List of countries by income equality

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[1][2]

UN, World Bank and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indicesEdit

Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left is fixed.

Key:

R/P 10%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini
Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN
Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
World Bank
Data from the World Bank.
CIA
Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.






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Country
UN R/P World Bank Gini[3] CIA R/P[4] CIA Gini[5]
10%[6] 20%[7] % Year 10% Year % Year

  Afghanistan
  Albania 7.2 4.2 33.2 2017 7.2 2004 26.9 2012 est.
  Algeria 9.6 4.0 27.6 2011 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
  Angola 9.0 51.3 2018
  Argentina 31.6 8.8 41.4 2018 35.0 2007 Jan.–Mar. 41.7 2017
  Armenia 8.0 5.0 34.4 2018 25.8 2004 30.3 2012
  Australia 12.5 6.3 34.4 2014 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
  Austria 6.9 4.9 29.7 2017 6.8 2004 26.3 2007
  Azerbaijan 9.7 26.6 2005 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
  Bahrain
  Bangladesh 7.5 4.8 32.4 2016 7.5 2000 est. 32.1 2010
  Belarus 6.9 3.6 25.2 2018 6.9 2002 26.5 2011
  Belgium 8.2 4.2 27.4 2017 8.3 2000 25.9 2013 est.
  Belize 28.8 53.3 1999 19.9 2013 49.8 2014
  Benin 9.4 16.3 47.8 2015 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
  Bhutan 6.6 37.4 2017 38.7 2012
  Bolivia 93.9 11.8 42.2 2018 157.3 2002 46.6 2012
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.4 5.4 33.0 2011 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
  Botswana 43.0 15.0 53.3 2015 63.0 1993
  Brazil 13.5 18.1 53.9 2018 13.3 2013 47.5 2013
  Bulgaria 7.0 7.3 40.4 2017 8.8 2005 35.4 2012
  Burkina Faso 11.6 5.3 35.3 2014 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
  Burundi 19.3 6.7 38.6 2013 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
  Cambodia 12.2 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
  Cameroon 15.7 11.5 46.6 2014 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
  Canada 9.4 6.2 33.8 2013 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
  Cabo Verde 10.7 47.2 2007
  Central African Republic 69.2 18.5 56.2 2008 68.1 1993 61.3 1993
  Chad 10.0 43.3 2011 43.3 2011 est.
  Chile 26.2 11.2 44.4 2017 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
  China 21.6 10.2 38.5 2016 21.8 2004 46.5 2016
  Colombia 60.4 13.4 50.4 2018 56.3 2008 53.5 2012
  Comoros 11.2 45.3 2014
  DR Congo 8.8 42.1 2012
  Congo, Republic of the 12.8 48.9 2011
  Costa Rica 23.4 12.3 48.0 2018 37.3 2003 50.3 2009
  Côte d'Ivoire 16.6 8.4 41.5 2015 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
  Croatia 7.3 5.3 30.4 2017 7.2 2003 est. 32.0 2010
  Cuba
  Cyprus 5.3 31.4 2017 32.4 2013 est.
  Czech Republic 5.2 3.7 24.9 2017 5.2 1996 24.9 2012
  Denmark 8.1 4.0 28.7 2017 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
  Djibouti 8.8 44.6 2017 40.9 2002
  Dominican Republic 25.3 10.5 43.7 2018 18.8 2012 45.7 2012 est.
  Ecuador 35.2 10.7 45.4 2018 17.5 2006 Oct.[8] 48.5 2013 Dec.[8]
  Egypt 8.0 4.6 31.5 2017 8.0 2000 30.8 2008
  El Salvador 38.6 7.0 38.6 2018 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
  Equatorial Guinea
  Estonia 10.8 5.4 30.4 2017 11.0 2003 32.9 2013
  Eswatini 25.1 14.2 54.6 2016 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
  Ethiopia 6.6 7.1 35.0 2015 6.5 2000 33.0 2011
