List of countries by income equality

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income).

World map of the Gini coefficients by country. Based on World Bank data ranging from 1992 to 2018.[1]

Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[2][3]

UN, World Bank and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indicesEdit

Row numbers are static. Other columns are sortable. This allows ranking of any column.

Key:

R/P 10%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini
Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN
Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
World Bank
Data from the World Bank.
CIA
Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
Country Subregion Region UN R/P WB Gini[4] CIA R/P[5] CIA Gini[6]
10%[5] 20%[7] % Year 10% Year % Year
 
  Afghanistan Southern Asia Asia
  Albania Southern Europe Europe 7.2 4.2 33.2 2017 7.2 2004 26.9 2012 est.
  Algeria Northern Africa Africa 9.6 4.0 27.6 2011 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
  Angola Middle Africa Africa 9.0 51.3 2018
  Argentina South America Americas 31.6 8.8 41.4 2018 35.0 2007 Jan.–Mar. 41.7 2017
  Armenia Western Asia Asia 8.0 5.0 34.4 2018 25.8 2004 34.4[8] 2018[8]
  Australia Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.5 6.3 34.4 2014 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
  Austria Western Europe Europe 6.9 4.9 29.7 2017 6.8 2004 26.3 2007
  Azerbaijan Western Asia Asia 9.7 26.6 2005 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
  Bahrain Western Asia Asia
  Bangladesh Southern Asia Asia 7.5 4.8 32.4 2016 7.5 2000 est. 32.1 2010
  Belarus Eastern Europe Europe 6.9 3.6 25.2 2018 6.9 2002 26.5 2011
  Belgium Western Europe Europe 8.2 4.2 27.4 2017 8.3 2000 25.9 2013 est.
  Belize Central America Americas 28.8 53.3 1999 19.9 2013 49.8 2014
  Benin Western Africa Africa 9.4 16.3 47.8 2015 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
  Bhutan Southern Asia Asia 6.6 37.4 2017 38.7 2012
  Bolivia South America Americas 93.9 11.8 42.2 2018 157.3 2002 46.6 2012
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Europe 5.4 5.4 33.0 2011 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
  Botswana Southern Africa Africa 43.0 15.0 53.3 2015 60.9 2009
  Brazil South America Americas 16.5 21.1 53.9 2018 16.3 2013 48.8 2018
  Bulgaria Eastern Europe Europe 7.0 7.3 40.4 2017 8.8 2005 35.4 2012
  Burkina Faso Western Africa Africa 11.6 5.3 35.3 2014 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
  Burundi Eastern Africa Africa 19.3 6.7 38.6 2013 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
  Cambodia South-eastern Asia Asia 12.2 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
  Cameroon Middle Africa Africa 15.7 11.5 46.6 2014 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
  Canada Northern America Americas 9.4 6.2 33.8 2013 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
  Cape Verde Western Africa Africa 10.7 47.2 2007
  Central African Republic Middle Africa Africa 69.2 18.5 56.2 2008 68.1 1993 43.6 2003
  Chad Middle Africa Africa 10.0 43.3 2011 43.3 2011 est.
  Chile South America Americas 26.2 11.2 44.4 2017 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
  China Eastern Asia Asia 21.6 10.2 38.5 2016 21.8 2004 46.5 2016
  Colombia South America Americas 60.4 13.4 50.4 2018 56.3 2008 53.5 2012
  Comoros Eastern Africa Africa 11.2 45.3 2014 55.9 2004 est.
  DR Congo Middle Africa Africa 8.8 42.1 2012
  Congo Middle Africa Africa 12.8 48.9 2011
  Costa Rica Central America Americas 23.4 12.3 48.0 2018 37.3 2003 50.3 2009
