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Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2019.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2018

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing the quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2018. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity has also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Contents

ListsEdit

(Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category).

List by the International Monetary Fund (2018)[5] List by the World Bank (2017)[6][7][8] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[9]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
 World 135,178.32
1   China[n 1] 25,270.07
  European Union[n 2] 22,023.14
2   United States 20,494.05
3   India 10,505.28
4   Japan 5,594.45
5   Germany 4,356.35
6   Russia 4,168.88
7   Indonesia 3,494.73
8   Brazil 3,365.34
9   United Kingdom 3,037.79
10   France 2,962.79
11   Mexico 2,569.81
12   Italy 2,397.41
13   Turkey 2,320.64
14   Korea, South 2,138.24
15   Spain 1,864.11
16   Saudi Arabia 1,856.946
17   Canada 1,852.514
18   Iran 1,749.43
19   Australia 1,312.53
20   Thailand 1,310.57
21   Egypt 1,292.75
  Taiwan 1,234.86
22   Poland 1,193.11
23   Nigeria 1,168.40
24   Pakistan 1,141.21
25   Malaysia 1,002.06
26   Netherlands 966.742
27   Argentina 959.528
28   Philippines 955.219
29   South Africa 794.706
30   Bangladesh 751.949
31   Colombia 750.276
32   United Arab Emirates 716.173
33   Vietnam 705.774
34   Iraq 694.653
35   Algeria 666.96
36   Singapore 554.855
37   Belgium 550.664
38   Sweden 546.53
39    Switzerland 541.346
40   Romania 517.505
41   Kazakhstan 503.893
  Hong Kong 482.101
42   Chile 476.815
43   Austria 461.432
44   Peru 450.148
45   Czech Republic 397.727
46   Norway 396.919
47   Ukraine 389.198
48   Ireland 381.72
49   Myanmar 359.374
50   Qatar 357.338
51   Israel 334.328
52   Venezuela 330.984
53   Portugal 328.252
54   Greece 311.647
55   Morocco 314.742
56   Hungary 306.787
57   Kuwait 301.916
58   Denmark 299.166
59   Sri Lanka 292.311
60   Finland 255.976
61   Uzbekistan 238.997
62   Ethiopia 222.258
63   Ecuador 201.976
64   Angola 198.821
65   New Zealand 198.516
66   Sudan 198.356
67   Oman 194.82
68   Slovak Republic 190.778
69   Belarus 188.328
70   Dominican Republic 186.048
71   Azerbaijan 179.276
72   Tanzania 176.465
73   Kenya 175.978
74   Bulgaria 162.568
75   Guatemala 145.514
76   Ghana 145.387
77   Tunisia 141.816
  Puerto Rico 119.314
78   Turkmenistan 112.393
79   Panama 112.204
80   Serbia 111.622
81   Croatia 106.548
82   Côte d'Ivoire 106.412
83   Lithuania 96.261
84   Uganda 95.434
85   Cameroon 94.54
86   Jordan 93.399
87   Lebanon 91.013
88   Bolivia 88.866
89   Costa Rica 88.844
90     Nepal 84.365
91   Uruguay 82.641
  Macau 78.53
92   Libya 76.684
93   Slovenia 75.604
94   Bahrain 74.215
95   Zambia 73.299
96   Paraguay 72.999
97   Afghanistan 72.911
98   Democratic Republic of the Congo 72.638
99   Cambodia 70.242
100   Luxembourg 66.914
101   El Salvador 59.626
102   Latvia 57.336
103   Laos 53.752
104   Honduras 48.822
105   Senegal 47.336
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.097
107   Estonia 44.177
108   Trinidad and Tobago 44.1
109   Mali 44.028
110   Madagascar 42.705
111   Mongolia 42.646
112   Georgia 42.407
113   Botswana 41.556
114   Yemen 39.267
115   Nicaragua 38.957
116   Burkina Faso 38.794
117   Mozambique 38.679
118   Gabon 38.582
119   Albania 38.154
120   Zimbabwe 35.565
121   Brunei Darussalam 34.637
122   Cyprus 33.46
123   North Macedonia 32.554
124   Papua New Guinea 31.929
125   Chad 30.232
126   Tajikistan 30.188
127   Armenia 29.908
128   Republic of Congo 29.749
129   Mauritius 29.187
130   Guinea 28.637
131   Equatorial Guinea 28.637
132   Benin 27.471
133   Namibia 27.474
134   Jamaica 27.062
135   Rwanda 26.997
136   Kyrgyzstan 24.276
137   Malawi 23.682
138   Niger 23.475
139   Moldova 21.26
  Kosovo 20.876
140   Malta 20.861
141   Haiti 20.794
142   Somalia 19.568
143   Iceland 18.606
144   South Sudan 18.435
145   Mauritania 18.119
146   Togo 13.886
147   Sierra Leone 12.177
148   Bahamas, The 12.156
149   Montenegro 11.646
150   Eswatini 11.496
151   Eritrea 9.997
152   Fiji 9.158
153   Suriname 8.822
154   Burundi 8.184
155   Bhutan 7.701
156   Maldives 7.396
157   Lesotho 7.231
158   Guyana 6.657
159   Timor-Leste 6.47
160   Liberia 6.44
161   Barbados 5.391
162   Cape Verde 3.983
163   Djibouti 3.964
164   Gambia, The 3.884
165   Central African Republic 3.587
166   Guinea-Bissau 3.385
167   Belize 3.343
168   Seychelles 2.873
169   St. Lucia 2.659
170   Antigua and Barbuda 2.533
171   San Marino 2.216
172   Grenada 1.701
173   St. Kitts and Nevis 1.617
174   Solomon Islands 1.395
175   Comoros 1.384
176   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.322
177   Samoa 1.188
178   Vanuatu 0.817
179   São Tomé and Príncipe 0.726
180   Dominica 0.672
181   Tonga 0.62
182   Micronesia 0.36
183   Palau 0.3
184   Kiribati 0.237
185   Marshall Islands 0.197
186   Nauru 0.158
187   Tuvalu 0.044
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1   China[n 1] 23,300,783
2   United States 19,390,604
3   India 11,948,659
4   Japan 5,487,161
5   Germany 4,187,583
6   Russia 3,817,201
7   Indonesia 3,242,769
8   Brazil 3,240,524
9   United Kingdom 2,896,833
10   France 2,871,264
11   Italy 2,410,985
12   Mexico 2,344,197
13   Turkey 2,254,114
14   Korea, South 1,969,106
15   Spain 1,773,972
16   Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17   Canada 1,702,435
18   Iran 1,700,356
19   Thailand 1,233,736
20   Australia 1,157,298
21   Egypt 1,129,919
22   Nigeria 1,118,755
23   Poland 1,112,364
24   Pakistan 1,088,982
25   Malaysia 930,749
26   Argentina 920,248
27   Netherlands 907,032
28   Philippines 875,311
29   South Africa 765,567
30   Colombia 714,003
31   United Arab Emirates 694,468
32   Iraq 658,200
33   Vietnam 647,368
34   Bangladesh 637,078
35   Algeria 631,150
36    Switzerland 550,346
37   Belgium 540,867
38   Singapore 527,021
39   Romania 506,132
40   Sweden 504,088
41   Kazakhstan 476,366
42   Austria 462,990
  Hong Kong 454,886
43   Chile 434,848
44   Peru 432,115
45   Venezuela 409,389
46   Czech Republic 390,989
47   Ukraine 368,217
48   Ireland 367,301
49   Qatar 338,817
50   Israel 334,667
51   Portugal 331,445
52   Myanmar 327,629
53   Norway 322,101
54   Greece 299,241
55   Morocco 298,230
56   Kuwait 297,594
57   Denmark 291,600
58   Hungary 277,543
59   Sri Lanka 274,718
60   Finland 249,065
61   Uzbekistan 222,338
62   Ethiopia 199,336
63   Sudan 198,758
64   New Zealand 196,152
65   Oman 193,218
66   Ecuador 193,138
67   Angola 190,290
68   Belarus 179,203
69   Slovakia 174,678
70   Dominican Republic 172,591
71   Azerbaijan 171,588
72   Tanzania (mainland) 163,886
73   Kenya 163,309
74   Bulgaria 143,850
75   Guatemala 137,849
76   Tunisia 137,358
77   Ghana 133,826
78   Libya 125,142
79   Serbia 105,966
80   Croatia 104,233
81   Turkmenistan 103,604
82   Panama 100,194
83   Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84   Lithuania 90,749
85   Lebanon 89,263
86   Cameroon 88,859
87   Jordan 88,809
88   Costa Rica 83,615
89   Bolivia 83,546
90   Uganda 79,889
91     Nepal 78,591
92   Uruguay 77,992
93   Yemen 75,346
94   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95   Slovenia 71,926
  Macau 71,672
96   Bahrain 70,937
97   Afghanistan 70,368
98   Zambia 69,235
99   Paraguay 66,007
100   Cambodia 64,050
101   Luxembourg 62,139
102   Latvia 53,561
103   El Salvador 51,061
104   Laos 48,167
105   Honduras 46,198
106   Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107   Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108   Senegal 42,992
109   Estonia 41,619
110   Mali 41,004
111   Mongolia 39,982
112   Botswana 39,770
113   Georgia 39,768
114   Madagascar 39,764
115   Mozambique 37,005
116   Gabon 36,823
117   Nicaragua 36,324
118   Burkina Faso 35,887
119   Papua New Guinea 34,633
120   Albania 34,541
121   Zimbabwe 34,476
122   Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123   North Macedonia 31,729
124   Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125   Cyprus 29,606
126   Guinea 29,056
127   Chad 28,924
128   Tajikistan 28,373
129   Armenia 28,271
130   Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131   Mauritius 28,174
132   Namibia 26,542
133   Jamaica 25,999
134   Benin 25,327
135   Rwanda 24,852
136   Kyrgyzstan 23,104
  Palestine 22,886
137   Malawi 22,387
138   Niger 21,834
139   Moldova 20,226
140   Haiti 19,930
  Kosovo 19,688
141   Malta 18,395
142   Iceland 18,265
143   Mauritania 17,458
144   Togo 12,240
145   Bahamas, The 12,031
146   Montenegro 11,681
147   Eswatini 11,617
148   Sierra Leone 10,264
149   Timor-Leste 9,350
150   Fiji 8,652
151   Suriname 8,515
152   Burundi 8,376
153   Bhutan 7,721
154   Maldives 7,273
155   Lesotho 6,991
156   Guyana 6,349
157   Barbados 5,326
158   Liberia 3,911
159   Cape Verde 3,733
160   Djibouti 3,716
161   Gambia, The 3,602
162   Central African Republic 3,382
163   Belize 3,219
164   Guinea-Bissau 3,165
165   Seychelles 2,776
166   Saint Lucia 2,543
167   Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
168   San Marino 2,085
169   Grenada 1,609
170   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
171   Solomon Islands 1,480
172   Samoa 1,299
173   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
174   Comoros 1,263
175   Vanuatu 886
176   Dominica 785
177   Sao Tome and Principe 685
178   Tonga 643
179   Federated States of Micronesia 382
180   Palau 316
181   Kiribati 253
182   Marshall Islands 223
183   Nauru 193
184   Tuvalu 44
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1   China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
  European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2   United States 19,360 2017 est.
3   India 11,947 2017 est.
4   Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5   Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6   Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7   Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8   Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9   United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10   France 2,826 2017 est.
11   Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12   Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13   Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14   Korea, South 2,027 2017 est.
15   Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16   Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17   Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18   Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19   Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20   Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21   Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
  Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
22   Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
23   Poland 1,111 2017 est.
24   Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
25   Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
26   Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
27   Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
28   Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
29   South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
30   Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
31   United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
32   Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
33   Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
34   Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
35   Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
36   Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
37   Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
38    Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
39   Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
40   Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
41   Romania 474.0 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
42   Chile 452.1 2017 est.
43   Austria 434.1 2017 est.
44   Peru 424.6 2017 est.
45   Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
46   Norway 375.9 2017 est.
47   Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
48   Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
49   Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
50   Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
51   Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
52   Israel 315.6 2017 est.
53   Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
54   Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
55   Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
56   Greece 299.5 2017 est.
57   Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
58   Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
59   Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
60   Finland 242.4 2017 est.
61   Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
62   Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
63   Angola 192.0 2017 est.
64   Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
65   Oman 187.9 2017 est.
66   Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
67   New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
68   Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
69   Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
70   Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
71   Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
72   Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
73   Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
74   Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
75   Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
76   Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
77   Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
78   Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
  Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
79   Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
80   Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
81   Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
82   Panama 99.43 2017 est.
83   Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
84   Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
85   Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
86   Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
87   Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
88   Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
89   Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
91   Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
91     Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
92   Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
  Macau 73.58 2017 est.
93   Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
94   Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
95   Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
96   Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
97   Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
98   Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
99   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
100   Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
101   Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
102   Libya 63.14 2017 est.
103   El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
104   Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
105   Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106   Laos 49.21 2017 est.
107   Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
108   Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
109   Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
110   Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
111   Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
112   Mali 40.98 2017 est.
113   Korea, North 40.00 2015 est.
114   Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
115   Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
116   Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
117   Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
118   Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
119   Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
120   Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
121   Albania 35.87 2017 est.
122   Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
123   Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
124   Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
125   North Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
126   Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
127   Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
128   Chad 29.64 2017 est.
129   Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
130   Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
131   Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
132   Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
133   Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
134   Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
135   Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
136   Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
137   Benin 25.29 2017 est.
138   Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
139   Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
140   Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
141   Niger 21.62 2017 est.
  Palestine 21.22 2014 est.
142   Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
143   Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
144   South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
  Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
145   Malta 18.53 2017 est.
146   Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
147   Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
148   Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
149   Togo 12.43 2017 est.
150   Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
151   Eswatini 11.34 2017 est.
152   Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
153   Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
154   Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
155   Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
156   Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
157   Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
158   Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
159   Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
160   Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
161   Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
162   Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
163   Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
164   Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
165   Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
166   Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
167   Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
168   Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
169   Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
170   Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
171   Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
172   Belize 3.230 2017 est.
  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
173   Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
174   Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
175   Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
176   Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
177   San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
178   Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
179   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
180   Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
181   Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
182   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
183   Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
184   Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
185   Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
186   Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
187   Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
188   Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
189   Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
190   Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
191   Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
192   Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
193   Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
  Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[10] As the EU is not a country, the U.S is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  6. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017.; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  8. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  9. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.


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