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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2018.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2017

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. While the EU is shown in the data it is not in fact a country as per the title of this article, but rather a collection of over 20 European countries.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP (see List of countries by GDP (nominal)) when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list says "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2018. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in billions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Contents

ListsEdit

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (estimates for 2017)[5][6] List by the World Bank (2017)[7][8][9] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[10]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 126,687,917
1   China[n 1] 23,159,107
  European Union[n 2] 20,982,857
2   United States 19,390,600
3   India 9,459,002
4   Japan 5,428,813
5   Germany 4,170,790
6   Russia 4,007,831
7   Indonesia 3,242,771
8   Brazil 3,240,319
9   United Kingdom 2,914,042
10   France 2,835,746
11   Mexico 2,458,357
12   Italy 2,310,902
13   Turkey 2,173,227
14   South Korea 2,029,032
15   Spain 1,773,906
16   Saudi Arabia 1,773,551
17   Canada 1,769,270
18   Iran 1,644,705
19   Australia 1,246,475
20   Thailand 1,233,737
21   Egypt 1,201,188
22   Taiwan 1,185,480
23   Poland 1,121,009
24   Nigeria 1,118,756
25   Pakistan 1,056,987
26   Malaysia 930,750
27   Argentina 920,249
28   Netherlands 916,078
29   Philippines 875,572
30   South Africa 765,568
31   Colombia 714,004
32   Bangladesh 687,144
33   United Arab Emirates 686,831
34   Iraq 658,791
35   Vietnam 647,369
36   Algeria 632,904
37   Belgium 528,458
38   Singapore 527,021
39   Sweden 520,937
40    Switzerland 517,172
41   Romania 481,453
42   Kazakhstan 477,593
43   Hong Kong 454,912
44   Chile 451,070
45   Austria 439,575
46   Peru 424,385
47   Venezuela 380,743
48   Norway 380,006
49   Czech Republic 375,679
50   Ukraine 368,784
51   Qatar 347,887
52   Ireland 343,682
53   Myanmar 334,856
54   Israel 316,120
55   Portugal 310,651
56   Kuwait 309,640
57   Greece 302,150
58   Morocco 300,556
59   Hungary 284,266
60   Denmark 284,040
61   Sri Lanka 278,415
62   Finland 239,662
63   Uzbekistan 222,792
64   Ethiopia 194,980
65   Angola 193,935
66   Oman 189,582
67   Sudan 186,715
68   New Zealand 186,476
69   Ecuador 184,629
70   Slovak Republic 179,527
71   Dominican Republic 174,180
72   Belarus 173,405
73   Azerbaijan 167,431
74   Kenya 164,340
75   Tanzania 163,522
76   Bulgaria 152,079
77   Guatemala 138,987
78   Tunisia 136,797
79   Ghana 131,498
80   Puerto Rico 129,848
81   Serbia 107,131
82   Turkmenistan 103,987
83   Panama 100,512
84   Croatia 100,006
85   Côte d'Ivoire 95,887
86   Uganda 91,212
87   Lithuania 90,387
88   Jordan 89,555
89   Lebanon 88,786
90   Libya 87,067
91   Costa Rica 85,781
92   Bolivia 83,608
93   Cameroon 81,535
94   Uruguay 77,800
95     Nepal 77,147
96   Yemen 74,250
97   Bahrain 69,922
98   Slovenia 69,358
99   Zambia 68,648
100   Democratic Republic of the Congo 68,331
101   Paraguay 68,005
102   Afghanistan 67,462
103   Macau 65,732
104   Cambodia 64,405
105   Luxembourg 63,549
106   El Salvador 57,285
107   Latvia 53,268
108   Honduras 45,628
109   Trinidad and Tobago 44,654
110   Laos 44,639
111   Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,462
112   Senegal 43,326
113   Mali 40,974
114   Estonia 41,202
115   Madagascar 40,055
116   Georgia 39,318
117   Botswana 39,054
118   Mongolia 37,731
119   Mozambique 37,321
120   Gabon 36,999
121   Albania 36,198
122   Nicaragua 35,835
123   Burkina Faso 35,598
124   Brunei Darussalam 32,838
125   Macedonia 31,924
126   Cyprus 31,093
127   Equatorial Guinea 30,807
128   Republic of Congo 30,607
129   Zimbabwe 29,795
130   Chad 29,730
131   Papua New Guinea 29,481
132   Tajikistan 27,802
133   Mauritius 27,507
134   Namibia 27,451
135   Armenia 27,116
136   Jamaica 26,474
137   Benin 25,407
138   Rwanda 24,717
139   Kyrgyz Republic 22,737
140   Malawi 22,577
141   Kosovo 22,405
142   Niger 21,655
143   South Sudan 20,423
144   Moldova 20,207
145   Haiti 19,979
146   Malta 18,404
147   Iceland 17,846
148   Mauritania 17,421
149   Guinea 17,056
150   Togo 12,494
151   Sierra Leone 11,551
152   Swaziland 11,352
153   Montenegro 10,934
154   Eritrea 9,678
155   The Bahamas 9,374
156   Fiji 8,798
157   Burundi 8,024
158   Suriname 7,961
159   Lesotho 7,287
160   Bhutan 7,045
161   Guyana 6,398
162   Maldives 5,853
163   Barbados 4,983
164   Timor-Leste 4,567
165   Liberia 3,960
166   Cape Verde 3,762
167   Djibouti 3,658
168   The Gambia 3,607
169   Central African Republic 3,411
170   Belize 3,252
171   Guinea-Bissau 3,089
172   Seychelles 2,761
173   Antigua and Barbuda 2,372
174   St. Lucia 2,110
175   San Marino 2,093
176   Grenada 1,588
177   St. Kitts and Nevis 1,544
178   Comoros 1,329
179   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
180   Solomon Islands 1,247
181   Samoa 1,129
182   Dominica 847
183   Vanuatu 772
184   São Tomé and Príncipe 685
185   Tonga 597
186   Micronesia 345
187   Palau 297
188   Kiribati 222
189   Marshall Islands 188
190   Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1   China[n 1] 23,300,782
2   United States 19,390,604
3   India 9,448,659
4   Japan 5,562,822
5   Germany 4,193,922
6   Russia 3,749,283
7   Indonesia 3,242,768
8   Brazil 3,240,524
9   United Kingdom 2,896,833
10   France 2,871,264
11   Italy 2,410,985
12   Mexico 2,344,197
13   Turkey 2,254,114
14   South Korea 1,969,106
15   Spain 1,773,972
16   Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17   Canada 1,702,435
18   Iran 1,700,356
19   Thailand 1,233,736
20   Australia 1,157,298
21   Egypt 1,129,919
22   Nigeria 1,118,755
23   Poland 1,112,364
24   Pakistan 1,088,982
25   Malaysia 930,749
26   Argentina 920,248
27   Netherlands 907,032
28   Philippines 875,311
29   South Africa 765,567
30   Colombia 714,003
31   United Arab Emirates 694,468
32   Iraq 658,200
33   Vietnam 647,368
34   Bangladesh 637,078
35   Algeria 631,150
36    Switzerland 550,346
37   Belgium 540,867
38   Singapore 527,021
39   Romania 506,132
40   Sweden 504,088
41   Kazakhstan 476,366
42   Austria 462,990
  Hong Kong 454,886
43   Chile 434,848
44   Peru 432,115
45   Venezuela 409,389
46   Czech Republic 390,989
47   Ukraine 368,217
48   Ireland 367,301
49   Qatar 338,817
50   Israel 334,667
51   Portugal 331,445
52   Myanmar 327,629
53   Norway 322,101
54   Greece 299,241
55   Morocco 298,230
56   Kuwait 297,594
57   Denmark 291,600
58   Hungary 277,543
59   Sri Lanka 274,718
60   Finland 249,065
61   Uzbekistan 222,338
62   Ethiopia 199,336
63   Sudan 198,758
64   New Zealand 196,152
65   Oman 193,218
66   Ecuador 193,138
67   Angola 190,290
68   Belarus 179,203
69   Slovakia 174,678
70   Dominican Republic 172,591
71   Azerbaijan 171,588
72   Tanzania (mainland) 163,886
73   Kenya 163,309
74   Bulgaria 143,850
75   Guatemala 137,849
76   Tunisia 137,358
77   Ghana 133,826
78   Libya 125,142
79   Serbia 105,966
80   Croatia 104,233
81   Turkmenistan 103,604
82   Panama 100,194
83   Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84   Lithuania 90,749
85   Lebanon 89,263
86   Cameroon 88,859
87   Jordan 88,809
88   Costa Rica 83,615
89   Bolivia 83,546
90   Uganda 79,889
91     Nepal 78,591
92   Uruguay 77,992
93   Yemen 75,346
94   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95   Slovenia 71,926
  Macau 71,672
96   Bahrain 70,937
97   Afghanistan 70,368
98   Zambia 69,235
99   Paraguay 66,007
100   Cambodia 64,050
101   Luxembourg 62,139
102   Latvia 53,561
103   El Salvador 51,061
104   Laos 48,167
105   Honduras 46,198
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107   Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108   Senegal 42,992
109   Estonia 41,619
110   Mali 41,004
111   Mongolia 39,982
112   Botswana 39,770
113   Georgia 39,768
114   Madagascar 39,764
115   Mozambique 37,005
116   Gabon 36,823
117   Nicaragua 36,324
118   Burkina Faso 35,887
119   Papua New Guinea 34,633
120   Albania 34,541
121   Zimbabwe 34,476
122   Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123   Macedonia 31,729
124   Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125   Cyprus 29,606
126   Guinea 29,056
127   Chad 28,924
128   Tajikistan 28,373
129   Armenia 28,271
130   Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131   Mauritius 28,174
132   Namibia 26,542
133   Jamaica 25,999
134   Benin 25,327
135   Rwanda 24,852
136   Kyrgyzstan 23,104
137   West Bank and Gaza 22,886
138   Malawi 22,387
139   Niger 21,834
140   Moldova 20,226
141   Haiti 19,930
142   Kosovo 19,688
143   Malta 18,395
144   Iceland 18,265
145   Mauritania 17,458
146   Togo 12,240
147   Bahamas, The 12,031
148   Montenegro 11,681
149   Swaziland 11,617
150   Sierra Leone 10,264
151   Timor-Leste 9,350
152   Fiji 8,652
153   Suriname 8,515
154   Burundi 8,376
155   Bhutan 7,721
156   Maldives 7,273
157   Lesotho 6,991
158   Guyana 6,349
159   Barbados 5,326
160   Liberia 3,911
161   Cape Verde 3,733
162   Djibouti 3,716
163   Gambia 3,602
164   Central African Republic 3,382
165   Belize 3,219
166   Guinea-Bissau 3,165
167   Seychelles 2,776
168   Saint Lucia 2,543
169   Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
170   San Marino 2,085
171   Grenada 1,609
172   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
173   Solomon Islands 1,480
174   Samoa 1,299
175   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
176   Comoros 1,263
177   Vanuatu 886
178   Dominica 785
179   Sao Tome and Principe 685
180   Tonga 643
181   Federated States of Micronesia 382
182   Palau 316
183   Kiribati 253
184   Marshall Islands 223
185   Nauru 193
186   Tuvalu 44
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1   China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
  European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2   United States 19,360 2017 est.
3   India 9,447 2017 est.
4   Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5   Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6   Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7   Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8   Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10   France 2,826 2017 est.
11   Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12   Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13   Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14   South Korea 2,027 2017 est.
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16   Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17   Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18   Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19   Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20   Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21   Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
22   Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
23   Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
24   Poland 1,111 2017 est.
25   Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
26   Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
27   Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
28   Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
29   Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
30   South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
31   Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
32   United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
33   Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
34   Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
35   Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
36   Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
37   Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
38   Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
39    Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
40   Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
41   Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
42   Romania 474.0 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
43   Chile 452.1 2017 est.
44   Austria 434.1 2017 est.
45   Peru 424.6 2017 est.
46   Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
47   Norway 375.9 2017 est.
48   Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
49   Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
50   Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
51   Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
52   Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
53   Israel 315.6 2017 est.
54   Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
55   Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
56   Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
57   Greece 299.5 2017 est.
58   Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
59   Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
60   Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
61   Finland 242.4 2017 est.
62   Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
63   Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
64   Angola 192.0 2017 est.
65   Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
67   Oman 187.9 2017 est.
67   Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
68   New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
69   Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
70   Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
71   Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
72   Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
73   Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
74   Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
75   Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
76   Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
77   Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
78   Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
79   Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
  Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
80   Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
81   Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
82   Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
83   Panama 99.43 2017 est.
84   Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
85   Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
86   Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
87   Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
88   Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
89   Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
90   Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
91   Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
92     Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
93   Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
  Macau 73.58 2017 est.
94   Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
95   Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
96   Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
97   Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
98   Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
99   Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
100   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
101   Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
102   Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
103   Libya 63.14 2017 est.
104   El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
105   Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
106   Syria 50.28 2015 est.
107   Laos 49.21 2017 est.
108   Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
109   Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
110   Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
111   Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
112   Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
113   Mali 40.98 2017 est.
114   North Korea 40.00 2015 est.
115   Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
116   Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
117   Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
118   Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
119   Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
120   Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
121   Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
122   Albania 35.87 2017 est.
123   Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
124   Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
125   Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
126   Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
127   Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
128   Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
129   Chad 29.64 2017 est.
130   Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
131   Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
132   Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
133   Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
134   Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
135   Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
136   Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
137   Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
138   Benin 25.29 2017 est.
139   Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
140   Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
141   Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
142   Niger 21.62 2017 est.
  West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
143   Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
144   Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
145   South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
  Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
146   Malta 18.53 2017 est.
147   Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
148   Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
149   Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
150   Togo 12.43 2017 est.
151   Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
152   Swaziland 11.34 2017 est.
153   Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
154   Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
155   Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
156   Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
157   Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
158   Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
159   Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
160   Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
161   Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
162   Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
163   Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
164   Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
165   Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
166   Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
167   Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
168   Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
169   Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
170   Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
171   Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
172   Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
173   Belize 3.230 2017 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
174   Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
175   Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
176   Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
177   Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
178   San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
179   Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
180   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
181   Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
182   Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
183   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
184   Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
185   Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
186   Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
187   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
188   Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
189   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
190   Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
191   Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192   Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193   Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194   Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
  Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[11] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 9 May 2018. 
  6. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2018-07-20. 
  7. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  8. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  9. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  10. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  11. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.