  Ivory Coast Western Africa Africa 16.6 8.4 41.5 2015 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
  Croatia Southern Europe Europe 7.3 5.3 30.4 2017 7.2 2003 est. 32.0 2010
  Cuba Caribbean Americas
  Cyprus Western Asia Asia 5.3 31.4 2017 32.4 2013 est.
  Czech Republic Eastern Europe Europe 5.2 3.7 24.9 2017 5.2 1996 24.9 2012
  Denmark Northern Europe Europe 8.1 4.0 28.7 2017 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
  Djibouti Eastern Africa Africa 8.8 44.6 2017 40.9 2002
  Dominican Republic Caribbean Americas 25.3 10.5 43.7 2018 18.8 2012 45.7 2012 est.
  Ecuador South America Americas 35.2 10.7 45.4 2018 17.5 2006 Oct.[5] 48.5 2013 Dec.[5]
  Egypt Northern Africa Africa 8.0 4.6 31.5 2017 8.0 2000 30.8 2008
  El Salvador Central America Americas 38.6 7.0 38.6 2018 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
  Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa Africa
  Estonia Northern Europe Europe 10.8 5.4 30.4 2017 11.0 2003 32.9 2013
  Eswatini Southern Africa Africa 25.1 14.2 54.6 2016 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
  Ethiopia Eastern Africa Africa 6.6 7.1 35.0 2015 6.5 2000 33.0 2011
  EU Europe 8.6 2015 est. 30.6 2012 est.
  Fiji Melanesia Oceania 6.0 36.7 2013
  Finland Northern Europe Europe 5.6 3.9 27.4 2017 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
  France Western Europe Europe 9.1 5.2 31.6 2017 8.3 2004 30.1 2013
  Gabon Middle Africa Africa 7.4 38.0 2017
  Gambia Western Africa Africa 20.2 5.9 35.9 2015 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
  Georgia Western Asia Asia 15.4 7.1 36.4 2018 15.2 2003 46.0 2011
  Germany Western Europe Europe 6.9 5.1 31.9 2016 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
  Ghana Western Africa Africa 14.1 10.3 43.5 2016 13.7 1999 42.3 2012–2013
  Greece Southern Europe Europe 10.2 7.1 34.4 2017 10.4 2000 est. 34.4 2013 est.
  Guatemala Central America Americas 33.9 11.9 48.3 2014 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
  Guinea Western Africa Africa 10.5 5.5 33.7 2012 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
  Guinea-Bissau Western Africa Africa 19.0 12.6 50.7 2010 84.8 1991
  Guyana South America Americas 44.6 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
  Haiti Caribbean Americas 54.4 8.6 41.1 2012 68.1 2001 60.8 2012
  Honduras Central America Americas 59.4 17.1 52.1 2018 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
  Hong Kong Eastern Asia Asia 17.8 53.9 2016
  Hungary Eastern Europe Europe 5.5 4.9 30.6 2017 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
  Iceland Northern Europe Europe 4.0 26.8 2015 28.0 2006
  India Southern Asia Asia 8.6 5.5 37.8 2011 8.6 2004 35.1 2011
  Indonesia South-eastern Asia Asia 7.8 6.6 39.0 2018 7.9 2002 38.8 2018
  Iran Southern Asia Asia 17.2 7.7 40.8 2017 16.9 1998 44.5 2006
  Iraq Western Asia Asia 4.4 29.5 2012
  Ireland Northern Europe Europe 9.4 5.0 32.8 2016 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
  Israel Western Asia Asia 13.4 8.5 39.0 2016 11.8 2005 37.6 2012
  Italy Southern Europe Europe 11.6 7.0 35.9 2017 11.7 2000 31.9 2012 est.
  Jamaica Caribbean Americas 17.3 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
  Japan Eastern Asia Asia 4.5 5.4 32.9 2013 4.5 1993 37.9 2011
  Jordan Western Asia Asia 11.3 5.2 33.7 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
  Kazakhstan Central Asia Asia 8.5 3.8 27.5 2017 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
  Kenya Eastern Africa Africa 13.6 7.7 40.8 2015 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
  North Korea Eastern Asia Asia
  South Korea Eastern Asia Asia 7.8 5.3 31.6 2012 5.9 2011 34.1 2015
  Kosovo Eastern Europe Europe[a] 29.0 2017
  Kuwait Western Asia Asia
  Kyrgyzstan Central Asia Asia 6.4 3.8 27.7 2018 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
  Laos South-eastern Asia Asia 8.3 5.9 36.4 2012 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
  Latvia Northern Europe Europe 11.6 5.8 35.6 2017 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
  Lebanon Western Asia Asia 5.1 31.8 2011
  Lesotho Southern Africa Africa 39.8 20.8 44.9 2017 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
  Liberia Western Africa Africa 12.8 5.9 35.3 2016
  Libya Northern Africa Africa
  Lithuania Northern Europe Europe 10.4 7.2 37.3 2017 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
  Luxembourg Western Europe Europe 5.7 34.9 2017 6.8 2000 30.4 2013 est.
  Macau Eastern Asia Asia 35 2013
  North Macedonia Southern Europe Europe 12.5 7.3 34.2 2017 12.3 2003 43.6 2013
  Madagascar Eastern Africa Africa 19.2 8.7 42.6 2012 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
  Malawi Eastern Africa Africa 10.9 8.1 44.7 2016 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
  Malaysia South-eastern Asia Asia 22.1 8.2 41.0 2015 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
  Maldives Southern Asia Asia 7.0 31.3 2016 37.4 2004 est.
  Mali Western Africa Africa 12.5 5.2 33.0 2009 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
  Malta Southern Europe Europe 4.5 29.2 2017 27.9 2013
  Mauritania Western Africa Africa 12.0 5.4 32.6 2014 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
  Mauritius Eastern Africa Africa 5.9 36.8 2017 35.9 2012 est.
  Mexico Central America Americas 21.6 8.8 45.4 2018 24.6 2004 48.3 2008
  Micronesia Micronesia Oceania 8.4 40.1 2013 61.1 2013 est.
  Moldova Eastern Europe Europe 8.2 3.6 25.7 2018 8.3 2003 33.0 2010
  Mongolia Eastern Asia Asia 8.2 5.1 32.7 2018 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
  Montenegro Southern Europe Europe 4.8 39.0 2015 26.2 2013 est.
  Morocco Northern Africa Africa 11.7 7.0 39.5 2013 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
  Mozambique Eastern Africa Africa 18.8 14.2 54.0 2014 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
  Myanmar South-eastern Asia Asia 6.3 30.7 2017 11.6 1998
  Namibia Southern Africa Africa 106.6 22.8 59.1 2015 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
  Nepal Southern Asia Asia 15.8 5.0 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
  Netherlands Western Europe Europe 9.2 4.2 28.5 2017 9.2 1999 25.1 2013
  New Zealand Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.4 36.2 1997
  Nicaragua Central America Americas 31.0 10.2 46.2 2014 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
  Niger Western Africa Africa 46.0 5.4 34.3 2014 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
  Nigeria Western Africa Africa 17.8 9.1 35.1 2020 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
  Norway Northern Europe Europe 6.1 4.1 27.0 2017 6.0 2000 26.8 2010
  Oman Western Asia Asia
  Pakistan Southern Asia Asia 6.5 4.8 33.5 2015 6.6 2002 29.6 2011 FY
  Panama Central America Americas 49.9 15.9 49.2 2018 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
  Papua New Guinea Melanesia Oceania 23.8 9.3 41.9 2009 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
  Paraguay South America Americas 38.8 11.7 46.2 2018 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
  Peru South America Americas 26.1 10.3 42.8 2018 31.5 2003 45.3 2012
  Philippines South-eastern Asia Asia 15.5 7.2 44.4 2015 15.5 2003 46.0 2012
  Poland Eastern Europe Europe 8.8 4.6 29.7 2017 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
  Portugal Southern Europe Europe 15.0 6.4 33.8 2017 9.2 1995 est. 34.2 2013 est.
  Qatar Western Asia Asia
  Romania Eastern Europe Europe 7.5 8.0 36.0 2017 7.4 2003 27.3 2012
  Russia Eastern Europe Europe 12.7 6.6 37.5 2018 12.8 2002 42 2012
  Rwanda Eastern Africa Africa 18.6 8.5 43.7 2016 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
  São Tomé and Príncipe Middle Africa Africa 4.7 56.3 2017
  Saudi Arabia Western Asia Asia
  Senegal Western Africa Africa 12.3 7.7 40.3 2011 12.4 2001 40.3 2011
  Serbia Southern Europe Europe 4.2 36.2 2017 38.7 2014 est.
  Seychelles Eastern Africa Africa 9.8 46.8 2013
  Sierra Leone Western Africa Africa 87.2 5.4 35.7 2018 87.2 1989 34.0 2011
  Singapore South-eastern Asia Asia 17.7 17.3 1998 46.4 2014
  Slovakia Eastern Europe Europe 6.7 4.1 25.2 2016 6.7 1996 25.3 2012
  Slovenia Southern Europe Europe 5.9 3.7 24.2 2017 5.9 1998 23.7 2012
  Somalia Eastern Africa Africa
  South Africa Southern Africa Africa 33.1 28.4 63.0 2014 31.9 2000 62.5 2013 est.
  South Sudan Eastern Africa Africa 13.0 46.3 2009 46.0 2010 est.
  Spain Southern Europe Europe 10.3 7.3 34.7 2017 10.2 2000 34.0 2011
  Sri Lanka Southern Asia Asia 11.1 6.8 39.8 2016 36.1 2003/04 FY 49.0 2010
  Saint Lucia Caribbean Americas 6.8 51.2 2016
  Sudan Northern Africa Africa 6.2 35.4 2009
  Suriname South America Americas 57.6 1999
  Sweden Northern Europe Europe 6.2 4.6 28.8 2017 6.2 2000 24.9 2013
  Switzerland Western Europe Europe 9.0 5.2 32.7 2017 8.9 2000 28.7 2012 est.
  Syria Western Asia Asia 35.8 2004
  Taiwan Eastern Asia Asia 6.1 2002 est. 33.8 2012
  Tajikistan Central Asia Asia 7.8 5.6 34.0 2015 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
  Tanzania Eastern Africa Africa 9.2 6.2 40.5 2017 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
  Thailand South-eastern Asia Asia 12.6 6.0 36.4 2018 12.4 2002 39.4 2010
  East Timor South-eastern Asia Asia 4.1 28.7 2014 31.9 2007 est.
  Togo Western Africa Africa 9.7 43.1 2015
  Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Americas 12.9 40.3 1992
  Tunisia Northern Africa Africa 13.4 5.2 32.8 2015 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
  Turkey Western Asia Asia 6.6 8.5 41.9 2018 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
  Turkmenistan Central Asia Asia 12.3 40.8 1999 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
  Uganda Eastern Africa Africa 16.6 8.2 42.8 2016 16.4 2002 39.5 2013
  Ukraine Eastern Europe Europe 5.9 3.5 26.1 2018 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
  United Arab Emirates Western Asia Asia 32.5 2014
  United Kingdom Northern Europe Europe 13.8 5.4 34.8 2016 13.6 1999 32.4 2012
  United States Northern America Americas 18.5 9.4 41.4 2016 14.0 2014 est. 47.0 2014
  Uruguay South America Americas 11.8 7.8 39.7 2018 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
  Uzbekistan Central Asia Asia 10.6 35.3 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
  Venezuela South America Americas 18.8 15.8 46.9 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
  Vietnam South-eastern Asia Asia 6.9 6.2 35.7 2018 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
  Palestine Western Asia Asia 5.6 33.7 2016
  Yemen Western Asia Asia 8.6 6.1 36.7 2014 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
  Zambia Eastern Africa Africa 21.1 57.1 2015 57.5 2010
  Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Africa 8.6 44.3 2017 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007