  European Union 8.6 2015 est. 30.6 2012 est.
  Fiji 6.0 36.7 2013
  Finland 5.6 3.9 27.4 2017 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
  France 9.1 5.2 31.6 2017 8.3 2004 30.1 2013
  Gabon 7.4 38.0 2017
  The Gambia 20.2 5.9 35.9 2015 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
  Georgia 15.4 7.1 36.4 2018 15.2 2003 46.0 2011
  Germany 6.9 5.1 31.9 2016 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
  Ghana 14.1 10.3 43.5 2016 13.7 1999 42.3 2012–2013
  Greece 10.2 7.1 34.4 2017 10.4 2000 est. 34.4 2013 est.
  Guatemala 33.9 11.9 48.3 2014 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
  Guinea 10.5 5.5 33.7 2012 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
  Guinea-Bissau 19.0 12.6 50.7 2010 84.8 1991
  Guyana 44.6 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
  Haiti 54.4 8.6 41.1 2012 68.1 2001 59.2 2001
  Honduras 59.4 17.1 52.1 2018 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
  Hong Kong 17.8 53.7 2011
  Hungary 5.5 4.9 30.6 2017 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
  Iceland 4.0 26.8 2015 28.0 2006
  India 8.6 5.5 37.8 2011 8.6 2004 35.1 2011
  Indonesia 7.8 6.6 39.0 2018 7.9 2002 38.8 2018
  Iran 17.2 7.7 40.8 2017 16.9 1998 44.5 2006
  Iraq 4.4 29.5 2012
  Ireland 9.4 5.0 32.8 2016 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
  Israel 13.4 8.5 39.0 2016 11.8 2005 37.6 2012
  Italy 11.6 7.0 35.9 2017 11.7 2000 31.9 2012 est.
  Jamaica 17.3 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
  Japan 4.5 5.4 32.9 2013 4.5 1993 37.9 2011
  Jordan 11.3 5.2 33.7 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
  Kazakhstan 8.5 3.8 27.5 2017 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
  Kenya 13.6 7.7 40.8 2015 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
  North Korea
  South Korea 7.8 5.3 31.6 2012 5.9 2011 34.1 2015
  Kosovo 29.0 2017
  Kuwait
  Kyrgyzstan 6.4 3.8 27.7 2018 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
  Laos 8.3 5.9 36.4 2012 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
  Latvia 11.6 5.8 35.6 2017 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
  Lebanon 5.1 31.8 2011
  Lesotho 39.8 20.8 44.9 2017 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
  Liberia 12.8 5.9 35.3 2016
  Libya
  Lithuania 10.4 7.2 37.3 2017 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
  Luxembourg 5.7 34.9 2017 6.8 2000 30.4 2013 est.
  Macau 35 2013
  North Macedonia 12.5 7.3 34.2 2017 12.3 2003 43.6 2013
  Madagascar 19.2 8.7 42.6 2012 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
  Malawi 10.9 8.1 44.7 2016 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
  Malaysia 22.1 8.2 41.0 2015 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
  Maldives 7.0 31.3 2016 37.4 2004 est.
  Mali 12.5 5.2 33.0 2009 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
  Malta 4.5 29.2 2017 27.9 2013
  Mauritania 12.0 5.4 32.6 2014 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
  Mauritius 5.9 36.8 2017 35.9 2012 est.
  Mexico 21.6 8.8 45.4 2018 24.6 2004 48.3 2008
  Micronesia 8.4 40.1 2013
  Moldova 8.2 3.6 25.7 2018 8.3 2003 33.0 2010
  Mongolia 8.2 5.1 32.7 2018 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
  Montenegro 4.8 39.0 2015 26.2 2013 est.
  Morocco 11.7 7.0 39.5 2013 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
  Mozambique 18.8 14.2 54.0 2014 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
  Myanmar 6.3 30.7 2017 11.6 1998
