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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2018.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2017

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP (see List of countries by GDP (nominal)) when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list says "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in October 2017. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in billions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Contents

Lists

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (estimates for 2017)[5] List by the World Bank (2016)[6][7][8] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[9]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 126,687,917
1   China[n 1] 23,122,027
  European Union[n 2] 20,852,702
2   United States 19,362,129
3   India 9,446,789
4   Japan 5,405,072
5   Germany 4,149,573
6   Russia 4,000,096
7   Indonesia 3,242,966
8   Brazil 3,219,129
9   United Kingdom 2,880,254
10   France 2,826,456
11   Mexico 2,406,087
12   Italy 2,307,073
13   Turkey 2,132,717
14   South Korea 2,026,651
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789,264
16   Spain 1,768,574
17   Canada 1,763,785
18   Iran 1,630,859
19   Australia 1,235,297
20   Thailand 1,228,941
21   Egypt 1,199,013
22   Taiwan 1,177,052
23   Nigeria 1,124,627
24   Poland 1,114,105
25   Pakistan 1,060,569
26   Malaysia 922,057
27   Argentina 912,816
28   Netherlands 907,619
29   Philippines 878,980
30   South Africa 761,926
31   Colombia 720,151
32   United Arab Emirates 693,765
33   Bangladesh 686,598
34   Vietnam 648,243
35   Iraq 641,005
36   Algeria 634,746
37   Belgium 529,289
38   Sweden 522,849
39   Singapore 514,837
40    Switzerland 514,162
41   Kazakhstan 472,563
42   Romania 470,312
43   Chile 455,941
44   Hong Kong 449,589
45   Austria 432,424
46   Peru 429,711
47   Venezuela 404,109
48   Norway 377,100
49   Czech Republic 368,659
50   Ukraine 368,047
51   Qatar 347,887
52   Ireland 343,682
53   Myanmar 334,856
54   Israel 316,120
55   Portugal 310,651
56   Kuwait 309,640
57   Greece 302,150
58   Morocco 300,556
59   Hungary 284,266
60   Denmark 284,040
61   Sri Lanka 278,415
62   Finland 239,662
63   Uzbekistan 222,792
64   Ethiopia 194,980
65   Angola 193,935
66   Oman 189,582
67   Sudan 186,715
68   New Zealand 186,476
69   Ecuador 184,629
70   Slovak Republic 179,527
71   Dominican Republic 174,180
72   Belarus 173,405
73   Azerbaijan 167,431
74   Kenya 164,340
75   Tanzania 163,522
76   Bulgaria 152,079
77   Guatemala 138,987
78   Tunisia 136,797
79   Ghana 131,498
80   Puerto Rico 129,848
81   Serbia 107,131
82   Turkmenistan 103,987
83   Panama 100,512
84   Croatia 100,006
85   Côte d'Ivoire 95,887
86   Uganda 91,212
87   Lithuania 90,387
88   Jordan 89,555
89   Lebanon 88,786
90   Libya 87,067
91   Costa Rica 85,781
92   Bolivia 83,608
93   Cameroon 81,535
94   Uruguay 77,800
95     Nepal 77,147
96   Yemen 74,250
97   Bahrain 69,922
98   Slovenia 69,358
99   Zambia 68,648
100   Democratic Republic of the Congo 68,331
101   Paraguay 68,005
102   Afghanistan 67,462
103   Macau 65,732
104   Cambodia 64,405
105   Luxembourg 63,549
106   El Salvador 57,285
107   Latvia 53,268
108   Honduras 45,628
109   Trinidad and Tobago 44,654
110   Laos 44,639
111   Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,462
112   Senegal 43,326
113   Mali 40,974
114   Estonia 41,202
115   Madagascar 40,055
116   Georgia 39,318
117   Botswana 39,054
118   Mongolia 37,731
119   Mozambique 37,321
120   Gabon 36,999
121   Albania 36,198
122   Nicaragua 35,835
123   Burkina Faso 35,598
124   Brunei Darussalam 32,838
125   Macedonia 31,924
126   Cyprus 31,093
127   Equatorial Guinea 30,807
128   Republic of Congo 30,607
129   Zimbabwe 29,795
130   Chad 29,730
131   Papua New Guinea 29,481
132   Tajikistan 27,802
133   Mauritius 27,507
134   Namibia 27,451
135   Armenia 27,116
136   Jamaica 26,474
137   Benin 25,407
138   Rwanda 24,717
139   Kyrgyz Republic 22,737
140   Malawi 22,577
141   Kosovo 22,405
142   Niger 21,655
143   South Sudan 20,423
144   Moldova 20,207
145   Haiti 19,979
146   Malta 18,404
147   Iceland 17,846
148   Mauritania 17,421
149   Guinea 17,056
150   Togo 12,494
151   Sierra Leone 11,551
152   Swaziland 11,352
153   Montenegro 10,934
154   Eritrea 9,678
155   The Bahamas 9,374
156   Fiji 8,798
157   Burundi 8,024
158   Suriname 7,961
159   Lesotho 7,287
160   Bhutan 7,045
161   Guyana 6,398
162   Maldives 5,853
163   Barbados 4,983
164   Timor-Leste 4,567
165   Liberia 3,960
166   Cape Verde 3,762
167   Djibouti 3,658
168   The Gambia 3,607
169   Central African Republic 3,411
170   Belize 3,252
171   Guinea-Bissau 3,089
172   Seychelles 2,761
173   Antigua and Barbuda 2,372
174   St. Lucia 2,110
175   San Marino 2,093
176   Grenada 1,588
177   St. Kitts and Nevis 1,544
178   Comoros 1,329
179   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
180   Solomon Islands 1,247
181   Samoa 1,129
182   Dominica 847
183   Vanuatu 772
184   São Tomé and Príncipe 685
185   Tonga 597
186   Micronesia 345
187   Palau 297
188   Kiribati 222
189   Marshall Islands 188
190   Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 115,165,700
1   China[n 1] 21,417,150
  European Union[n 2] 19,721,689
2   United States 18,569,100
3   India 8,702,900
4   Japan 5,266,444
5   Germany 4,028,362
6   Russia 3,635,868
7   Brazil 3,141,333
8   Indonesia 3,032,090
9   United Kingdom 2,796,732
10   France 2,773,932
11   Italy 2,312,559
12   Mexico 2,278,072
13   Turkey 1,927,693
14   South Korea 1,832,073
15   Saudi Arabia 1,756,793
16   Spain 1,686,373
17   Canada 1,597,517
18   Iran 1,352,814
19   Thailand 1,164,928
20   Australia 1,128,908
21   Nigeria 1,091,228
22   Egypt 1,065,179
23   Poland 1,055,354
24   Pakistan 1,014,181
25   Argentina 876,012
26   Netherlands 866,204
27   Malaysia 815,645
28   Philippines 741,029
29   South Africa 723,516
30   Colombia 665,594
31   United Arab Emirates 643,166
32   Algeria 582,598
33   Venezuela 554,329
34   Vietnam 552,297
35   Iraq 542,520
36   Bangladesh 536,567
37    Switzerland 501,653
38   Belgium 496,477
39   Singapore 471,631
40   Sweden 454,868
41   Kazakhstan 453,981
42   Romania 424,474
  Hong Kong 414,376
42   Austria 411,818
43   Chile 400,534
44   Peru 389,147
45   Czech Republic 339,402
46   Ukraine 339,155
47   Qatar 321,418
48   Norway 319,401
49   Portugal 302,329
50   Israel 296,931
51   Greece 288,778
52   Kuwait 277,554
53   Morocco 273,358
54   Denmark 264,702
55   Ireland 253,635
56   Hungary 251,842
57   Sri Lanka 246,117
58   Finland 222,575
59   Uzbekistan 187,668
60   Angola 184,438
61   Ecuador 183,855
62   Oman 171,692
63   Azerbaijan 171,214
64   New Zealand 169,960
65   Belarus 168,009
66   Sudan 167,909
67   Ethiopia 161,571
68   Slovakia 156,632
69   Dominican Republic 149,627
70   Kenya 141,951
71   Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
72   Tunisia 126,598
73   Guatemala 125,950
74   Puerto Rico 125,861
75   Bulgaria 125,699
76   Ghana 115,137
77   Croatia 111,812
78   Serbia 95,698
79   Yemen 92,432
80   Libya 88,867
81   Turkmenistan 88,657
82   Panama 87,196
83   Jordan 82,631
84   Lebanon 81,547
85   Lithuania 80,699
86 Cote d'Ivoire  Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
87   Costa Rica 73,931
88   Bolivia 73,796
89   Cameroon 72,896
90   Uruguay 72,751
91   Uganda 71,246
92     Nepal 70,090
  Macau 65,383
93   Bahrain 64,656
94   Slovenia 64,229
95   Afghanistan 62,913
96   Zambia 62,458
97   Paraguay 62,458
98   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
99   Luxembourg 58,065
100   Cambodia 54,263
101   El Salvador 52,701
102   Latvia 48,049
103   Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
104   Mali 42,737
105   Honduras 41,057
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
107   Laos 38,605
108   Estonia 36,860
109   Senegal 36,776
110   Mongolia 36,068
111   Botswana 35,763
112   Georgia 35,610
113   Madagascar 35,366
114   Gabon 34,523
115   Mozambique 33,177
116   Albania 32,663
117   Nicaragua 31,564
118   Chad 30,481
119   Burkina Faso 30,041
120   Brunei Darussalam 29,969
121   Congo, Republic of the 29,423
122   Macedonia 28,907
123   Zimbabwe 27,985
124   Cyprus 25,864
125   Namibia 25,606
126   Equatorial Guinea 25,386
127   Armenia 25,329
128   Jamaica 24,704
129   Mauritius 24,596
130   Tajikistan 23,579
131   Benin 22,955
132   South Sudan 22,829
133   West Bank and Gaza 22,155
134   Papua New Guinea 21,384
135   Rwanda 20,418
136   Kyrgyzstan 20,413
137   Malawi 20,359
138   Niger 18,975
139   Haiti 18,875
140   Moldova 17,908
141   Kosovo 17,454
142   Mauritania 15,425
143   Iceland 15,399
144   Guinea 15,213
145   Malta 12,500
146   Swaziland 10,845
147   Togo 10,663
148   Sierra Leone 10,264
149   Montenegro 9,638
150   Bahamas, The 9,233
151   Suriname 9,214
152   Burundi 8,228
153   Fiji 8,171
154   Bhutan 6,258
155   Guyana 5,758
156   Lesotho 5,585
157   Maldives 5,170
158   Barbados 4,659
159   Liberia 3,766
160   Cape Verde 3,482
161   Bermuda 3,409
162   Gambia 3,155
163   Belize 3,064
164   Central African Republic 2,927
165   Djibouti 2,876
166   Timor-Leste 2,813
167   Guinea-Bissau 2,680
168   Seychelles 2,534
169   Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
170   Saint Lucia 2,033
171   Grenada 1,385
172   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
173   Solomon Islands 1,276
174   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
175   Samoa 1,144
176   Comoros 1,105
177   Dominica 820
178   Vanuatu 787
179   Sao Tome and Principe 594
180   Tonga 552
181   Federated States of Micronesia 348
182   Palau 325
183   Kiribati 209
184   Marshall Islands 202
185   Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1   China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
  European Union[n 2] 19,970 2016 est.
2   United States 19,360 2017 est.
3   India 9,447 2017 est.
4   Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5   Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6   Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7   Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8   Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10   France 2,826 2017 est.
11   Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12   Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13   Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14   South Korea 2,027 2017 est.
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16   Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17   Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18   Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19   Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20   Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21   Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
22   Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
23   Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
24   Poland 1,111 2017 est.
25   Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
26   Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
27   Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
28   Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
29   Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
30   South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
31   Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
32   United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
33   Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
34   Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
35   Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
36   Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
37   Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
38   Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
39    Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
40   Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
41   Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
42   Romania 474.0 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
43   Chile 452.1 2017 est.
44   Austria 434.1 2017 est.
45   Peru 424.6 2017 est.
46   Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
47   Norway 375.9 2017 est.
48   Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
49   Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
50   Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
51   Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
52   Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
53   Israel 315.6 2017 est.
54   Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
55   Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
56   Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
57   Greece 299.5 2017 est.
58   Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
59   Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
60   Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
61   Finland 242.4 2017 est.
62   Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
63   Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
64   Angola 192.0 2017 est.
65   Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
67   Oman 187.9 2017 est.
67   Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
68   New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
69   Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
70   Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
71   Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
72   Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
73   Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
74   Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
75   Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
76   Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
77   Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
78   Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