Other estimates for the World: Gini = 63.0 in 2006 (Lafuente et al., 2006).[9]

EU27 countriesEdit

Member state 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 
  Austria 27.4 27.6 27.0 27.6 27.2 27.2 27.9 26.8 27.5
  Belgium 26.3 26.5 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.3 26.1 25.7 25.1
  Bulgaria 35.0 33.6 35.4 35.4 37.0 37.7 40.2 39.6 40.8
  Croatia 31.2 30.9 30.9 30.2 30.4 29.8 29.9 29.7 29.2
  Cyprus 29.2 31.0 32.4 34.8 33.6 32.1 30.8 29.1 31.1
  Czech Republic 25.2 24.9 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.1 24.5 24.0 24.0
  Denmark 26.6 26.5 26.8 27.7 27.4 27.7 27.6 27.8 27.5
  Estonia 31.9 32.5 32.9 35.6 34.8 32.7 31.6 30.6 30.5
  Finland 25.8 25.9 25.4 25.6 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.9 26.2
  France 30.8 30.5 30.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 28.8 28.5
  Germany 29.0 28.3 29.7 30.7 30.1 29.5 29.1 31.1 29.7
  Greece 33.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.3 33.4 32.3 31.0
  Hungary 26.9 27.2 28.3 28.6 28.2 28.2 28.1 28.7 28.0
  Ireland 29.8 30.4 30.7 31.1 29.7 29.6 30.6 28.9
  Italy 32.5 32.4 32.8 32.4 32.4 33.1 32.7 33.4
  Latvia 35.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 35.6 35.2
  Lithuania 33.0 32.0 34.6 35.0 37.9 37.0 37.6 36.9 35.4
  Luxembourg 27.2 28.0 30.4 28.7 28.5 29.6 29.2 31.3 32.3
  Malta 27.2 27.1 28.0 27.7 28.1 28.6 28.2 28.7 28.0
  Netherlands 25.8 25.4 25.1 26.2 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.4 26.8
  Poland 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.8 30.6 29.8 29.2 27.8 28.5
  Portugal 34.2 34.5 34.2 34.5 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.1 31.9
  Romania 33.5 34.0 34.6 35.0 37.4 34.7 33.1 35.1 34.8
  Slovakia 25.7 25.3 24.2 26.1 23.7 24.3 23.2 20.9 20.3
  Slovenia 23.8 23.7 24.4 25.0 24.5 24.4 23.7 23.4 23.9
  Spain 34.0 34.2 33.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.1 33.2 33.0
  Sweden 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.9 26.7 27.6 28.0 27.0 27.6
  Serbia[n 1] 38.0 38.3 40.0 39.8 37.6 35.6
  Montenegro[n 2][10] 38.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.7
  European Union 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.8 30.6 30.3 30.4
Eurozone (EA19) 30.6 30.5 30.7 31.0 30.7 30.7 30.4 30.6

OECD countriesEdit

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfersEdit

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
  Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.469
  Austria 0.433 0.472
  Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
  Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
  Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
  Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
  Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
  Estonia 0.504 0.458
  Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
  France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
  Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
  Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
  Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
  Iceland 0.365 0.382
  Ireland
  Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
  Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
  Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
  Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
  Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
  Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
  New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
  Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
  Poland 0.542 0.470
  Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
  Slovakia 0.458 0.416
  Slovenia 0.452 0.423
  South Korea 0.331 0.344
  Spain 0.461
  Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
  Switzerland 0.409
  Turkey 0.470
  United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
  United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfersEdit

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
  Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
  Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
  Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
  Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
  Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
  Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
  Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
  Estonia 0.349 0.315
  Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
  France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
  Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
  Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
  Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
  Iceland 0.257 0.301
  Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
  Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
  Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
  Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
  Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
  Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
  Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
  New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
  Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
  Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
  Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
  Slovakia 0.268 0.257
  Slovenia 0.246 0.236
  South Korea 0.306 0.315
  Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
  Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
  Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
  Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
  United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
  United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Serbia is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  2. ^ Montenegro is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  2. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  3. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  4. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Monino, Jean-Louis; Sedkaoui, Soraya (2016-03-11), "Data Development Mechanisms", Big Data, Open Data and Data Development, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 43–72, ISBN 978-1-119-28519-9, retrieved 2021-06-26
  6. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on September 24, 2020.
  7. ^ "| Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  8. ^ a b "Gini Index coefficient – distribution of family income - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  9. ^ Lafuente-Lafuente, Carmelo; Melero-Bascones, María (2004-10-18), "Active chest compression-decompression for cardiopulmonary resuscitation", Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, retrieved 2021-06-26
  10. ^ "GINI Index for Montenegro". 18 January 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit