity) data update of 2016. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Contents

Lists

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (Estimates for 2017)[5] List by the World Bank (2015)[6] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2016)[7]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 125,773,760
1   China 23,066,062
  European Union[n 1] 20,745,308
2   United States 19,377,145
3   India 9,585,371
4   Japan 5,066,064
5   Germany 4,122,402
6   Russia 3,866,330
7   Brazil 3,817,990
8   Indonesia 3,756,730
9   United Kingdom 3,077,510
10   France 3,000,150
11   Mexico 2,410,950
12   Italy 2,289,578
13   Turkey 2,204,510
14   Saudi Arabia 2,145,419
15   South Korea 2,029,861
16   Spain 1,763,430
17   Canada 1,742,660
18   Iran 1,551,110
19   Thailand 1,246,640
20   Australia 1,225,090
21   Egypt 1,173,360
22   Taiwan 1,168,780
23   Nigeria 1,119,520
24   Poland 1,111,010
25   Pakistan 1,059,900
26   Argentina 924,481
27   Malaysia 922,894
28   Netherlands 898,732
29   Philippines 873,966
30   South Africa 758,123
31   Colombia 724,167
32   United Arab Emirates 698,534
33   Bangladesh 686,162
34   Vietnam 645,333
35   Algeria 640,601
36   Iraq 612,329
37   Belgium 526,616
38   Sweden 522,233
39    Switzerland 511,615
40   Singapore 508,449
41   Kazakhstan 473,239
42   Romania 467,436
43   Venezuela 457,134
44   Chile 454,344
45   Hong Kong 444,653
46   Peru 435,881
47   Austria 429,876
48   Norway 376,990
49   Czech Republic 367,965
50   Ukraine 366,315
51   Qatar 353,143
52   Myanmar 342,205
53   Ireland 341,883
54   Kuwait 315,582
55   Israel 312,409
56   Portugal 306,762
57   Greece 304,933
58   Morocco 302,674
59   Hungary 280,058
60   Denmark 274,433
61   Sri Lanka 255,039
62   Finland 237,484
63   Uzbekistan 218,933
64   Angola 194,080
65   Ethiopia 191,879
66   Sudan 186,390
67   New Zealand 183,431
68   Oman 181,407
69   Ecuador 181,306
70   Slovak Republic 178,372
71   Azerbaijan 173,945
72   Dominican Republic 171,709
73   Belarus 168,068
74   Kenya 165,591
75   Tanzania 165,005
76   Bulgaria 150,266
77   Guatemala 140,249
78   Tunisia 137,380
79   Ghana 132,487
80   Puerto Rico 131,849
81   Croatia[n 2] 127,397
82   Serbia 106,537
83   Libya 105,588
84   Turkmenistan 102,013
85   Panama 100,639
86   Syria 98,281
87   Côte d'Ivoire 96,092
88   Uganda 91,543
89   Jordan 90,904
90   Lithuania 90,240
91   Lebanon 88,730
92   Yemen 84,489
93   Costa Rica 84,398
94   Bolivia 83,154
95   Cameroon 82,205
96   Uruguay 76,423
97     Nepal 76,016
98   Democratic Republic of the Congo 70,294
99   Zambia 69,205
100   Bahrain 68,992
101   Slovenia 68,770
102   Paraguay 67,875
103   Afghanistan 67,681
104   Macau 64,735
105   Cambodia 64,365
106   Luxembourg 61,879
107   El Salvador 57,305
108   Latvia 53,710
109   Honduras 45,744
110   Trinidad and Tobago 45,522
111   Laos 44,880
112   Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,832
113   Senegal 43,347
114   Mali 40,909
115   Estonia 40,519
116   Georgia 40,157
117   Madagascar 40,029
118   Botswana 38,790
119   Gabon 38,660
120   Mozambique 38,055
121   Mongolia 37,805
122   Albania 36,241