  Namibia 106.6 22.8 59.1 2015 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
  Nepal 15.8 5.0 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
  Netherlands 9.2 4.2 28.5 2017 9.2 1999 25.1 2013
  New Zealand 12.4 36.2 1997
  Nicaragua 31.0 10.2 46.2 2014 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
  Niger 46.0 5.4 34.3 2014 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
  Nigeria 17.8 9.1 43.0 2009 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
  Norway 6.1 4.1 27.0 2017 6.0 2000 26.8 2010
  Oman
  Pakistan 6.5 4.8 33.5 2015 6.6 2002 29.6 2011 FY
  Panama 49.9 15.9 49.2 2018 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
  Papua New Guinea 23.8 9.3 41.9 2009 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
  Paraguay 38.8 11.7 46.2 2018 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
  Peru 26.1 10.3 42.8 2018 31.5 2003 45.3 2012
  Philippines 15.5 7.2 44.4 2015 15.5 2003 46.0 2012
  Poland 8.8 4.6 29.7 2017 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
  Portugal 15.0 6.4 33.8 2017 9.2 1995 est. 34.2 2013 est.
  Qatar
  Romania 7.5 8.0 36.0 2017 7.4 2003 27.3 2012
  Russia 12.7 6.6 37.5 2018 12.8 2002 42 2012
  Rwanda 18.6 8.5 43.7 2016 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
  Sao Tome and Principe 4.7 56.3 2017
  Saudi Arabia
  Senegal 12.3 7.7 40.3 2011 12.4 2001 40.3 2011
  Serbia 4.2 36.2 2017 38.7 2014 est.
  Seychelles 9.8 46.8 2013
  Sierra Leone 87.2 5.4 35.7 2018 87.2 1989 62.9 1989
  Singapore 17.7 17.3 1998 46.4 2014
  Slovakia 6.7 4.1 25.2 2016 6.7 1996 25.3 2012
  Slovenia 5.9 3.7 24.2 2017 5.9 1998 23.7 2012
  Somalia
  South Africa 33.1 28.4 63.0 2014 31.9 2000 62.5 2013 est.
  South Sudan 13.0 46.3 2009 46.0 2010 est.
  Spain 10.3 7.3 34.7 2017 10.2 2000 34.0 2011
  Sri Lanka 11.1 6.8 39.8 2016 36.1 2003/04 FY 49.0 2010
  St. Lucia 6.8 51.2 2016
  Sudan 6.2 35.4 2009
  Suriname 57.6 1999
  Sweden 6.2 4.6 28.8 2017 6.2 2000 24.9 2013
  Switzerland 9.0 5.2 32.7 2017 8.9 2000 28.7 2012 est.
  Syria 35.8 2004
  Taiwan 6.1 2002 est. 33.8 2012
  Tajikistan 7.8 5.6 34.0 2015 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
  Tanzania 9.2 6.2 40.5 2017 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
  Thailand 12.6 6.0 36.4 2018 12.4 2002 39.4 2010
  Timor-Leste 4.1 28.7 2014 31.9 2007 est.
  Togo 9.7 43.1 2015
  Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 40.3 1992
  Tunisia 13.4 5.2 32.8 2015 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
  Turkey 6.6 8.5 41.9 2018 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
  Turkmenistan 12.3 40.8 1999 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
  Uganda 16.6 8.2 42.8 2016 16.4 2002 39.5 2013
  Ukraine 5.9 3.5 26.1 2018 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
  United Arab Emirates 32.5 2014
  United Kingdom 13.8 5.4 34.8 2016 13.6 1999 32.4 2012
  United States 18.5 9.4 41.4 2016 14.0 2014 est. 47.0 2014
  Uruguay 11.8 7.8 39.7 2018 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
  Uzbekistan 10.6 35.3 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
  Venezuela 18.8 15.8 46.9 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
  Vietnam 6.9 6.2 35.7 2018 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
  Palestine 5.6 33.7 2016
  Yemen 8.6 6.1 36.7 2014 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
  Zambia 21.1 57.1 2015 57.5 2010
  Zimbabwe 8.6 44.3 2017 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007

