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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2017.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
The top ten largest economies by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP (see List of countries by GDP (nominal)) when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list says "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in October 2017. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in billions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Purchasing Power Parity) data update of 2016. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Contents

Lists

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (Forecasted estimates for 2017)[5] List by the World Bank (2016)[6][7] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2016)[8]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 126,687,917
1   China[n 1] 23,122,027
  European Union[n 2] 20,852,702
2   United States 19,362,129
3   India 9,446,789
4   Japan 5,405,072
5   Germany 4,149,573
6   Russia 4,000,096
7   Indonesia 3,242,966
8   Brazil 3,219,129
9   United Kingdom 2,880,254
10   France 2,826,456
11   Mexico 2,406,087
12   Italy 2,307,073
13   Turkey 2,132,717
14   South Korea 2,026,651
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789,264
16   Spain 1,768,574
17   Canada 1,763,785
18   Iran 1,630,859
19   Australia 1,235,297
20   Thailand 1,228,941
21   Egypt 1,199,013
22   Taiwan 1,177,052
23   Nigeria 1,124,627
24   Poland 1,114,105
25   Pakistan 1,060,569
26   Malaysia 922,057
27   Argentina 912,816
28   Netherlands 907,619
29   Philippines 878,980
30   South Africa 761,926
31   Colombia 720,151
32   United Arab Emirates 693,765
33   Bangladesh 686,598
34   Vietnam 648,243
35   Iraq 641,005
36   Algeria 634,746
37   Belgium 529,289
38   Sweden 522,849
39   Singapore 514,837
40    Switzerland 514,162
41   Kazakhstan 472,563
42   Romania 470,312
43   Chile 455,941
44   Hong Kong 449,589
45   Austria 432,424
46   Peru 429,711
47   Venezuela 404,109
48   Norway 377,100
49   Czech Republic 368,659
50   Ukraine 368,047
51   Qatar 347,887
52   Ireland 343,682
53   Myanmar 334,856
54   Israel 316,120
55   Portugal 310,651
56   Kuwait 309,640
57   Greece 302,150
58   Morocco 300,556
59   Hungary 284,266
60   Denmark 284,040
61   Sri Lanka 278,415
62   Finland 239,662
63   Uzbekistan 222,792
64   Ethiopia 194,980
65   Angola 193,935
66   Oman 189,582
67   Sudan 186,715
68   New Zealand 186,476
69   Ecuador 184,629
70   Slovak Republic 179,527
71   Dominican Republic 174,180
72   Belarus 173,405
73   Azerbaijan 167,431
74   Kenya 164,340
75   Tanzania 163,522
76   Bulgaria 152,079
77   Guatemala 138,987
78   Tunisia 136,797
79   Ghana 131,498
80   Puerto Rico 129,848
81   Serbia 107,131
82   Turkmenistan 103,987
83   Panama 100,512
84   Croatia 100,006
85   Côte d'Ivoire 95,887
86   Uganda 91,212
87   Lithuania 90,387
88   Jordan 89,555
89   Lebanon 88,786
90   Libya 87,067
91   Costa Rica 85,781
92   Bolivia 83,608
93   Cameroon 81,535
94   Uruguay 77,800
95     Nepal 77,147
96   Yemen 74,250
97   Bahrain 69,922
98   Slovenia 69,358
99   Zambia 68,648
100   Democratic Republic of the Congo 68,331
101   Paraguay 68,005
102   Afghanistan 67,462
103   Macau 65,732
104   Cambodia 64,405
105   Luxembourg 63,549
106   El Salvador 57,285
107   Latvia 53,268
108   Honduras 45,628
109   Trinidad and Tobago 44,654
110   Laos 44,639
111   Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,462
112   Senegal 43,326
113   Mali 40,974
114   Estonia 40,275
115   Madagascar 40,055
116   Georgia 39,318
117   Botswana 39,054
118   Mongolia 37,731
119   Mozambique 37,321
120   Gabon 36,999
121   Albania 36,198
122   Nicaragua 35,835
123   Burkina Faso 35,598
124   Brunei Darussalam 32,838
125   Macedonia 31,924
126   Cyprus 31,093
127   Equatorial Guinea 30,807
128   Republic of Congo 30,607
129   Zimbabwe 29,795
130   Chad 29,730
131   Papua New Guinea 29,481
132   Tajikistan 27,802
133   Mauritius 27,507
134   Namibia 27,451
135   Armenia 27,116
136   Jamaica 26,474
137   Benin 25,407
138   Rwanda 24,717
139   Kyrgyz Republic 22,737
140   Malawi 22,577
141   Niger 21,655
142   South Sudan 20,423
143   Moldova 20,207
144   Haiti 19,979
145   Kosovo 19,509
146   Malta 18,404
147   Iceland 17,846
148   Mauritania 17,421
149   Guinea 17,056
150   Togo 12,494
151   Sierra Leone 11,551
152   Swaziland 11,352
153   Montenegro 10,934
154   Eritrea 9,678
155   The Bahamas 9,374
156   Fiji 8,798
157   Burundi 8,024
158   Suriname 7,961
159   Lesotho 7,287
160   Bhutan 7,045
161   Guyana 6,398
162   Maldives 5,853
163   Barbados 4,983
164   Timor-Leste 4,567
165   Liberia 3,960
166   Cabo Verde 3,762
167   Djibouti 3,658
168   The Gambia 3,607
169   Central African Republic 3,411
170   Belize 3,252
171   Guinea-Bissau 3,089
172   Seychelles 2,761
173   Antigua and Barbuda 2,372
174   St. Lucia 2,110
175   San Marino 2,093
176   Grenada 1,588
177   St. Kitts and Nevis 1,544
178   Comoros 1,329
179   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
180   Solomon Islands 1,247
181   Samoa 1,129
182   Dominica 847
183   Vanuatu 772
184   São Tomé and Príncipe 685
185   Tonga 597
186   Micronesia 345
187   Palau 297
188   Kiribati 222
189   Marshall Islands 188
190   Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 115,165,700
1   China[n 1] 21,417,150
  European Union[n 2] 19,721,689
2   United States 18,569,100
3   India 8,702,900
4   Japan 5,266,444
5   Germany 4,028,362
6   Russia 3,397,368
7   Brazil 3,141,333
8   Indonesia 3,032,090
9   United Kingdom 2,796,732
10   France 2,773,932
11   Italy 2,312,559
12   Mexico 2,278,072
13   Turkey 1,927,693
14   South Korea 1,832,073
15   Saudi Arabia 1,756,793
16   Spain 1,686,373
17   Canada 1,597,517
18   Iran 1,352,814
19   Thailand 1,164,928
20   Australia 1,128,908
21   Nigeria 1,091,228
22   Egypt 1,065,179
23   Poland 1,055,354
24   Pakistan 1,014,181
25   Netherlands 866,204
26   Malaysia 815,645
27   Philippines 741,029
28   South Africa 723,516
29   Colombia 665,594
30   United Arab Emirates 643,166
31   Algeria 582,598
32   Venezuela 554,329
33   Vietnam 552,297
34   Iraq 542,520
35   Bangladesh 536,567
36    Switzerland 501,653
37   Belgium 496,477
38   Singapore 471,631
39   Sweden 454,868
40   Kazakhstan 453,981
41   Romania 424,474
  Hong Kong 414,376
42   Austria 411,818
43   Chile 400,534
44   Peru 389,147
45   Czech Republic 339,402
46   Ukraine 339,155
47   Qatar 321,418
48   Norway 319,401
49   Portugal 302,329
50   Israel 296,931
51   Greece 288,778
52   Kuwait 277,554
53   Morocco 273,358
54   Denmark 264,702
55   Ireland 253,635
56   Hungary 251,842
57   Sri Lanka 246,117
58   Finland 222,575
59   Uzbekistan 187,668
60   Angola 184,438
61   Ecuador 183,855
62   Oman 171,692
63   Azerbaijan 171,214
64   New Zealand 169,960
65   Belarus 168,009
66   Sudan 167,909
67   Ethiopia 161,571
68   Slovakia 156,632
69   Dominican Republic 149,627
70   Kenya 141,951
71   Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
72   Tunisia 126,598
73   Guatemala 125,950
74   Puerto Rico 125,861
75   Bulgaria 125,699
76   Ghana 115,137
77   Croatia 111,812
78   Serbia 95,698
79   Yemen 92,432
80   Libya 88,867
81   Turkmenistan 88,657
82   Panama 87,196
83   Jordan 82,631
84   Lebanon 81,547
85   Lithuania 80,699
86 Cote d'Ivoire  Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
87   Costa Rica 73,931
88   Bolivia 73,796
89   Cameroon 72,896
90   Uruguay 72,751
91   Uganda 71,246
92     Nepal 70,090
  Macau 65,383
93   Bahrain 64,656
94   Slovenia 64,229
95   Afghanistan 62,913
96   Zambia 62,458
97   Paraguay 62,458
98   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
99   Luxembourg 58,065
100   Cambodia 54,263
101   El Salvador 52,701
102   Latvia 48,049
103   Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
104   Mali 42,737
105   Honduras 41,057
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
107   Laos 38,605
108   Estonia 36,860
109   Senegal 36,776
110   Mongolia 36,068
111   Botswana 35,763
112   Georgia 35,610
113   Madagascar 35,366
114   Gabon 34,523
115   Mozambique 33,177
116   Albania 32,663
117   Nicaragua 31,564
118   Chad 30,481
119   Burkina Faso 30,041
120   Brunei Darussalam 29,969
121   Congo, Republic of the 29,423
122   Macedonia 28,907
123   Zimbabwe 27,985
124   Cyprus 25,864
125   Namibia 25,606
126   Equatorial Guinea 25,386
127   Armenia 25,329
128   Jamaica 24,704
129   Mauritius 24,596
130   Tajikistan 23,579
131   Benin 22,955
132   South Sudan 22,829
133   West Bank and Gaza 22,155
134   Papua New Guinea 21,384
135   Rwanda 20,418
136   Kyrgyzstan 20,413
137   Malawi 20,359
138   Niger 18,975
139   Haiti 18,875
140   Moldova 17,908
141   Kosovo 17,454
142   Mauritania 15,425
143   Iceland 15,399
144   Guinea 15,213
145   Malta 12,500
146   Swaziland 10,845
147   Togo 10,663
148   Sierra Leone 10,264
149   Montenegro 9,638
150   Bahamas, The 9,233
151   Suriname 9,214
152   Burundi 8,228
153   Fiji 8,171
154   Bhutan 6,258
155   Guyana 5,758
156   Lesotho 5,585
157   Maldives 5,170
158   Barbados 4,659
159   Liberia 3,766
160   Cape Verde 3,482
161   Bermuda 3,409
162   Gambia 3,155
163   Belize 3,064
164   Central African Republic 2,927
165   Djibouti 2,876
166   Timor-Leste 2,813
167   Guinea-Bissau 2,680
168   Seychelles 2,534
169   Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
170   Saint Lucia 2,033
171   Grenada 1,385
172   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
173   Solomon Islands 1,276
174   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
175   Samoa 1,144
176   Comoros 1,105
177   Dominica 820
178   Vanuatu 787
179   Sao Tome and Principe 594
180   Tonga 552
181   Federated States of Micronesia 348
182   Palau 325
183   Kiribati 209
184   Marshall Islands 202
185   Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Int$)
Year
 World 119,400 2016 est.
1   China[n 1] 21,290 2016 est.
  European Union[n 2] 19,970 2016 est.
2   United States 18,570 2016 est.
3   India 8,662 2016 est.
4   Japan 5,238 2016 est.
5   Germany 3,980 2016 est.
6   Russia 3,751 2016 est.
7   Brazil 3,141 2016 est.
8   Indonesia 3,032 2016 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,786 2016 est.
10   France 2,734 2016 est.
11   Mexico 2,316 2016 est.
12   Italy 2,235 2016 est.
13   Turkey 1,988 2016 est.
14   South Korea 1,934 2016 est.
15   Saudi Arabia 1,751 2016 est.
16   Spain 1,687 2016 est.
17   Canada 1,682 2016 est.
18   Iran 1,455 2016 est.
19   Australia 1,187 2016 est.
20   Thailand 1,165 2016 est.
  Taiwan 1,127 2016 est.
21   Egypt 1,105 2016 est.
22   Nigeria 1,089 2016 est.
23   Poland 1,052 2016 est.
24   Pakistan 988.2 2016 est.
25   Argentina 879.4 2016 est.
26   Netherlands 870.8 2016 est.
27   Malaysia 863.0 2016 est.
28   Philippines 801.9 2016 est.
29   South Africa 739.1 2016 est.
30   Colombia 688.0 2016 est.
31   United Arab Emirates 667.2 2016 est.
32   Bangladesh 628.4 2016 est.
33   Algeria 609.4 2016 est.
34   Iraq 596.7 2016 est.
35   Vietnam 594.9 2016 est.
36   Belgium 508.6 2016 est.
37   Sweden 498.1 2016 est.
38    Switzerland 496.3 2016 est.
39   Singapore 487.9 2016 est.
40   Venezuela 468.6 2016 est.
41   Kazakhstan 460.7 2016 est.
42   Romania 441.0 2016 est.
43   Chile 436.1 2016 est.
  Hong Kong 427.4 2016 est.
44   Austria 416.6 2016 est.
45   Peru 410.4 2016 est.
46   Norway 364.7 2016 est.
47   Ukraine 352.6 2016 est.
48   Czech Republic 350.9 2016 est.
49   Qatar 334.5 2016 est.
50   Ireland 322.0 2016 est.
51   Myanmar 311.1 2016 est.
52   Kuwait 301.1 2016 est.
53   Portugal 297.1 2016 est.
54   Israel 297.0 2016 est.
55   Greece 290.5 2016 est.
56   Morocco 282.8 2016 est.
57   Hungary 267.6 2016 est.
58   Denmark 264.8 2016 est.
59   Sri Lanka 236.7 2016 est.
60   Finland 225.7 2016 est.
61   Uzbekistan 202.3 2016 est.
62   Angola 189.0 2016 est.
63   Ecuador 182.4 2016 est.
64   Sudan 176.3 2016 est.
65   New Zealand 174.8 2016 est.
66   Ethiopia 174.7 2016 est.
67   Oman 173.1 2016 est.
68   Slovakia 168.8 2016 est.
69   Azerbaijan 167.9 2016 est.
70   Belarus 165.4 2016 est.
71   Dominican Republic 161.9 2016 est.
72   Kenya 152.7 2016 est.
73   Tanzania 150.6 2016 est.
74   Bulgaria 143.1 2016 est.
75   Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
76   Guatemala 131.8 2016 est.
  Puerto Rico 131.0 2016 est.
77   Tunisia 130.8 2016 est.
78   Ghana 120.8 2016 est.
79   Serbia 101.8 2016 est.
80   Turkmenistan 94.72 2016 est.
81   Croatia 94.24 2016 est.
82   Panama 93.12 2016 est.
83   Libya 90.89 2016 est.
84   Cote d'Ivoire 87.12 2016 est.
85   Jordan 86.19 2016 est.
86   Lithuania 85.62 2016 est.
87   Lebanon 85.16 2016 est.
88   Uganda 84.93 2016 est.
89   Costa Rica 79.26 2016 est.
90   Bolivia 78.35 2016 est.
91   Cameroon 77.24 2016 est.
92   Yemen 73.45 2016 est.
93   Uruguay 73.25 2016 est.
94     Nepal 71.52 2016 est.
95   Slovenia 68.35 2016 est.
96   Bahrain 66.37 2016 est.
97   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 66.01 2016 est.
98   Zambia 65.17 2016 est.
99   Paraguay 64.67 2016 est.
100   Afghanistan 64.08 2016 est.
  Macau 63.22 2016 est.
101   Cambodia 58.94 2016 est.
102   Luxembourg 58.74 2016 est.
103   El Salvador 54.79 2016 est.
104   Latvia 50.65 2016 est.
105   Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106   Trinidad and Tobago 43.57 2016 est.
107   Honduras 43.19 2016 est.
108   Bosnia and Herzegovina 42.53 2016 est.
109   Laos 40.96 2016 est.
110   North Korea 40.00 2014 est.
111   Senegal 39.72 2016 est.
112   Estonia 38.70 2016 est.
113   Mali 38.09 2016 est.
114   Georgia 37.27 2016 est.
115   Mongolia 37.00 2016 est.
116   Madagascar 36.86 2016 est.
117   Gabon 35.98 2016 est.
118   Botswana 35.90 2016 est.
119   Mozambique 35.01 2016 est.
120   Albania 33.99 2016 est.
121   Brunei 33.73 2016 est.
122   Nicaragua 33.55 2016 est.
123   Burkina Faso 32.99 2016 est.
124   Equatorial Guinea 31.77 2016 est.
125   Chad 30.59 2016 est.
126   Congo, Republic of the 30.27 2016 est.
127   Macedonia 29.52 2016 est.
128   Cyprus 29.26 2016 est.
129   Zimbabwe 28.33 2016 est.
130   Papua New Guinea 28.02 2016 est.
131   Armenia 26.30 2016 est.
132   Namibia 25.99 2016 est.
133   Mauritius 25.85 2016 est.
134   Tajikistan 25.81 2016 est.
135   Jamaica 25.39 2016 est.
136   Benin 24.31 2016 est.
137   Rwanda 21.97 2016 est.
  West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
138   Malawi 21.20 2016 est.
139   Kyrgyzstan 21.01 2016 est.
140   South Sudan 20.88 2016 est.
141   Niger 20.15 2016 est.
142   Haiti 19.34 2016 est.
143   Moldova 18.54 2016 est.
  Kosovo 18.49 2016 est.
144   Mauritania 16.71 2016 est.
145   Malta 16.32 2016 est.
146   Iceland 16.15 2016 est.
147   Guinea 16.08 2016 est.
148   Togo 11.61 2016 est.
149   Swaziland 11.06 2016 est.
  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
150   Sierra Leone 10.64 2016 est.
151   Montenegro 10.61 2016 est.
152   Eritrea 9.169 2016 est.
153   Bahamas, The 9.066 2016 est.
154   Suriname 8.547 2016 est.
155   Fiji 8.374 2016 est.
156   Burundi 7.892 2016 est.
157   Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
158   Bhutan 6.432 2016 est.
159   Guyana 6.093 2015 est.
160   Lesotho 6.019 2015 est.
  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
161   Maldives 5.407 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
162   Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
163   Timor-Leste 4.975 2016 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
164   Barbados 4.804 2016 est.
165   Somalia 4.719 2016 est.
166   Liberia 3.881 2016 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
167   Cape Verde 3.583 2016 est.
  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
168   Gambia, The 3.387 2016 est.
169   Djibouti 3.345 2016 est.
170   Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
171   Central African Republic 3.206 2016 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
171   Belize 3.088 2016 est.
173   Guinea-Bissau 2.851 2016 est.
174   Seychelles 2.608 2016 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
175   Antigua and Barbuda 2.171 2016 est.
176   Saint Lucia 2.083 2016 est.
  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
177   San Marino 2.023 2016 est.
  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
178   Grenada 1.511 2016 est.
179   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.427 2016 est.
180   Comoros 1.259 2016 est.
181   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.241 2016 est.
182   Solomon Islands 1.198 2016 est.
183   Samoa 1.046 2016 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
184   Dominica 0.8120 2016 est.
185   Vanuatu 0.7230 2016 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
186   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6940 2016 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.682 2013 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
187   Tonga 0.5570 2016 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
188   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3140 2016 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
189   Palau 0.2760 2016 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
190   Kiribati 0.2110 2016 est.
191   Marshall Islands 0.1800 2016 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
192   Nauru 0.1508 2015 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194   Tuvalu 0.0390 2016 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[9] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  6. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  8. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  9. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. 

External links