123   Brunei Darussalam 35,817
124   Burkina Faso 35,680
125   Nicaragua 35,675
126   Republic of Congo 32,467
127   Macedonia 31,851
128   Chad 31,768
129   Equatorial Guinea 30,566
130   Cyprus 30,550
131   Papua New Guinea 29,468
132   Namibia 29,069
133   Zimbabwe 28,203
134   Armenia 28,053
135   Tajikistan 27,550
136   Mauritius 27,434
137   Jamaica 26,452
138   Benin 26,177
139   Rwanda 23,788
140   Malawi 22,658
141   Kyrgyz Republic 21,956
142   Niger 21,742
143   Haiti 20,415
144   South Sudan 20,038
145   Kosovo 19,515
146   Moldova 19,505
147   Mauritania 17,810
148   Malta 17,228
149   Guinea 17,154
150   Iceland 17,114
151   Togo 12,451
152   Swaziland 11,405
153   Sierra Leone 11,403
154   Montenegro 11,234
155   Eritrea 9,671
156   Bahamas 9,352
157   Fiji 8,888
158   Suriname 8,774
159   Burundi 8,223
160   Bhutan 6,991
161   Guyana 6,477
162   Lesotho 6,384
163   Maldives 5,747
164   Barbados 4,991
165   Timor-Leste 4,603
166   Liberia 4,123
167   Cabo Verde 3,807
168   Djibouti 3,656
169   The Gambia 3,574
170   Central African Republic 3,454
171   Belize 3,235
172   Guinea-Bissau 3,058
173   Seychelles 2,757
174   Antigua and Barbuda 2,271
175   St. Lucia 2,168
176   San Marino 2,091
177   Grenada 1,585
178   St. Kitts and Nevis 1,509
179   Comoros 1,329
180   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
181   Solomon Islands 1,264
182   Samoa 1,084
183   Dominica 854
184   Vanuatu 772
185   São Tomé and Príncipe 745
186   Tonga 583
187   Micronesia 323
188   Palau 296
189   Kiribati 221
190   Marshall Islands 187
191   Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 114,212,979
1   China 19,524,348
  European Union[n 1] 19,137,699
2   United States 17,946,996
3   India 7,982,528
4   Japan 4,738,294
5   Germany 3,799,826
6   Russia 3,579,826
7   Brazil 3,198,898
8   Indonesia 2,842,241
9   United Kingdom 2,691,809
10   France 2,650,823
11   Mexico 2,194,431
12   Italy 2,182,580
13   South Korea 1,748,776
14   Saudi Arabia 1,685,204
15   Spain 1,602,660
16   Canada 1,588,596
17   Turkey 1,543,284
18   Iran 1,357,025
19   Thailand 1,108,108
20   Nigeria 1,091,698
21   Australia 1,082,380
22   Egypt 996,638
23   Poland 993,129
24   Pakistan 952,505
25   Netherlands 820,726
26   Malaysia 815,645
27   Philippines 741,029
28   South Africa 723,516
29   Colombia 665,594
30   United Arab Emirates 643,166
31   Algeria 582,598
32   Venezuela 554,329
33   Vietnam 552,297
34   Iraq 542,520
35   Bangladesh 536,567
36    Switzerland 501,653
37   Belgium 496,477
38   Singapore 471,631
39   Sweden 454,868
40   Kazakhstan 453,981
41   Romania 424,474
  Hong Kong 414,376
42   Austria 411,818
43   Chile 400,534
44   Peru 389,147
45   Czech Republic 339,402
46   Ukraine 339,155
47   Qatar 321,418
48   Norway 319,401
49   Portugal 302,329
50   Israel 296,931
51   Greece 288,778
52   Kuwait 277,554
53   Morocco 273,358
54   Denmark 264,702
55   Ireland 253,635
56   Hungary 251,842
57   Sri Lanka 246,117
58   Cuba (2013) 234,624
59   Finland 222,575
60   Uzbekistan 187,668
61   Angola 184,438
62   Ecuador 183,855
63   Oman 171,692
64   Azerbaijan 171,214
65   New Zealand 169,960
66   Belarus 168,009
67   Sudan 167,909
68   Ethiopia 161,571
69   Slovakia 156,632
70   Dominican Republic 149,627
71   Kenya 141,951
72   Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
73   Tunisia 126,598
74   Guatemala 125,950
75   Puerto Rico 125,861
76   Bulgaria 125,699
77   Ghana 115,137
78   Croatia 111,812
79   Serbia 95,698
80   Yemen 92,432
81   Libya 88,867
82   Turkmenistan 88,657
83   Panama 87,196
84   Jordan 82,631
85   Lebanon 81,547
86   Lithuania 80,699
87 Cote d'Ivoire  Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
88   Costa Rica 73,931
89   Bolivia 73,796
90   Cameroon 72,896
91   Uruguay 72,751
92   Uganda 71,246
93     Nepal 70,090
  Macau 65,383
94   Bahrain 64,656
95   Slovenia 64,229
96   Afghanistan 62,913
97   Zambia 62,458
98   Paraguay 62,458
99   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
100   Luxembourg 58,065
101   Cambodia 54,263
102   El Salvador 52,701
103   Latvia 48,049
104   Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
105   Mali 42,737
106   Honduras 41,057
107   Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
108   Laos 38,605
109   Estonia 36,860
110   Senegal 36,776
111   Mongolia 36,068
112   Botswana 35,763
113   Georgia 35,610
114   Madagascar 35,366
115   Gabon 34,523
116   Mozambique 33,177
117   Albania 32,663
118   Nicaragua 31,564
119   Chad 30,481
120   Burkina Faso 30,041
121   Brunei Darussalam 29,969
122   Congo, Republic of the 29,423
123   Macedonia 28,907
124   Zimbabwe 27,985
125   Cyprus 25,864
126   Namibia 25,606
127   Equatorial Guinea 25,386
128   Armenia 25,329
129   Jamaica 24,704
130   Mauritius 24,596
131   Tajikistan 23,579
132   Benin 22,955
133   South Sudan 22,829
134   West Bank and Gaza 22,155
135   Papua New Guinea 21,384
136   Rwanda 20,418
137   Kyrgyzstan 20,413
138   Malawi 20,359
139   Niger 18,975
140   Haiti 18,875
141   Moldova 17,908
142   Kosovo 17,454
143   Mauritania 15,425
144   Iceland 15,399
145   Guinea 15,213
146   Malta 12,500
147   Swaziland 10,845
148   Togo 10,663
149   Sierra Leone 10,264
150   Montenegro 9,638
151   Bahamas, The 9,233
152   Suriname 9,214
153   Burundi 8,228
154   Fiji 8,171
155   Bhutan 6,258
156   Guyana 5,758
157   Lesotho 5,585
158   Maldives 5,170
159   Barbados 4,659
160   Liberia 3,766
161   Cape Verde 3,482
162   Bermuda 3,409
163   Gambia 3,155
164   Belize 3,064
165   Central African Republic 2,927
166   Djibouti 2,876
167   Timor-Leste 2,813
168   Guinea-Bissau 2,680
169   Seychelles 2,534
170   Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
171   Saint Lucia 2,033
172   Grenada 1,385
173   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
174   Solomon Islands 1,276
175   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
176   Samoa 1,144
177   Comoros 1,105
178   Dominica 820
179   Vanuatu 787
180   Sao Tome and Principe 594
181   Tonga 552
182   Federated States of Micronesia 348
183   Palau 325
184   Kiribati 209
185   Marshall Islands 202
186   Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Int$)
Year
 World 119,400 2016 est.
1   China 21,270 2016 est.
  European Union[n 1] 19,180 2016 est.
2   United States 18,560 2016 est.
3   India 8,721 2016 est.
4   Japan 4,932 2016 est.
5   Germany 3,979 2016 est.
6   Russia 3,745 2016 est.
7   Brazil 3,135 2016 est.
8   Indonesia 3,028 2016 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,788 2016 est.
10   France 2,737 2016 est.
11   Mexico 2,307 2016 est.
12   Italy 2,221 2016 est.
13   South Korea 1,929 2016 est.
14   Saudi Arabia 1,731 2016 est.
15   Spain 1,690 2016 est.
16   Canada 1,674 2016 est.
17   Turkey 1,670 2016 est.
18   Iran 1,459 2016 est.
19   Australia 1,189 2016 est.
20   Thailand 1,161 2016 est.
21   Taiwan 1,125 2016 est.
22   Egypt 1,105 2016 est.
23   Nigeria 1,089 2016 est.
24   Poland 1,052 2016 est.
25   Pakistan 988.2 2016 est.
26   Argentina 879.4 2016 est.
27   Netherlands 865.9 2016 est.
28   Malaysia 863.8 2016 est.
29   Philippines 801.9 2016 est.
30   South Africa 736.3 2016 est.
31   Colombia 690.4 2016 est.
32   United Arab Emirates 667.2 2016 est.
33   Bangladesh 628.4 2016 est.
34   Algeria 609.4 2016 est.
35   Iraq 596.7 2016 est.
36   Vietnam 594.9 2016 est.
37   Belgium 508.6 2016 est.
38   Sweden 498.1 2016 est.
39    Switzerland 494.3 2016 est.
40   Singapore 486.9 2016 est.
41   Venezuela 468.6 2016 est.
42   Kazakhstan 460.7 2016 est.
43   Romania 441.0 2016 est.
44   Chile 436.1 2016 est.
  Hong Kong 427.4 2016 est.
45   Austria 415.9 2016 est.
46   Peru 409.9 2016 est.
47   Norway 364.7 2016 est.
48   Czech Republic 350.9 2016 est.
49   Ukraine 349.8 2016 est.
50   Qatar 334.5 2016 est.
51   Ireland 324.3 2016 est.
52   Myanmar 311.1 2016 est.
53   Kuwait 301.1 2016 est.
54   Portugal 297.1 2016 est.
55   Israel 297.0 2016 est.
56   Greece 290.5 2016 est.
57   Morocco 282.8 2016 est.
58   Hungary 267.6 2016 est.
59   Denmark 264.8 2016 est.
60   Sri Lanka 237.8 2016 est.
61   Finland 230.0 2016 est.
62   Uzbekistan 202.3 2016 est.
63   Angola 187.3 2016 est.
64   Ecuador 182.4 2016 est.
65   Sudan 176.3 2016 est.
66   New Zealand 174.8 2016 est.
67   Ethiopia 174.7 2016 est.
68   Oman 173.1 2016 est.
69   Slovakia 169.1 2016 est.
70   Azerbaijan 167.9 2016 est.
71   Belarus 165.4 2016 est.
72   Dominican Republic 160.9 2016 est.
73   Kenya 152.7 2016 est.
74   Tanzania 150.6 2016 est.
75   Bulgaria 143.1 2016 est.
76   Guatemala 132.3 2016 est.
  Puerto Rico 131.0 2016 est.
77   Tunisia 130.8 2016 est.
78   Cuba 128.5 2014 est.
79   Ghana 120.8 2016 est.
80   Serbia 108.5 2016 est.
81   Turkmenistan 94.77 2016 est.
82   Croatia 94.24 2016 est.
83   Panama 93.12 2016 est.
84   Libya 90.98 2016 est.
85   Cote d'Ivoire 87.12 2016 est.
86   Jordan 86.19 2016 est.
87   Lithuania 85.79 2016 est.
88   Lebanon 85.16 2016 est.
89   Uganda 84.93 2016 est.
90   Costa Rica 79.26 2016 est.
91   Bolivia 78.35 2016 est.
92   Cameroon 77.24 2016 est.
93   Uruguay 73.93 2016 est.
94   Yemen 73.45 2016 est.
95     Nepal 71.52 2016 est.
96   Bahrain 66.37 2016 est.
97   Slovenia 66.13 2016 est.
98   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 66.01 2016 est.
99   Zambia 65.17 2016 est.
100   Paraguay 64.12 2016 est.
101   Afghanistan 64.08 2016 est.
  Macau 63.22 2016 est.
102   Cambodia 58.94 2016 est.
103   Luxembourg 58.74 2016 est.
104   Syria 55.80 2015 est.
105   El Salvador 54.79 2016 est.
106   Latvia 50.87 2016 est.
107   Trinidad and Tobago 43.57 2016 est.
108   Honduras 43.19 2016 est.
109   Bosnia and Herzegovina 42.53 2016 est.
110   Laos 40.96 2016 est.
111   North Korea 40.00 2014 est.
112   Senegal 39.72 2016 est.
113   Estonia 38.70 2016 est.
114   Mali 38.09 2016 est.
115   Madagascar 37.49 2016 est.
116   Georgia 37.38 2016 est.
117   Mongolia 36.65 2016 est.
118   Botswana 36.51 2016 est.
119   Gabon 36.22 2016 est.
120   Mozambique 35.31 2016 est.
121   Albania 34.21 2016 est.
122   Brunei 33.73 2016 est.
123   Nicaragua 33.49 2016 est.
124   Burkina Faso 32.99 2016 est.
125   Equatorial Guinea 31.77 2016 est.
126   Chad 30.59 2016 est.
127   Congo, Republic of the 30.27 2016 est.
128   Macedonia 30.13 2016 est.
129   Cyprus 29.26 2016 est.
130   Zimbabwe 28.33 2016 est.
131   Papua New Guinea 28.02 2016 est.
132   Namibia 27.04 2016 est.
133   Armenia 26.56 2016 est.
134   Mauritius 25.85 2016 est.
135   Tajikistan 25.81 2016 est.
136   Jamaica 25.39 2016 est.
137   Benin 24.31 2016 est.
138   Rwanda 21.97 2016 est.
139   Malawi 21.23 2016 est.
  West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
140   Kyrgyzstan 21.01 2016 est.
141   South Sudan 20.88 2016 est.
142   Niger 20.27 2016 est.
143   Haiti 19.36 2016 est.
144   Moldova 18.54 2016 est.
  Kosovo 18.49 2016 est.
145   Mauritania 16.71 2016 est.
146   Malta 16.32 2016 est.
147   Iceland 16.15 2016 est.
148   Guinea 16.08 2016 est.
149   Togo 11.61 2016 est.
  New Caledonia 11.10 2014 est.
150   Swaziland 11.06 2016 est.
151   Sierra Leone 10.64 2016 est.
152   Montenegro 10.61 2016 est.
153   Eritrea 9.169 2016 est.
154   Bahamas, The 9.066 2016 est.
155   Suriname 8.547 2016 est.
156   Fiji 8.374 2016 est.
157   Burundi 7.892 2016 est.
  French Polynesia 7.150 2012 est.
158   Timor-Leste 7.101 2015 est.
159   Monaco 6.790 2013 est.
160   Bhutan 6.383 2015 est.
  Isle of Man 6.298 2012 est.
161   Lesotho 5.777 2015 est.
  Jersey 5.771 2012 est.
162   Guyana 5.770 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
163   Maldives 4.732 2015 est.
164   Barbados 4.658 2015 est.
165   Somalia 4.431 2010 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
166   Liberia 3.780 2015 est.
167   Cape Verde 3.479 2015 est.
  Guernsey 3.451 2013 est.
168   Gambia, The 3.269 2015 est.
169   Liechtenstein 3.200 2009 est.
170   Andorra 3.163 2012 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
171   Djibouti 3.093 2015 est.
172   Belize 3.071 2015 est.
173   Central African Republic 3.052 2015 est.
174   Guinea-Bissau 2.677 2015 est.
175   Seychelles 2.533 2015 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
176   Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2011 est.
177   Antigua and Barbuda 2.096 2015 est.
178   Saint Lucia 2.032 2015 est.
179   San Marino 1.952 2015 est.
  Gibraltar 1.850 2013 est.
  Faroe Islands 1.471 2010 est.
180   Grenada 1.385 2015 est.
181   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.358 2015 est.
182   Comoros 1.214 2015 est.
183   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.211 2015 est.
184   Solomon Islands 1.141 2015 est.
185   Samoa 1.033 2015 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
186   Dominica 0.8201 2015 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.682 2013 est.
187   Vanuatu 0.6758 2015 est.
188   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6637 2015 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
189   Tonga 0.5230 2014 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
190   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3103 2015 est.
191   Palau 0.2626 2015 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192   Marshall Islands 0.1869 2015 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193   Kiribati 0.1698 2015 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.1645 2007 est.
194   Nauru 0.1508 2015 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
195   Tuvalu 0.0390 2016 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[8] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ Data for Croatia's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 25 February 2017. 
  6. ^ Data (22 July 2016). ""Gross domestic product 2015, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 26 July 2016" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 26 July 2016. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  8. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. 

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