79   Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
  Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
80   Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
81   Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
82   Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
83   Panama 99.43 2017 est.
84   Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
85   Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
86   Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
87   Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
88   Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
89   Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
90   Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
91   Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
92     Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
93   Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
  Macau 73.58 2017 est.
94   Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
95   Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
96   Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
97   Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
98   Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
99   Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
100   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
101   Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
102   Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
103   Libya 63.14 2017 est.
104   El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
105   Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
106   Syria 50.28 2015 est.
107   Laos 49.21 2017 est.
108   Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
109   Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
110   Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
111   Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
112   Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
113   Mali 40.98 2017 est.
114   North Korea 40.00 2015 est.
115   Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
116   Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
117   Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
118   Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
119   Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
120   Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
121   Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
122   Albania 35.87 2017 est.
123   Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
124   Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
125   Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
126   Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
127   Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
128   Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
129   Chad 29.64 2017 est.
130   Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
131   Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
132   Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
133   Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
134   Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
135   Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
136   Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
137   Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
138   Benin 25.29 2017 est.
139   Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
140   Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
141   Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
142   Niger 21.62 2017 est.
  West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
143   Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
144   Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
145   South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
  Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
146   Malta 18.53 2017 est.
147   Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
148   Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
149   Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
150   Togo 12.43 2017 est.
151   Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
152   Swaziland 11.34 2017 est.
153   Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
154   Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
155   Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
156   Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
157   Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
158   Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
159   Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
160   Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
161   Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
162   Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
163   Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
164   Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
165   Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
166   Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
167   Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
168   Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
169   Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
170   Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
171   Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
172   Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
173   Belize 3.230 2017 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
174   Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
175   Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
176   Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
177   Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
178   San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
179   Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
180   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
181   Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
182   Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
183   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
184   Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
185   Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
186   Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
187   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
188   Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
189   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
190   Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
191   Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192   Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193   Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194   Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[10] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  6. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  8. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  9. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.