Other estimates for the World: Gini = 63.0 in 2006 (Lafuente et al, 2006).[9]

EU27 countriesEdit

European Union member states' Gini coefficients, according to Eurostat:[10]



1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29


Member state
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

  Austria 27.4 27.6 27.0 27.6 27.2 27.2 27.9 26.8
  Belgium 26.3 26.5 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.3 26.0 25.6
  Bulgaria 35.0 33.6 35.4 35.4 37.0 37.7 40.2 39.6 40.8
  Croatia 31.2 30.9 30.9 30.2 30.4 29.8 29.9 29.7
  Cyprus 29.2 31.0 32.4 34.8 33.6 32.1 30.8 29.1
  Czech Republic 25.2 24.9 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.1 24.5 24.0
  Denmark 26.6 26.5 26.8 27.7 27.4 27.7 27.6 27.8 27.5
  Estonia 31.9 32.5 32.9 35.6 34.8 32.7 31.6 30.6
  Finland 25.8 25.9 25.4 25.6 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.9 26.2
  France 30.8 30.5 30.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 29.3 28.5
  Germany 29.0 28.3 29.7 30.7 30.1 29.5 29.1 31.1
  Greece 33.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.3 33.4 32.3
  Hungary 26.9 27.2 28.3 28.6 28.2 28.2 28.1 28.7 28.0
  Ireland 29.8 30.5 30.7 31.1 29.8 29.5 30.6 28.9
  Italy 32.5 32.4 32.8 32.4 32.4 33.1 32.7 33.4
  Latvia 35.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 35.6 35.2
  Lithuania 33.0 32.0 34.6 35.0 37.9 37.0 37.6 36.9
  Luxembourg 27.2 28.0 30.4 28.7 28.5 31.0 30.9 33.2
  Malta 27.2 27.1 27.9 27.7 28.1 28.5 28.3 28.7
  Netherlands 25.8 25.4 25.1 26.2 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.0
  Poland 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.8 30.6 29.8 29.2 27.8 28.5
  Portugal 34.2 34.5 34.2 34.5 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.1
  Romania 33.5 34.0 34.6 35.0 37.4 34.7 33.1 35.1 34.8
  Slovakia 25.7 25.3 24.2 26.1 23.7 24.3 23.2 20.9
  Slovenia 23.8 23.7 24.4 25.0 24.5 24.4 23.7 23.4
  Spain 34.0 34.2 33.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.1 33.2
  Sweden 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.9 26.7 27.6 28.0 27.0
  Serbia[n 1] 38.0 38.6 38.2 38.6 37.8 35.6
  Montenegro[n 2][11] 38.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.7
  European Union 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.8 30.6 30.3 30.4
Eurozone (EA19) 30.6 30.5 30.7 31.0 30.7 30.7 30.4 30.6

OECD countriesEdit

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfersEdit

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[12]


Row
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34


Country
mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

  Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
  Austria 0.433 0.472
  Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
  Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
  Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
  Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
  Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
  Estonia 0.504 0.458
  Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
  France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
  Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
  Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
  Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
  Iceland 0.365 0.382
  Ireland
  Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
  Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
  Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
  Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
  Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
  Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
  New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
  Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
  Poland 0.542 0.470
  Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
  Slovak Republic 0.458 0.416
  Slovenia 0.452 0.423
  South Korea 0.331 0.344
  Spain 0.461
  Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
  Switzerland 0.409
  Turkey 0.470
  United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
  United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfersEdit

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[12]


Row
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34


Country
mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

  Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
  Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
  Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
  Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
  Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
  Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
  Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
  Estonia 0.349 0.315
  Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
  France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
  Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
  Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
  Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
  Iceland 0.257 0.301
  Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
  Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
  Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
  Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
  Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
  Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
  Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
  New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
  Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
  Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
  Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
  Slovak Republic 0.268 0.257
  Slovenia 0.246 0.236
  South Korea 0.306 0.315
  Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
  Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
  Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
  Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
  United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
  United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Serbia is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  2. ^ Montenegro is a negotiating candidate to the EU.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  2. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  3. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  4. ^ Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
  5. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  6. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
  7. ^ "| Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  8. ^ a b Data for urban households only.
  9. ^ Lafuente Lechuga, Matilde; Losa Carmona, Antonio; Sánchez Martínez, Antonio. 2016. «Análisis de la evolución de la desigualdad económica mundial en los últimos años» (pdf). XVI Jornadas de ASEPUMA y II Encuentro Internacional. Consultado el 12 de abril de 2014.
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  11. ^ "GINI Index for Montenegro". 18 January 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ a b OECD. "Income Distribution and Poverty : by country –I nequalityY". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit